How to find information in the Open Source BMET collection

This collection contains open source educational materials useful for biomedical equipment technicians (BMETs). How to find information in the library:

1. Search Box:
Use the Search option to enter keywords. You can search based on words that appear in the titles of a document or within the text of a document. The preferences page (located in the upper right corner) allows you to conduct an advanced search.

Three ways to search:

      A. "Text" This allows you to search the entire text of each document in the library.

      B. "Subjects" This allows you to search all of the subjects and topics on this website.

      C. "Search All Fields" This allows you to search for author, publisher, source, and subject all at once

2. Topics:
The Topics option can be used to browse list of topics included in this library such as: Anatomy and Physiology, the Biomedical Technician Assistant (BTA) skills, Electronics, Healthcare Technology Management (HTM), Mathematics, and Medical Equipment. These lists contain all information we have available on a topic...

3. Books and Publications
The Books and Publications by Chapter option can be used to browse individual chapters of a book. Each book is divided into various “chapters," each addressing a particular topic within the library.

4. Complete Books:
If you have a fast internet connection you can view and download each book in its entirety using the Complete Books option above.

For information regarding copyright and use of documents in the digital library see our Copyright and Use Guide.

How to Read Files

How to Use This Website in Other Languages:

This website is currently only available in English, if you need to access the website or its resources in another language Google Translate Google Translate ( is very useful. Google Translate will allow you to type in text to translate, upload a document to be translated, or enter a web address and translate the entire site. Just like with most online translation services Google Translate is not perfect and also works better with small pieces of text. If a translation does not make sense translating a smaller phrase may help resolve the issue.

For the purposes of using this site, Google Translate is able to translate the page and allow you to navigate the translated page. However one must be careful when using Google Translate with PDF files, it can only handle files up to 1 MB, larger files must be split ( Additionally even if a PDF document is not over 1 MB translating it may scramble the content or remove the images.

Google Translate can translate HTML files too, and often it does not scramble the content like it does with PDFs, however HTML files do have some drawbacks. These types of files do not have the images or text formatting that the PDF files of the same resource may have.

The search function of the website currently only supports searches in English. If you need to search in a different language then go to Google Translate, select your language on the left and English on the right, then enter your desired search phrase and click translate. After translating the phrase copy it and then paste it back into the search bar, select your search preferences, and click “Begin Search”. It is especially important when searching by this method to use very short and simple phrases, the shorter the phrase the more likely it is translated correctly and will lead to the correct information.

Translation Step-by-Step Walkthrough:

This digital library is powered using Greenstone, an open source software for creating digital libraries. More information about how to use this library and execute searches with the MGPP search engine can be found on the "Help" page via the link above.

Contents of the Website:

This digital library contains open source information from six major areas, Anatomy and Physiology, Biomedical Technician’s Assistant (BTA) Skills, Electronics, Healthcare Technology Management (HTM), Mathematics, and Medical Equipment.

The Anatomy and Physiology section can be used to learn more about the parts, systems, and functions of the human body and is broken down into chapters by the various organ systems in the human body.

The BTA Skills are a series of short articles developed by Robert Malkin’s Developing World Healthcare Technology (DHT) Laboratory at Duke University. Overall there are 113 of these skills and they cover five basic areas, Electrical Skills, Mechanical Skills, Motors Skills, Plumbing Skills, and Power Supply Skills.

The documents relating to Electronics cover the basics of electrical current and circuitry and the care and safe use of electrical equipment. This section contains a full textbook on electric circuits and articles that go over how to properly maintain and safely use electrical equipment; including batteries, electrodes, motors, power supplies, plugs, and sockets.

The Healthcare Technologies Management (HTM) section covers how to effectively manage a healthcare facility (hospital, clinic, or laboratory). It has a series of documents that give an overview of how to acquire, organize, operate, and maintain medical equipment. There are additional documents that cover finances and some basic hospital procedures such as sterilization.

The Mathematics section contains four documents covering algebra, trigonometry, geometry, and statistics and probability.

The Medical Equipment section has resources that provide information on specific pieces of medical equipment and for each piece of equipment that is included there is information on how the equipment is used, the principles behind its operation, how to maintain the equipment in safe working condition, and how to fix some common problems with the equipment.


How to read the documents

You can tell when you have arrived at an individual book or document because its title, or an image of the front cover, appears at the top left of the page. In some collections, a table of contents appears, while in others (eg. when the paged image option is used) just the page number is shown, along with a box that allows you to select a new page and go forward and backward. In the table of contents, the current section heading is in bold face, and the table is expandable -- click on the folders to open or close them; click on the open book at the top to close it.

Underneath is the text of the current section. When you have read through it, there are arrows at the bottom to take you on to the next section or back to the previous one.

Below the title or front-cover image are some buttons. Click on EXPAND TEXT to expand out the whole text of the current section, or book. If the document is large, this could take a long time and use a lot of memory! Click on EXPAND CONTENTS to expand out the whole table of contents so that you can see the titles of all chapters and subsections. Click on DETACH to make a new browser window for this document. (This is useful if you want to compare documents, or read two at once.) Finally, when you do a search the words you search for are highlighted. Click on NO HIGHLIGHTING to remove highlighting.

open this section of the library and view contentsOpen this bookshelf
open this document and view contentsclose this bookOpen/close this book
View the documentView this section of the text
to previous sectionto next sectionGo to the previous/next section
Display all text, or not
Expand table of contents, or not
Open this page in a new window
Highlight search terms, or not


How to search for particular words

From the search page, you make a query in these simple steps:

  1. Specify what items you want to search
  2. Say whether you want to search for all or just some of the words
  3. Type in the words you want to search for
  4. Click the Begin Search button

When you make a query, the titles of twenty matching documents will be shown. There is a button at the end to take you on to the next twenty documents. From there you will find buttons to take you on to the third twenty or back to the first twenty, and so on. Click the title of any document, or the little button beside it, to see it.

A maximum of 50 is imposed on the number of documents returned. You can change this number by clicking the PREFERENCES button at the top of the page.


Search terms

Whatever you type into the query box is interpreted as a list of words or phrases called "search terms." A term is a single word containing only letters and digits, or a phrase consisting of a sequence of words enclosed in double quotes ("..."). Terms are separated by white spaces. If any other characters such as punctuation appear, they serve to separate terms just as though they were spaces. And then they are ignored. You can't search for words that include punctuation.

For example, the query

will be treated the same as

For collections built with Lucene a few other options are available.

Both of these wildcards can be used in the middle of a term, or at the end. They cannot be used at the start of a search term.

Query type

There are two different kinds of query.

Use as many search terms as you like--a whole sentence, or even a whole paragraph. If you specify only one term, documents will be ordered by its frequency of occurrence.


Scope of queries

In most collections you are given a choice of different indexes to search. For example, there might be author or title indexes. Or there might be chapter or paragraph indexes. Generally, the full matching document is returned regardless of which index you search.

If documents are books, they will be opened at the appropriate place.


Advanced searching using the Lucene search engine

If you have selected advanced query mode (in preferences) you have slightly different search options.

NOTE: These operators are all ignored if you are searching in simple query mode.


Fielded searching

Fielded searching provides the opportunity to combine searches across fields. For example, one can search for "Smith" in Title AND "snail farming" in Subject. In simple query mode, each line of the form behaves like a normal single line search. The individual lines of the form are combined using AND (for an "all" search) or OR (for a "some" search). Terms inside the field are also combined the same way. In advanced mode, you can specify different combinations of AND/OR/NOT between the fields using the drop-down lists, and inside a field you can use boolean operators.


Changing your preferences

When you click the PREFERENCES button at the top of the page you will be able to change some features of the interface to suit your own requirements.


Collection preferences

Some collections comprise several subcollections, which can be searched independently or together, as one unit. If so, you can select which subcollections to include in your searches on the Preferences page.


Language preferences

Each collection has a default presentation language, but you can switch to a different language if you like. You can also alter the encoding scheme used by Greenstone for output to the browser -- the software chooses sensible defaults, but with some browsers it may be necessary to switch to a different encoding scheme to ensure correct character display. All collections allow you to switch from the standard graphical interface format to a textual one. This is particularly useful for visually impaired users who use large screen fonts or speech synthesizers for output.


Presentation preferences

Depending on the particular collection, there may be several options you can set that control the presentation.

Collections of Web pages allow you to suppress the Greenstone navigation bar at the top of each document page, so that once you have done a search you land at the exact Web page that matches without any Greenstone header. To do another search you will have to use your browser's "back" button. These collections also allow you to suppress Greenstone's warning message when you click a link that takes you out of the digital library collection and on to the Web itself. And in some Web collections you can control whether the links on the search results page take you straight to the actual URL in question, rather than to the digital library's copy of the page.


Search preferences

You can switch to an "advanced" query mode which allows you to combine terms using & (for "and"), | (for "or"), and ! (for "not"), using parentheses for grouping if desired. This allows you to specify more precise queries.

You can switch the search type of the collection between "normal" search, and "fielded" search.

You can turn on the search history feature, which shows you your last few queries. This makes it easy to repeat slightly modified versions of previous queries.

Finally, you can control the number of hits returned, and the number presented on each screenful.

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