Cover Image

An introduction to electrical
safety testing in accordance
with IEC 62353


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safety analyzer
Introducing the Rigel 288


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Time-saving data and asset management, speedier battery-powered
leakage tests and peace-of-mind through better traceability.


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Visit www.rigelmedical.com/288 to find out more
Or call (813) 886 2775


Part of




1

Contents


Foreword 2


1 Introduction 3
1.1 Electrical Current 3
1.2 The Human Body 4
1.3 IEC 60601 Body Model 6


2 Medical Electronic Equipment 6
2.1 Commonly used terms and 7


definitions in IEC 62353
2.2 Symbols and Markings 8
2.3 Product Lifecycle 9


3 IEC 60601 10
3.1 In-Service Test Requirements 11


4 Introduction to IEC 62353:2014 12
4.1 How does IEC 62353 compare 13


with IEC 60601?
4.2 Technical Considerations 13
4.3 Test Frequency 14
4.4 Vital Preparation 14


5 Visual Inspection 14


6 Ground Bond Testing 15
6.1 Ground Bond Test Considerations 16
6.2 Precision vs Accuracy 17


7 Insulation Resistance Test 18
7.1 Insulation Resistance EUT to Ground 19
7.2 Insulation Resistance Applied Parts 20
7.3 Insulation Resistance Applied Parts 20


to Mains
7.4 Insulation Test Pass – Fail Limits 21


8 IEC 62353 Leakage Measurements 22
8.1 Method Characteristics 22
8.1.1 Direct Leakage 22
8.1.2 Differential Method 23
8.1.3 Alternative Method 24
8.2 Equipment Leakage 25
8.2.1 Equipment Leakage Direct Method 25
8.2.2 Equipment Leakage Differential Method 26
8.2.3 Equipment Leakage Alternative Method 27
8.3 Applied Part Leakage 28
8.3.1 Applied Part Leakage Direct Method 29
8.3.2 Applied Part Leakage 30


Alternative Method
8.4 Secondary Ground Problems 31
8.5 Hot to Ground Voltage 33


9 Record Keeping 34
9.1 Comparing Data 34


10 Conclusion 35
10.1 Considerations and Recommendations 35


Appendix A 37
Pass / Fail Limits of IEC 62353
Appendix B 38
IEC 60601-1 Collateral Standards
Appendix C 39
IEC 60601-2 Particulars Standards
Appendix D 41
Patient Environment
Appendix E 42
Example Documentation Template


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Foreword


This booklet is written as a guideline for people
involved in testing medical electrical equipment
(ME equipment).


The aim of this booklet is to help the reader to:


n Appreciate the basics of electrical safety.n Understand the reasons behind and the
purpose of the IEC 62353 publication.n Provide an understanding of the benefits of
using the different tests available, in order to
help them prepare the adoption of the IEC
62353 standard.


This booklet cannot be considered as a
replacement for the IEC 62353 publication,
which can be purchased through the official IEC
website, www.webstore.iec.ch.


All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the
accuracy of the information, reference figures
and data has been taken from the latest versions


of various standards, guidance notes and
recognized ‘best practices’ to establish the
recommended testing requirements. However,
Rigel Medical, their agents and distributors,
accept no responsibility for any error or
omissions within this booklet, or for any misinter-
pretations by the user.


For clarification on any part of this booklet,
please contact Rigel Medical before operating
any test instrument, under relevant legislation.


No part of this publication shall be deemed to
form, or be part of, any contract for training or
equipment unless specifically referred to as an
inclusion within such contract.


Rigel Medical assumes that the readers of this
booklet are electronically technically competent
and therefore, does not accept any liability arising
from accidents or fatalities resulting directly or
indirectly from the tests described in this booklet.


2


Rigel Medical Company Profile


The healthcare market is technology driven and with a global demand for increased patient safety,
there has never been a more prudent time to demand more from your test equipment.


International standards for the development and manufacturing of medical devices put greater
emphasis on risk assessment and analysis of data. So, there is an increased need for test equipment
that allows the user to automate data capture and ensure validity of test results for better management
of risk.


Our range of dedicated biomedical test equipment is vital in verifying the safety, accuracy and
performance of medical devices, and has become intrinsic to the endeavor to raise the standard of
patient safety across the globe.


Rigel Medical products are sold worldwide through an international network of agents and distributors.


Rigel Medical is part of the Seaward Group of companies.




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1 Introduction


This guide covers a basic introduction to
electrical safety, definitions of a medical
electronic device, the IEC 60601 standard
and an in-depth overview of the IEC 62353
publication.


The structure and topics discussed in this guide
are written in a way such that the widest possible
audience can benefit.


1.1 Electrical Current
Electrical current is a secondary energy form
consisting of the flow of charge (in coulomb)
through a circuit over a certain time period, and
is depicted in ampere.


1 = Q/t or 1 Ampere = 1 Coulomb/1 second


When electrical current passes through a
conductor or electrical circuit, it generates an
electrical potential (depicted in volt), see figure 1.


Figure 1: Ohm's Law


There is a directly proportional relationship
between the electrical current (ampere) through
and the electrical potential (volt) across the
conductor (ohm). This is commonly known as
Ohm’s law.


V (a – b) = I * R


The force required to deliver the electrical current
across a potential difference is known as power,
which is represented in Watt’s. Power is a
product of voltage (volt) and current (ampere):


Another factor of electricity is electrical energy
(joules), a product of electrical power (watts or
joules/second) and time (seconds). The
relationship is provided below:


The relationship between current, voltage and
resistance can be equally applied to water
running through a pipe. In both cases, electric
current and water prefer the path of least
resistance. The larger the cross section of the
pipe or conductor, the easier water or current
can flow at a certain water pressure or voltage.
See figure 2.


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Conductor resistance (R)


Electrical current (I)


Electrical potential (Va-Vb)


Ohm’s Law
V(a-b) = I x R


A B


Power in Watts
P = V x I


Power in Watts
P = I² x R


Power in Watts
P = V² / R


Energy in Js
E = P x t


Energy in Js
E = (V² x t) / R


Energy in Js
E = I² x R x t




Figure 2: Example showing water following
path of least resistance


n The thinner or longer the water pipe, the more
water pressure is required to deliver the same
gallons per minute (flow or current).n The thinner or longer the conductor (assuming
a particular specific resistance of material), the
more voltage is required to deliver the same
current.


1.2 The Human Body
A significant part of the human body is made up
of water along with dissolved ions and minerals,
which are capable of conducting electrical
currents. Broadly speaking, the hazard of such
electrical currents would depend on:


n Strength of the currentn Path of the currentn Total impedance for the current pathn Frequency of the currentn Duration of the current being applied
Electrical currents can be extremely dangerous
to the human body. The energy (power and time
factor) released by electrical current passing
through human tissue can generate burns and


4


Water Electricity


Current or flow Gallon / second Current Ampere (coulomb / second)


Pressure e.g. BAR or PSI Voltage Volt


Resistance Effected by pipe cross section andlength Resistance
In ohm (Ω). Effected by conductor
cross section, length and material




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excite or stimulate muscles of the respiratory
system (intercostals).


The most critical muscles are those in the human
heart, which are driven (excited) by very tiny
amounts of electrical currents. When the heart is
exposed to external electrical currents (electrical
shock), the heart can lose its normal sinus
rhythm, required to sustain a healthy blood
circulation, and move into ventricular fibrillation.
This stops the circulation of oxyhaemoglobin
(oxygenated blood cells) to the brain and organs
and when left untreated, will result in death within
15 minutes.


Ironically, the most common treatment of
ventricular fibrillation is the use of a defibrillator
which delivers a very high current pulse, up to
100A across the heart. The energy in that high
current pulse is sufficient to temporarily clamp
the heart muscles (ie stop the heart completely)
before releasing it again and allowing the heart to
resume in its normal sinus rhythm.


Consider the following examples of a macro
shock showing the effect of a 50 / 60 Hz current
on the human body when applied to the skin for
1 – 3 seconds (non-invasive):


0.5 -1.1 mA Current just noticeable when
applied to the finger tip


6 – 16 mA Painful shock, unable to let go,
cannot be tolerated over
15 minutes


75-400 mA Ventricular fibrillation, respiratory
arrest, leading to death


<1 A Serious burns and muscular contraction
of such a degree that the thoracic
muscles constrict the heart


(Data adapted from published research by
Professor C.F. Dalziel)


The graph below (figure 3) highlights the different
effects of electrical current on the human body as
understood by Dr. Howard M. Hochbergi.


Figure 3: Impact of current on the human
body, adapted from research by Howard M.
Hochberg, 1971


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Heart defibrillation


Severe burns
Heart clamps - no fibrillation


Severe risk of macroshock
Ventricular fibrillation
Breathing problems
Muscular paralysis
Let go threshold


Perception of shock
Severe risk of microshock
Ventricular fibrillation


Increased risk of microshock
Safe


6A


1A


200 mA


100 mA


10 mA


1 mA


100 uA


10 uA
0 uA




1.3 IEC 60601 Body Model
To ensure a standardized method of simulating
the impedance of the human body,
measurement circuits have been designed to
simulate the average, typical electrical
characteristics of the human body. These
measurement circuits are referred to as a Body
Model or Measuring Device (MD in IEC 60601-1).


The main impedance is formed by a 1kΩ resistor,
shown in figure 4.


Figure 4: Example of a measuring device
MD to IEC 60601


2 Medical Electronic Equipment


Heath facilities including hospitals, surgeries, GP
practises, veterinarian clinics, dentists etc. use a
variety of electrical equipment. The equipment
ranges from specialist medical, laboratory and IT
equipment to ordinary domestic appliances.


Any electrical equipment for the purpose of
treating, monitoring or diagnosing a patient’s
condition is classed as a medical electronic
device according to IEC 60601, the global
harmonized standard governing the design and
approval of medical devices (see 3).


6


a) Measuring device b) Frequency characteristics


MD


+20


0


-20


-40


-60


10 102 103 104 105 106


Frequency (ƒ) in Hz


Re
la


tiv
e


m
ag


ni
tu


de
c)


(d
b)


: 2
0


lo
g


Z(
ƒ)


Z(
ƒ-


10
)


NOTE: The network and voltage measuring instrument above is replaced by the symbol in the
following figures.
a) Non-inductive components
b) Impedance >> measuring impedance Z
c) Z(ƒ) is the transfer impedance of the network, i.e. Vout/in, for a current frequency ƒ.


Z R2 C1


R1


V
Voltage
measuring
instrumentb)


R1 = 10k Ω ±5%a)
R2 = 1k Ω ±5%a)
C1 = 0.015 µF ±5%




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The official definition of medical electrical
equipment according to IEC 60601 is:


“Electrical equipment, designed for
treatment, monitoring or diagnoses of
patients, powered from not more than one
connection to mains supply and which are
necessarily in physical or electrical contact
with the patient or transfers energy to or
from the patient or detects such energy
transfer to or from the patient.”


Medical and non-medical electronic equipment
can also be combined into a medical electronic
system. To ensure safety of patient and operator,
this system must meet the design requirements
of IEC 60601.


The definition of a medical electronic system is;


“Combination of equipment of which at
least one is classed as medical electrical
equipment and as such specified by the
manufacturer to be connected by functional
connection or use of a multiple portable
socket-outlet.”


2.1 Commonly used terms and
definitions in IEC 62353 / 60601


Equipment under test
The equipment (EUT) which is the subject of
testing.


Device under test
The device (DUT) which is the subject of testing.


Applied part
Part of the medical equipment, which is designed
to come into physical contact with the patient, or
parts that are likely to be brought into contact
with the patient.


Patient connection
Individual physical connections and / or metal
parts intended for connection with the patient,
which form (part of) an applied part.


Patient environment
Volumetric area in which a patient can come into
contact with medical equipment or contact can
occur between other persons touching medical
equipment and the patient, both intentional and
unintentional. (see appendix D)


F-Type applied part
Applied part which is electrically isolated from
ground and other parts of the medical
equipment. i.e. floating. F-Type applied parts are
either type BF or type CF applied parts.


Type B applied part
Applied Part complying with specified
requirements for protection against electric
shock. Type B applied parts are those parts,
which are usually ground referenced. Type B are
those parts not suitable for direct cardiac
application.


Type BF applied part
F-Type applied part complying with a higher degree
of protection against electric shock than type B
applied parts. Type BF applied parts are those
parts not suitable for direct cardiac application.


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Type CF applied part
F-Type applied part complying with the highest
degree of protection against electric shock. Type
CF applied parts are those parts suitable for
direct cardiac application.


Class I*
Equipment protection against electric shock by
(grounded) additional protection to basic
insulation through means of connecting exposed
conductive parts to the protective ground in the
fixed wiring of the installation.


Class II*
Also referred to as double insulated. Equipment
protection against electric shock is achieved by
additional protection to basic insulation through
means of supplementary insulation, there being
no provision for the connection of exposed
metalwork of the equipment to a protective
conductor and no reliance upon precautions to
be taken in the fixed wiring of the installation.


Protective ground
Dedicated circuit intended to carry the fault and
leakage current in class I equipment and to be
connected to the protective ground terminal.


Functional ground
Dedicated circuit intended to provide an
electrical screening and to be connected to a
functional ground terminal.


Hot to ground voltage
Applied voltage between the hot wire and ground
conductor, affecting the leakage current.


Leakage current
Current that is not functional.


Macro shock
Non-invasive applied current which passes from
one side of the body to the other, typically hand
to hand or hand to foot, and therefore crossing
through the heart.


Micro shock
Invasively applied current which passes directly
across the heart tissue.


NOTE: Class II equipment may be provided
with a functional ground terminal or a
functional ground conductor.


2.2 Symbols and Markings
The IEC 60601 defines the requirements for
information / data to be present on the medical
equipment's nameplate, in order to form an
unambiguous identification of the equipment.


Information must include; manufacturers name,
model number, serial number, electrical
requirements etc.


The IEC 60601 standard refers to a large variety
of symbols for use on medical equipment,
medical systems, accessories and other related
parts. A full overview of the symbols used in IEC
60601 is provided in table D1 of the standard.


For the purpose of this booklet, a selection of
the most commonly used symbols is displayed
opposite.


8


*not to be confused with FDA classifications




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2.3 Product Lifecycle
For many years, ME equipment has been subject
to extensive approval processes from clinical
trials, to type testing all the way through to end of
production line testing, to ensure it operates
properly before leaving the factory. In addition,
manufacturers recommend that regular electrical
safety and essential performance checks are
carried out to ensure there’s no risk of harmii to
the patient and operator once the device goes
into service.


Figure 5 - Safety stages through a product
lifecycle


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Protective ground Ground reference point


Functional ground


Class II i.e. “Conformité Européene”


Type B applied part Defibrillation-proof type B applied part


Type BF applied part


Type CF applied part


Defibrillation-proof
type BF applied part


Defibrillation-proof
type CF applied part


DESIGN
(IEC 60601)


TYPE TEST
(IEC 60601)


END of
LINE TEST


OPERATOR
TRAINING


MAINTENANCE
(IEC 62353)


REPAIR
(IEC 62353)


ACCEPTANCE


DECOMMI-
SSIONING


SAFETY




3 IEC 60601


ME equipment must meet the design
requirements as set out by the IEC 60601 (a
harmonized standard), which has been adopted
by all IEC member states. This sets out all the
design criteria for producing equipment that is
electrically and mechanically safe, as well as
placing the onus on the manufacturer to
understand how to reduce the risk of harm when
patients and operators are exposed to their
medical devices. All tests relating to the electrical
safety of ME equipment and devices can be
categorized into two categories:


n MEANS OF OPERATOR PROTECTION
(MOOP) - Means of protection for reducing
the risk of electric shock to persons other than
the patient.n MEANS OF PATIENT PROTECTION (MOPP)
- Means of protection for reducing the risk of
electric shock to the patient.


To ensure that ME equipment does not pose an
electrical hazard to the patient, or any other
person, it is designed with sufficient levels of
isolation (dielectrics) to reduce the amount of
electrical leakage current to an acceptable and
safe level - as low as 10µAiii.


10


R&D During this stage a concept is subject to initial & clinical trials. Electronic and mechanicaldesign of the product (where applicable) must be in line with the IEC 60601 standard.


Type Testing


During this stage the product is expected to have completed the clinical trials and subject
to type testing is ready for marketing. The hardware and software of the product is verified
against the design standards. When CE marking is obtained, the medical product can be
marketed.


Production During this stage the products are being assembled, tested and inspected for release intothe market place.


Acceptance


Once a medical device reaches the client, an acceptance test is performed. This test is to
verify that the device is delivered in an acceptable condition, complete without any defaults
and available with all specified accessories. A performance and electrical safety test are
often completed as part of a reference for future maintenance.


Preventative
Maintenance


(Planned) Preventative Maintenance or PPM is a process whereby the device is subject to
scheduled inspections and tests, in order to verify that the safety and operation are within
acceptable levels and criteria. This is referred to as pro-active maintenance.


Repair
Maintenance


Should a device create a fault or require an upgrade, the device will be susceptible to
further inspections and testing. This is referred to as re-active maintenance.


Decommissioning


At the end of a product lifecycle, is the decommissioning stage. The device, depending
on its function and material content may be required to follow a set process (i.e. An
environmentally hazardous product will need to follow a recycling process. Under certain
conditions, the device can be made available to other organizations in which a second
lifecycle can start at the acceptance stage.




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This is achieved by separating high electrical
potentials from any conductive parts, accessible
to the operator or patient. Dielectric strength is
proven by applying a high voltage between high
and low electrical potentials. However, this could
lead to a breakdown of the isolation and would
therefore be referred to as a destructive test.


A safer way to test the effectiveness of dielectrics
is to perform a number of electrical leakage tests,
such as leakage originating from the power
supply to the enclosure (MOOP) or protective
ground wire (MOOP & MOPP) or even to the
patient connected parts (MOPP).


In IEC 60601, the test requirements for electrical
leakage must be carried out under the worst
possible conditions to ensure absolute safety.
This is achieved using an elevated mains at
110% of the highest expected voltage (i.e. at
240V mains this would mean testing at 264V).
Preconditioning of the ME equipment is required
prior to testing. Tests are done under normal
condition (no fault conditions), and including
any one of the specific and relevant fault
conditions.


Testing the protective ground circuit design for
sufficient current carrying capabilities is achieved
by stressing the design, passing a minimum test
current of 25 ampere RMS through the circuit for
a minimum of 10 seconds. At these current
levels, time duration and resistance values (<0.1
Ohm internal equipment resistance), enough
energy will be created to convert current into
thermal heat. By observing the thermal profile of
a design, one can establish parts of the design


that might need to alter in order to reduce the
electrical resistance and thus the converted
energy;


E = I² × R × t


Conducting such tests during the development
and approval stages of a products life cycle,
provides sufficient levels of confidence that the
ME equipment meets the design requirements of
IEC 60601. Once a design is approved for
manufacturing and marketing, a subset of tests
will suffice to ensure the product has been built
and assembled to the required product quality
and safety requirements. This subset of tests is
commonly referred to as routine tests and are not
clearly defined in IEC 60601 thus can vary
between manufacturers and product designs. It’s
for this reason that the new IEC 62353:2014
makes a recommendation that IEC 62353 can
be used during final testing and before putting a
piece of ME equipment into service.


3.1 In-Service Test Requirements
IEC 60601-1 does not provide any guidance on
routine test requirements. This has led to different
interpretations across the world on how to apply
IEC 60601 to routine test scenarios.


Once a medical device leaves the factory, a
number of potential test scenarios arise,
including:


Acceptance testing - also referred to as an
initial or reference test. This test is carried out
prior to a new medical device being authorised
for use and is undertaken to ensure correct and


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complete delivery. Acceptance testing is often
not limited to an electrical safety test, with some
basic function tests also being applied to verify
correct performance.


Routine testing - also referred to as planned
preventative maintenance (PPM). This form of
testing is often conducted at fixed time intervals,
which vary between types of equipment,
manufacturers’ recommendations and risk
assessment procedures undertaken by individual
BME or medical physics departments. Routine
testing is not limited to safety testing and often
includes the verification of correct functionality.


After service & repair testing – this is carried-
out following a repair or product upgrade and is
often part of a service carried out by in-hospital
mechanical or clinical engineering teams. In many
cases, more rigorous electrical safety testing is
needed after the replacement of components or
reconfiguration of medical devices.


4 Introduction to IEC 62353:2014


As its full name implies, IEC 62353 Medical
Electrical Equipment - recurrent test and test
after repair of ME equipment, defines the
requirements for electrical safety testing of
medical electrical (ME) equipment and systems
during routine intervals.


Following the need for a unified approach to
routine testing, the first edition of IEC 62353
brought together a set number of tests to allow
its users to test the MOOP and MOPP dielectric
integrity via two distinct leakage current tests:


n EQUIPMENT LEAKAGE - Testing the total
leakage generated from the incoming mains to
the rest of the equipment (confirming integrity
of the MOOP).n APPLIED PART LEAKAGE - Testing that
floating applied parts (BF&CF) remain at an
acceptable floating level (confirming integrity of
the MOPP).


In meeting this requirement the IEC 62353
incorporates tests beyond those of type testing.
Specifically, it seeks to provide a uniformed and
unambiguous means of assessing the safety of
medical equipment, whilst maintaining the
relevance to IEC 60601-1 and minimizing the
risks to the person conducting the assessment.


Importantly, the IEC 62353 standard recognizes
that the laboratory conditions described in the
IEC 60601, such as elevated mains, isolated TN
(Terre Neutral) supply, temperature and humidity
conditions cannot always be guaranteed when
in-service testing of medical devices is
undertaken. More commonly, secondary ground
connections caused by data cables and
systems, provided measurement errors that can
now be overcome by IEC 62353. Another factor
raised is that equipment could potentially be
damaged by applying type tests (IEC 60601)
during in service testing and could therefore
represent a potential danger to users.


One of the most significant changes to the 2014
edition is the recommendation to test according
to IEC 62353 at the final production line stage
and also before equipment goes into service.
This will allow recurrent testing to be directly


12




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comparable with factory tests, providing for
easier greater observation of any variations in
leakage measurement. New in the IEC
62353:2014 edition are a number of suggested
leakage tests that would isolate the touch
leakage current or patient leakage current. Both
tests form part of the equipment leakage current.


However, if a manufacturer wants to provide a
specific measurement, the IEC 62353:2014 now
provides guidance for these tests to be
conducted in the informative section of the
standard – these might be considered when the
equipment leakage values have changed from
previous measurements. The 500V DC insulation
tests in the 2014 edition have also been supplied
with recommended pass/fail limits, taken from
internationally accepted practices for insulation
testing of electrical equipment. While insulation
tests are optional, it’s always recommended to
check with the equipment manufacturer if this
can be conducted without damaging the
equipment under test.


The strength of IEC 62353 enables those who
carry out testing to conduct a summary of tests on
the input of medical devices (equipment leakage)
and on the output of the medical equipment
(applied part leakage). As will become evident
from the following chapters, the time saving
associated with IEC 62353 will also allow for more
time to be spent on visual and functional testing.


4.1 How does IEC 62353 compare
with IEC 60601?
Although IEC 60601 is a type test standard
governing the safety of the design and


manufacture of ME equipment, for decades
biomed and clinical engineers have used the IEC
60601 as the basis for regular testing or after
service / repair of medical devices. Local variants
of IEC 60601 have also been adopted and used
as a basis for routine testing.


It is clear that most commonly used electrical
safety analyzers will only provide means of
testing to a subset of tests described in IEC
60601 and often exclude destructive tests such
as high voltage dielectric testing, constant
current 25A testing, SIP / SOP fault condition
testing to aid portability and safety of the
operator.


So what are the main implications of testing to
IEC 62353 and how does it differ from the very
well established and widely understood
requirements of IEC 60601?


4.2 Technical Considerations
The aim of IEC 62353 is to provide a uniform
standard that ensures safe practices and
reduces the complexity of the current IEC
60601-1 standard. All tests are based on
leakage testing to IEC 60601, but a number of
aspects to improve safety and practicality have
been removed.


The most significant changes are:


n No pre-conditioning of equipment under testn No elevated mains n No destructive testing n Testing under single fault condition only


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n Summarizing leakage into input
and output safetyn Testing at applied part level rather than
at patient connectionn Different methods for conducting leakage
tests subject to practicality


Many IEC 62353 tests are directly related to IEC
60601 tests, which is shown in figure 6 below.


Figure 6: Comparing IEC 60601
with IEC 62353


4.3 Test Frequency
To ensure safety and performance is managed
throughout the lifecycle of medical electrical
equipment, manufacturers must specify the
intervals for testing and inspecting their devices.
The basis for this is risk assessment: the
likelihood of occurrence and severity of incorrect
operation. Consideration has to also be given to
the application of the product, frequency of use,
the operational environment and operator
competency. IEC 62353:2014 recommends
following the manufacturer’s instructions on test
intervals. If this is not available, a test interval
between of between six to 36 months is
suggested depending on risk assessment.


4.4 Vital Preparation
Although IEC 62353 was first published in May
2007, many companies and organizations are
still in the process of making changes to their
approach to electrical safety testing. To
incorporate the IEC 62353 test philosophy into
any organization requires necessary preparation.
Options for choosing the correct set of tests,
requires an understanding of the purpose and
benefits of using the different tests available.


Although the onus will inevitably fall on the
manufacturers of medical devices to advise on
appropriate in-service test procedures for their
own equipment, IEC 62353 clearly has an impact
on medical service companies, biomed’s,
medical physics, clinical engineering and other
technical departments.


To help all those likely to be affected by the
introduction of IEC 62353 tests, a summary of
the test requirements is provided within this
guidance booklet.


This IEC 62353 guidance booklet is intended for
general information only and cannot be
considered a substitute for the full version of the
standard.


5 Visual Inspection


The process of visual inspection is not clearly
defined by IEC 60601, however visual
inspections form a critical part of the general
safety inspections during the functional life of
medical equipment. In most cases, 70% of all
faults are detected during visual an inspection.


14


IEC 60601 IEC 62353
Ground leakage Equipment leakage DIR/DIF
Ground leakage SFC neutral Equipment leakage ALT
Enclosure leakage SFC ground Equipment leakage DIR/DIF
Patient leakage Equipment leakage (enclosure probe


disconnected)
Mains on applied parts Applied part leakage
Measured values Some are calculated
Only direct method Direct/differential and alternative




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A visual inspection is a relatively easy procedure,
which is carried out to ensure that the ME
equipment in use, still conforms to the
specifications released by the manufacturer and
has not suffered from any external damage and /
or contamination.


The following inspections can be included:


n Housing / Enclosure - Look for damage,
cracks etc.n Integrity - Look for obstruction
of moving parts, connector pins etc. n Cabling (supply, applied parts etc.)
Look for cuts, wrong connections etc.n Fuse rating - check correct values
after replacement.n Markings and labelling - check the integrity
of safety markings.n Integrity of mechanical parts - check for
any obstructions.


6 Ground Bond Testing


Protective ground conductors are designed to
allow a safe and easy path (low resistance) for
electrical leakage and fault currents to flow,
which allows the protective fuses or line current
monitors (RCD’s, GFI’s) to operate and interrupt
the supply voltage. This provides an important
means to reduce the risk of injury by electric
shock and also stops the release of energy which
may ultimately lead to fires.


In class I electrical equipment the protective ground
conductor resistance needs to be of sufficiently low
value, in order to prevent the voltage on external


metal parts rising to a level where the shock
potential presents a hazard to life.


Although many class I medical devices are
supplied with a ground reference point, most, if
not all, medical devices require multiple ground
bond tests to validate the connections of
additional metal accessible parts on the
enclosure.


A test current is applied between the ground pin
of the mains supply plug and any accessible
metal part (including the ground reference point)
via a dedicated ground bond test lead
(clip/probe). Figure 7 shows a representation of
the ground bond test.


Figure 7 - Ground bond test
in class I equipment


For fixed installations a point-to-point continuity
measurement can be made by fitting a second
lead into the aux ground socket. The resistance
is then measured between the two leads.


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The IEC 62353 requires a minimum test current
of 200mA, either AC or DC. When using a DC
test current, the resistance must be tested in
both polarities of the test current. The highest
reading will determine the pass or fail result of
this test.


The open circuit voltage of the current source
should not exceed 24V.


The test limits in IEC 62353 are set to:


100mΩ For a detachable power cable up to
3 meters


300mΩ For a class I device including power
cable (not exceeding 3 meters)


500mΩ For a medical system consisting of
several medical and non-medical
pieces of equipment. See definition
of a medical system in IEC 60601-1:
2005


Figure 8: Example of increased contact
resistance in spring loaded contacts


6.1 Ground Bond Test Considerations
Checking the protective ground during routine
testing is different from that undertaken during the
type test approval. While testing at the design
stage highlights the capacity of the design to cope
with fault currents, the quality of the protective
ground is more important during routine testing.
It’s important to remember that contact resistance
can be easily overlooked when using the required
25A in IEC 60601 because high test currents can
temporarily repair poor mechanical contactsiv.


Contact resistance is made up of two components:
1. Restriction resistance (where the conductive


cross section is reduced)
2. Film resistance (the possible resistive layer


between the two conductive surfaces due to
film oxidation, dust etc.)


Lower test currents, typically less than 8A RMS,
are unable to temporarily overcome contact
resistance (both film and restriction resistance)
and thus highlight problems as a result of aging
(increased restriction resistance due to softening


16


Increased pressure
(low resistance)


Low pressure applied
(high resistance)




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of spring loaded force on the contacts typically
found in removable power cords, see figure 8).


High test currents (10A or more) tend to provide
a more constant reading (high precision) even if
there is a potential constriction in the protective
ground path. High test currents might also be
destructive to parts of the DUT which are
connected to the protective ground but have a
functional purpose (e.g. screening).


Therefore, IEC 62353 recommends that
protective ground connections are tested with a
200mA test current to highlight aging power
cords although high readings could be as a result
of film resistance which can be removed.


Combining a high pre-pulse (to clean the film
resistance) and measuring with a low current to
show up any restriction resistance, is the most
accurate way to determine the quality of the
protective ground path.


6.2 Precision vs Accuracy
When performing a ground bond test, remember
that accuracy must take precedence over
precision as having a consistently wrong
measurement is precise but not very accurate.


Using a high test current might provide a
higher precision (see figure 10), but would not
necessarily give you a more accurate
representation of the quality of the protective
ground circuit due to its capability to temporarily
repair constriction resistance.


Lower currents are not able to provide a false
positive and are therefore fail-safe.


Low test current only (see figure 9) - Possible
low accuracy and low precision as high readings
could be due to film or constriction resistance.


High test current only (see figure 10) - Possible
high precision but low accuracy as aging cables
with poor contact resistance will give the same
readings as a brand new good cable.


Low test current with high current pre-test
(see figure 11) - Cleans film resistance, any high
readings would be down to poor contact
resistance thus high accuracy and high
precision.


A separate white paper on high vs low test
currents is available free of charge on our website
at www.rigelmedical.com/rigel-downloads.


Innova t ing Togethe r


Figure 9: Low accuracy -
low precision


Figure 10: Low accuracy -
high precision


Figure 11: High accuracy -
high precision




7 Insulation Resistance Test


The risk of unacceptably high electrical fault
currents can be minimized through design
criteria i.e. through effective levels of electrical
insulation/isolation. Such insulation can be
achieved through physical spacing (creepage
and clearance) of components, choice of
components and dielectric materials, while
ensuring the device operates properly.


The effectiveness of electrical insulation is tested
through electrical leakage measurements
(results in mA or µA) while the level of isolation is
often tested using a dielectric or insulation test.
During a dielectric, or hipot test (further
information available on hipot testers at,
www.seaward-groupusa.com/hal-series), a high
voltage (up to 4000V AC) is applied across
different parts of the electronic design in order to
stress the dielectrics. Results are displayed in
mA or µA - similar to that of leakage current
measurements. An insulation resistance test
applies a lower DC voltage, typically between
250-500V DC, across different parts of the
electronic design. The results are displayed in
Mega ohms (MΩ).


Insulation resistance is normally checked by
applying 500V DC between:


n Input (hot conductors, both phase and neutral,
connected together) and enclosure (protective
ground in class 1). See 7.1.n Output (applied parts) and enclosure
(protective ground in class 1). See 7.2.n Input (phase and neutral) and output (applied
parts) for floating type applied parts (BF and
CF). See 7.3.


The resistance is measured and then compared
with the minimum acceptable value to assess
pass or fail conditions, which can vary greatly
depending on design and test voltage variations.


With all measurements of insulation resistance,
the appliance under test must have the power
switch in the ‘ON’ position before performing the
test otherwise the test voltage does not pass
beyond the mains switch, in which case only the
mains cord will be tested.


In addition, appliances fitted with electronic
mains switches or RCD plugs cannot be tested
in this manner because it is not possible to close
the mains switch (as they require mains to be
present).


In some cases, sensitive electronic devices and
particularly older IT equipment, which does not
comply with EN60950, may be damaged by
500V. However, in practice, this may not be a
significant issue as EN 60950 has been around
longer than most IT equipment currently in use.


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While the outcome of a 500V DC insulation test
is quick and safe to do, in most cases it does not
provide a real indication of the effectiveness of
the insulation in modern medical devices or the
expected leakage values that may be
experienced during normal or typical operation.
This is due to the increased use of switch mode
power supplies that may indicate very high DC
insulation resistance (>100MΩ), when measured
with AC indicate high leakage. This is due to the
greater influence of capacitive and inductive
leakage experienced in these devices rather than
resistive leakage as in a heating element.


Infinity readings are common when performing
DC insulation tests and provide no information as
to whether the unit was actually switched on or
off. This makes the test results meaningless from
a safety point of view.


It is a matter of debate as to whether a 50 MΩ
(higher) result is ‘safer’ than a 10 MΩ (lower)
result, considering the equipment has been
exposed to a voltage it was not designed to
operate at. Furthermore, the 50 MΩ (higher)
device might have been designed to measure
100 MΩ and has thus lost 50% of its insulation
level. This could lead to higher leakage currents
and unsafe conditions.


Finally, in some electrical equipment,
components connected to the hot/neutral
conductors for EMC filtering or surge protection
can significantly influence the measurement,
indicating an erroneous failure of the test.


On the plus side, the insulation resistance test is
relatively quick and easy to perform, which is why
it is probably the most widely used.


7.1 Insulation Resistance EUT to Ground
This test is used to verify that the mains parts are
adequately insulated from ground (class I) or the
enclosure (class II). Figures 12 and 13 below,
show a representation of the insulation test.


Figure 12: Insulation test mains parts
to protective ground, class I


Figure 13: Insulation test mains parts to
non-grounded accessible conductive parts,
class I and II


During this test, 500V D.C. is applied between
the ground pin and both the hot and neutral
pins of the appliance mains supply plug.


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MΩ


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MΩ




For both class I and class II appliances plug
the DUT into the safety analyzer. Class II
equipment requires an auxiliary lead to be
connected to the enclosure of the equipment.
This can be done by wrapping the enclosure in
aluminium foil and connecting it to the auxiliary
lead via a crocodile clip.


7.2 Insulation Resistance Applied Parts
This test is used to verify that the applied parts
are adequately insulated from ground (class I) or
the enclosure (class II). This test is applicable to
class I and class II, BF and CF equipment only.
Figure 14 and figure 15 show a representation of
this insulation test.


Figure 14: Insulation test applied parts
to protective ground, class I


Figure 15: Insulation test applied parts to
non-grounded accessible conductive parts,
class I and II


During this test, 500V D.C. is applied between
the ground pin (class I) or the enclosure (class
II) and all the applied parts combined.


For both class I and class II appliances, connect
the patient connections or applied parts to the
corresponding terminals of your safety analyzer.
For class I equipment, plug the mains plug into
the safety analyzer. Class II equipment requires
an auxiliary lead to be connected to the
enclosure of the equipment. This can be done by
wrapping the enclosure in aluminium foil and
connecting the auxiliary lead via an alligator clip.


7.3 Insulation Resistance Applied Parts
to Mains
This test is used to verify that the applied parts
are adequately insulated from the mains parts
and is applicable to class I and class II, BF and
CF equipment only. Figure 16 show a
representation of the applied parts to mains
insulation test.


20


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MΩ


AP1


AP2


L
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MP AP


MΩ


AP1


AP2




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Figure 16: Insulation test mains parts
to applied parts, class I and II


During this test, 500V D.C. is applied between
all the applied parts combined and both the
hot and neutral pins of the appliance mains
supply plug.


For both class I and class II appliances, connect
the patient connections or applied parts to the
corresponding terminals of your safety analyzer
and connect the mains plug to the safety
analyzer.


7.4 Insulation Test Pass – Fail Limits
Although ultimately the pass / fail limits or
expected minimum values for this test must be
advised by the manufacturer of the equipment,
the IEC 62353 does provide a list of commonly
accepted values:


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MΩ


AP1


AP2


B
BF, CF


Figure Class B BF CF


Figure 12 I ≥ 2 MΩ ≥ 2 MΩ ≥ 2 MΩ
Figure 13 I and II ≥ 7 MΩ ≥ 7 MΩ ≥ 7 MΩ
Figure 14 I and II ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ
Figure 15 I and II ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ
Figure 16 I ≥ 2 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ
Figure 16 II ≥ 7 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ ≥ 70 MΩ




8 IEC 62353 Leakage Measurements


As covered in 1.2, it is the level of electrical
current rather than level of voltage which is the
criteria for safety due to the impact of electrical
currents on the human tissues. Small amounts of
current which are undetectable by sensation can
have a significant impact on our safety.


IEC 62353 defines two different kinds of leakage
current tests:


Equipment leakage current - total leakage
deriving from the power supply to ground via the
applied parts and enclosure, see 8.2.


Applied part leakage current - leakage current
flowing from an applied part to the enclosure or
ground as a result of an external voltage on the
applied part, see 8.3.


8.1 Method Characteristics
To ensure that a valid leakage measurement can
be obtained, the IEC 62353 describes the
following methods:


Direct Leakage - measurement of leakage
current via a measuring device, placed directly in
the path of the leakage current, see 8.1.1.


Differential Leakage - measuring the imbalance
between current in the hot conductor and the
neutral conductor as a result of leakage current,
see 8.1.2.


Alternative Method - measurement of leakage
when mains voltage is both on the hot and
neutral wire, see 8.1.3.


8.1.1 Direct Leakage
The direct leakage method is identical to the
method used in the IEC 60601-1 standard;
measuring the true leakage through a body
model (measuring device) to ground.


Benefits:n Means of measuring both AC and DC leakage
current.n Highest accuracy compared to other
methods.n Potential leakage through a human body via
measuring device.n Direct comparison with measurements made
in accordance with IEC 60601-1.


To consider:n The 1kΩ resistor forming the measuring device
is interrupting the low resistance protective
ground conductor, thus causing a potential
hazard when testing faulty equipment.n Secondary ground path(s) could lead to zero
current readings, see 8.4.n A difference in polarity of the hot and neutral
conductors might alter the leakage readings,
as such leakage measurements must be done
in each polarity of mains supply.n A TN (terre – neutral) system is required to
ensure that the measurements are done at
maximum hot to ground voltage. Any voltage
between neutral and ground might result in a
lower reading, potentially passing faulty
equipment, see 8.5.


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8.1.2 Differential Method
The differential leakage method measures the
leakage current as a result of an imbalance in
current between the hot conductor and the
neutral conductor.


The principle of the differential leakage
measurement is based on induction hence, this
method is susceptible to external magnetic fields
and high load currents. As current passes
through the hot wire in one direction, the current
in the natural wire travels in the opposite
direction. Each current produces a magnetic field
in opposite directions and directly proportional to
the strength of current. See figure 17.


Figure 17: Opposite magnetic fields
in hot and neutral wire


The current in the hot wire carries both the
functional current and the leakage current
whereby the current in the neutral wire contains
only the functional current. By subtracting both
currents, you end up with the leakage current.


This is done in practise by passing both hot and
neutral wires through a current transformer (CT).
The hot and neutral wires act as the primary
windings whereas the CT acts as the secondary
winding. The net magnetic field in the primary
wire is equal to the leakage current as the neutral
“field” cancels all but the leakage current from
the hot wire. The current being inducted in the
CT is equal to the leakage current.


Potential secondary ground connections are
included in the total measurement and as such,
the EUT is not required to be isolated from real
ground.


Benefits:n The measurements are not influenced by
secondary ground connections.n It measures the total equipment leakage
current.n The measuring device (1kΩ resistor) is no
longer in series with the ground conductor,
providing a low resistance protective ground
and thus is a safer practise compared to the
direct method.


Neutral
conductor


Hot
conductor




To consider:n The differential leakage measurement is less
suitable to accurately measure lower leakage
currents (<100µA).n The measurements can be influenced by
external magnetic fields or the analyzer’s own
internal magnetic fields. n The measurements can be influenced by high
current consumption of the DUT.n The measurements have limited frequency
response.n A difference in polarity of the hot and neutral
conductors might alter the leakage readings;
as such leakage measurements must be done
in each polarity of mains supply.n Both direct and alternative methods provide
higher accuracy and broader frequency
response which is required for measuring
trends in low leakage conditions.


8.1.3 Alternative Method
The alternative method is in effect similar to a
dielectric strength test at mains potential, or an
insulation test at AC voltage, using a current
limited voltage source (test voltage) at mains
frequency. The maximum short circuit current is
limited through a current limiting resistor of RL,
see figure 18.


The hot and neutral conductors are shorted
together and the test voltage is applied
between the mains parts and other parts of the
equipment.


The current limiting resistor will result in an
internal voltage drop when a fault current is
flowing. Therefore, the applied test voltage will
decrease when the leakage current increases.


To reflect testing at mains voltage, the measured
leakage current is scaled in proportion to the
actual output voltage.


Note that IEC 62353 requires the safety analyzer
to show the “displayed value” and not the
“measured value”.


Figure 18: Example of current limited
mains supply during alternative leakage


IEC 62353 requires you to scale the measured
leakage value up, equivalent to having mains
over the applied part;


In this approach, it is possible to display high
(calculated) leakage currents without actually
being exposed to dangerous currents, making
the alternative leakage current safe to use when
high fault currents are expected.


24


RL


Applied
test


voltage
Mains


potential Measured current


Displayed current = Measured Current × Mains voltage
Applied test voltage




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Benefits:n As hot and neutral are combined, the mains
polarity has no influence. Only one
measurement is required. n The DUT is disconnected from mains thus
providing a high level of safety for the test
engineer.n TN-System is not required due to mains free
application. n Measurements are not influenced by
secondary ground connections.n Measurements are highly repeatable and
provide a good indication of deterioration in
the dielectrics of the medical device under
test.


To consider:n Equipment will not be activated thus,
preventing the measurement of actual leakage
currents on equipment with switched circuits.


8.2 Equipment Leakage
Equipment leakage current - total leakage
deriving from the power supply to ground via the
applied parts and enclosure. The equipment
leakage test is applicable to both class I and II, B,
BF and CF equipment.


Leakage measurements to IEC 62353 are done
using the RMS value instead of the separate AC
and DC values used in the IEC 60601-1
standard.


The IEC 62353 specifies three different methods
for measuring the equipment leakage current:


n Direct methodn Differential methodn Alternative method
8.2.1 Equipment Leakage Direct Method
The direct method is identical to the method
used in the IEC 60601-1.


Figure 19 and figure 20 show a representation of
the direct method.


Figure 19: Equipment leakage
direct - class I


Figure 20: Equipment leakage
direct – class II


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MD


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The DUT must be positioned floating to avoid
secondary ground connections influencing the
measuring process.


All applied parts (B, BF & CF) and grounded
(e.g. enclosure class I) and non-grounded
accessible conductive parts or non-conductive
accessible parts (enclosure class II) are grouped
together and connected to the ground via the
1kΩ measuring device (body model).


The 1kΩ measuring device (MD - equivalent
to that used in the IEC 60601 standard –


see 1.3) is positioned in the leakage return
path to ground.


The test is conducted with the protective
ground connection ‘interrupted’, to ensure the
measurements are carried out under the worst
possible conditions. As such, any ground
leakage current will be measured as part of the
enclosure (or touch) leakage.


Measurements are done in both polarities of the
incoming mains with the protective ground to the
EUT interrupted.


8.2.2 Equipment Leakage Differential Method
Figure 21 and figure 22 show a representation of
the differential method.


Figure 21: Equipment leakage
differential - class I


Figure 22: Equipment leakage
differential – class II


Potential secondary ground connections are
included in the total measurement and as such,
the DUT is not required to be positioned isolated
from ground.


26


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


B BF CF


Equipment leakage – direct or differential method


Class I equipment
Class II equipment (touch current)


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


For mobile x-ray generators 2000 µA


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M


L
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M




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All applied parts (B / BF & CF), grounded (e.g.
enclosure class I) and non-grounded accessible
conductive parts or non-conductive accessible
parts (enclosure Class II) are grouped together
and connected to ground to allow the differential
circuit to measure the total leakage current.


Unlike the direct method, the differential method
does not measure the ground conductor via the
standard IEC 60601 body model. The MD is part
of a differential current measurement between
the hot and neutral conductors. The frequency
response of the measurement shall be similar to
the body model used in the IEC 60601.


The test is conducted with the protective ground
connection closed for protection of the user.


Measurements are done in both polarities of the
incoming mains with the protective ground to the
EUT interrupted.


Low leakage currents of less than 75µA are
difficult to measure using the differential leakage
method. As such the differential leakage method
is unsuitable when measuring conductive un-
grounded parts and in instances where leakages
are expected to be below 75µA.


8.2.3 Equipment Leakage Alternative Method
This method is in fact similar to a dielectric test
between the mains parts and all accessible parts
(conductive and non-conductive) including the
applied parts connected together. Figure 23 and
figure 24 show a representation of the alternative
method.


Figure 23: Equipment leakage
alternative - class I


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


B BF CF


Equipment leakage – direct or differential method


Class I equipment
Class II equipment (touch current)


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


For mobile x-ray generators 2000 µA


MP AP


MD




Figure 24: Equipment leakage
alternative – class II


The test is performed using a current limited
(3.5mA) mains potential sinusoidal 60Hz signal
(50Hz where this is the mains frequency).


As hot and neutral are shortened, the DUT is not
directly connected to the mains potential. As


such, mains reversal is not applicable and the
EUT is not required to be positioned isolated
from ground.


All applied parts, and grounded (e.g. enclosure
class I) and non-grounded accessible conductive
parts or non-conductive accessible parts
(enclosure class II) are grouped together and
connected to the mains parts via the 1kΩ
measuring device (body model) and voltage source.


The 1kΩ measuring device (equivalent to that
used in the IEC 60601 standard – see 1.3) is
positioned directly after the voltage source.


The test is conducted with the protective ground
connection closed to protect the user.


8.3 Applied Part Leakage
The applied part leakage test measures the total
leakage deriving from the combined patient
connections within an applied art to ground and any
conductive or non conductive parts on the
enclosure (either connected or isolated from ground)
under the fault condition mains on the applied parts.


The applied part leakage test is applicable to
floating type (BF & CF) applied parts only either
class I or II.


All patient connections of a single function within
an applied part shall be connected together (BF
& CF) and measured one at the time.


Applied parts (and patient connections) are not
part of the measurement and shall be left floating
i.e. not connected to real ground.


The test is conducted by applying a current
limited (3.5mA) mains potential sinusoidal 60Hz
signal (50Hz where this is the mains frequency)


28


MP AP


MD


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


B BF CF


Equipment leakage – alternative method


Class I equipment
Class II equipment


1000µA
500µA


1000µA
500µA


1000µA
500µA


For mobile x-ray generators 5000 µA




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between the applied part, the enclosure and
ground connection of the EUT that is connected
to real ground.


Leakage measurements to IEC 62353 are done
using the RMS value instead of the separate AC
and DC values used in the IEC 60601-1
standard.


The IEC 62353 / applied part leakage can be
performed in two different methods:


n Direct methodn Alternative method
8.3.1 Applied Part Leakage Direct Method
Figure 25 and figure 26 show a representation of
the direct method.


Figure 25: Applied part leakage
direct - class I


Figure 26: Applied part leakage
direct – class II


The DUT must be positioned floating to avoid
secondary ground connections influencing the
measuring process.


All floating type patient connections in each
applied part (BF & CF) are connected together.
Each Individual applied part is measured in turn
and grouped together with all grounded (e.g.
enclosure class I) and non-grounded accessible
conductive parts or non-conductive accessible
parts (enclosure class II) and connected to
ground via the 1kΩ measuring device (body
model).


Applied parts and patient connections not part of
the measurement shall be left floating.


The 1kΩ measuring device (MD - equivalent to
that used in the IEC 60601 standard – see 1.3)
is positioned between the applied part and
voltage source.


L
N


MP APL(N)


N(L)


PE MD


AP1


AP2


L
N


MP APL(N)


N(L)


PE MD


AP1


AP2




The test is conducted with the protective
ground connection closed for protection of the
user.


Measurements are done in both polarities of the
incoming mains with the protective ground to the
EUT interrupted.


Warning: This applied part direct leakage test is
similar to that of the F-Type leakage test
according to IEC 60601, using an equivalent


current limited voltage source to produce the
mains potential. Both sources depend on a
current limiting resistor which could cause a
significant voltage drop. See figure 18.


Unlike the IEC 60601-1 requirements, the
voltage drop caused by the current limiting
resistor is compensated for in the IEC 62353
thus, potentially resulting in a higher reading than
the typical IEC 60601-1 F-type test. Please refer
to the manufacturer’s recommendations.


8.3.2 Applied Part Leakage
Alternative Method
This method is in fact similar to a dielectric test
between the applied part, and all mains parts,
EUT ground and enclosure all connected
together. Figures 27 and 28 show a
representation of the alternative method.


Figure 27: Applied part leakage
alternative – class I


30


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


B BF CF


Applied part leakage current – direct method (a.c.)


Class I & II N/A 5000µA 50µA


For defibrillation paddles class CF N/A 100µA


MP AP


MD


AP1


AP2




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Figure 28: Applied part leakage
alternative – class II


As hot and neutral are shortened, the DUT is not
directly connected to the mains potential. As
such, mains reversal is not applicable and the
EUT is not required to be positioned isolated
from ground.


All floating type patient connections in each applied
part (BF & CF) are connected together. Each
individual applied part is measured in turn and
connected via the 1kΩ measuring device (body
model) to the voltage source and grounded (e.g.
enclosure class I) and non-grounded accessible
conductive parts or non-conductive accessible
parts (enclosure class II) grouped together.


Applied parts and patient connections not part of
the measurement shall be left floating.


The 1kΩ measuring device (MD - equivalent to
that used in the IEC 60601 standard – see 1.3)
is positioned between the applied part and
voltage source.


The test is conducted with the protective
ground connection closed to protect the user.


8.4 Secondary Ground Problems
Due to the fact that electrical currents follow the
path of least resistance (much like water does), it
is important to realise that secondary ground
path connections could influence the
measurements of leakage currents.


Secondary connections are typical with:


n Equipment bolted to steel reinforced concrete
floor (e.g. dentist chairs, MRI)n Equipment connected to gas or water supplyn Equipment that is part of a medical electrical
systemn Equipment connected to PC / printer


MP AP


MD


AP1


AP2


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


B BF CF


Applied part leakage current – alternative method (a.c.)


Class I & II N/A 5000µA 50µA


For defibrillation paddles class CF N/A N/A 100µA




Compared to the 1kΩ resistance of the body
model, a secondary ground path is substantially
lower. As such, electrical currents are mostly
flowing down the secondary ground path, away
from the safety analyzer, as shown in figure 29,
which represents an example of a secondary
ground connection via a data cable.


Figure 29: Example showing leakage
current flowing away via a secondary
ground connection


This will result in a zero reading on the safety
analyzer and could potentially pass a dangerous
medical device.


In case a secondary ground path exists, the Rigel
288 / 62353 will provide the user with an error
message as shown in figure 30.


Figure 30: Secondary ground path error
message on Rigel 288 / 62353


If the secondary ground path can’t be removed,
one should revert to the differential leakage
method which is capable of measuring the total
leakage even when a secondary ground path
exists. This is because the differential leakage
method does not rely on a 1kΩ body model. See
figure 31.


Figure 31: Measuring leakage current with
secondary ground using differential method


32


AP


Display


MD


L
N
1000Ω


<5Ω


AP


Display


L


N


<5Ω


Differential




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8.5 Hot Conductor to Ground Voltage
During equipment leakage measurements
(direct and differential), the hot conductor to
ground voltage can have a direct impact on the
leakage measurement. In general, the smaller the
hot to ground voltage, the lower the leakage
current to ground (leakage current flows from a
high – hot to a low – ground potential).


Measurements under a TN (terre – neutral)
system ensure the hot to ground voltage is equal
to the line voltage (between hot and neutral).
This gives the highest possible leakage outcome,
see figure 32. If the ground potential differs from
the neutral potential, the hot to ground voltage
will be reduced, and result in a lower leakage
value, see figure 33.


Figure 32: Leakage measurement
on a TN system


Figure 33: Leakage measurement
on a IT system


Leakage current measurements on an IT
(isolated terre) are limited to isolation levels of the
supply system. In this case, no valid leakage
measurement is possible unless the safety
analyzer is able to produce an internal ground at
half the line voltage, like the Rigel 288. It is also
possible to test using the equipment leakage
using the alternative method which does not rely
on the incoming mains configuration.


N
E


L


120V


120V


0V
0V


E
N


L


60V


120V


0V
60V




The Rigel 288 and 62353 are able to provide an
automatic warning to the user in case the supply
configuration differs from an TN configuration.


Figure 34: Automatic mains configuration
warning on Rigel 288 / 62353


9 Record Keeping


Overall, risk assessment and the creation of risk
management files has become a growing feature
of routine safety testing decisions, with different
organizations and departments drawing-up
individual plans to deal with specific safety
hazards. Comparison with previous and
expected test results will therefore allow you to
monitor deterioration of the device under test
and can prevent potential failure before a fault
occurs.


9.1 Comparing Data
Testing to IEC 62353 has reduced the time taken
to conduct an electrical safety test – down from
five minutes to less than 15 secondsv in some
cases. What’s more, a direct outcome of
reducing the amount of individual tests is that


results can be easily compared against previous
readings: tests in different polarities of the
incoming mains rarely result in significant
difference in readings, so under IEC 62353 only
an equipment leakage and applied part leakage
value has to be observed, making comparison
easy and quick. Comparing data also makes it
possible to monitor leakage against expected
values rather than the test limits in the IEC
62353.


Electrical safety testing is only part of the total
service carried out on medical equipment. Once
the safety is accessed, the functionality is verified
and recorded before the equipment is returned
for use on patients.


Rigel Medical has produced a range of
informative booklets that cover the performance
verification of; vital signs monitors, infusion
pumps and electro surgical generators.


Please email sales@seaward-groupusa.com to
request your free copy.


To ensure proper record keeping is maintained it
is important to provide a procedure in which data
is collected regarding:


n Inspection daten Visual inspectionn Electrical safetyn Functional testingn Next inspection date
The IEC 62353 provides a guideline in collecting
such information with the purpose of developing


34




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consistency in data collection and management.
By doing so, trends can be monitored to benefit:


n Identifying common faultsn Detect component deterioration (preventative
maintenance)n Develop efficient re-test periods


Rigel Medical has developed Med-eBase, a test
solutions software package to automate the
generation of test reports including visual
inspection, electrical safety and performance
testing. An example of such test templates is
provided in appendix E.


Going forward, determining the appropriate
levels of both electrical and functional testing will
be central to the introduction of cost effective yet
reliable preventative maintenance campaigns.


10 Conclusion


Electrical safety testing of medical electronic
devices remains a crucial part of the overall
safety validation of medical devices and requires
specialised test equipment.


The IEC 62353 standard will provide;


n A globally recognized approach to safety
testing n Development tools for safer and more suitable
test protocolsn Significant time savings during routine safety
testingn An easy method to analyze results against
previous measurements


n A method of record keeping and maintenance
procedures


The strength of IEC 62353 is that it allows those
who carry out the test to conduct a summary of
tests on the input of medical devices (equipment
leakage) and on the output of the medical
equipment (applied part leakage). Uniformity in
test procedures, time (and cost) savings and a
simplified means of analyzing test data are
among other significant benefitsvi for those who
have made the transition to testing in
accordance with IEC 62353. Time saving
associated with IEC 62353 will also allow for
more time on visual and functional testing, thus
leading to improved patient safety.


Additional test setups such as the differential
method and alternative method give the user a
valid measurement when circumstances might
not allow for a valid test measurement under IEC
60601 (direct method).


When choosing your future electrical safety
analyzer, ensure that it can be used to test in
accordance with the IEC 62353 requirements
and secondly that your analyzer will enable you
to accurately and repeatedly produce the results
you require.


10.1 Considerations and Recommendations
1. Ensure that the operator of the safety analyzer


is properly trained on both the safety analyzer
as well as the device under test to ensure that
valid measurements are taken and
understood, to prevent unneccessary danger
during the safety test.




2. Always ensure that the device under test
does not pose any danger to the user and /
or people within the vicinity to the safety test.
(e.g. moving parts, open conductors, hot
components, heat etc.).


3. Ensure that leakage measurements are
performed while the equipment is in full
operation mode, including its sub-systems or
components, unless the alternative method is
being carried out.


4. Appreciate that secondary ground
connections will lead to invalid measurements.
Understand how to spot secondary ground
connections or benefit from the automatic
warning feature on the Rigel 288 / 62353.


5. Ensure accuracy and repeatability of leakage
measurement readings (some manufacturers
might specify full scale accuracy which will effect
the accuracy of low leakage measurements).


6. Ensure that contact resistance is taken into
account when measuring the ground continuity
at low currents (<8A). Contact resistance can
influence the readings and cause unnecessary
failures of the device under test. Visit
www.rigelmedical.com/rigel-downloads for your
free application note on low current testing.


7. When determining the correct means of
testing aspecific piece of medical equipment,
ensure that the chosen safety test procedures
are applicable to the device under test and
are clearly documented for future use.


Rigel Medical offers a range of test equipment
in line with the IEC 62353 and IEC 60601
requirements. Please visit our website
www.rigelmedical.com/products for a full overview
of our product offering or register online for our free
newsletter on future product releases and product
innovations (visit www.rigelmedical.com/news).


For further questions or comments relating to this
booklet or on the Rigel Medical product offering,
please email us at
sales@seaward-groupusa.com.


36




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Appendix A
Pass / Fail Limits of IEC 62353


Current in µA (RMS)
APPLIED PART


Type B Type BF Type CF


Equipment leakage – alternative method


Class I equipment
Class II equipment


1000µA
500µA


1000µA
500µA


1000µA
500µA


For mobile x-ray generators 5000 µA


Equipment leakage – direct or differential method


Class I equipment
Class II equipment (touch current)


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


500µA
100µA


For mobile x-ray generators 2000 µA


Applied part leakage current – alternative method (AC)


Class I & II N/A 5000µA 50µA


For defibrillation paddles class CF N/A N/A 100µA


Applied part leakage current – direct method (AC)


Class I & II N/A 5000µA 50µA


For defibrillation paddles class CF N/A N/A 100µA


NOTE 1 This IEC 62353 standard does not provide measuring methods and allowable values
for equipment producing DC leakage currents. In such a case the manufacturer
should give information in accompanying documents.


NOTE 2 Particular standards may allow different values of leakage current.
For a list of particular standards, please refer to Appendix C.




38


IEC 60601-1 ed3.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for basic safety andessential performance


IEC 60601-1-2 ed4.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-2: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: Electromagnetic disturbances -
Requirements and tests


IEC 60601-1-3 ed2.1
Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-3: General requirements for basic safety
and essential performance - Collateral Standard: Radiation protection in diagnostic
X-ray equipment


IEC 60601-1-6 ed3.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-6: General requirements for basic safety andessential performance - Collateral standard: Usability


IEC 60601-1-8 ed2.1


Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-8: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: General requirements, tests and
guidance for alarm systems in medical electrical equipment and medical
electrical systems


IEC 60601-1-9 ed1.1
Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-9: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: Requirements for environmentally
conscious design


IEC 60601-1-10 ed1.1
Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-10: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: Requirements for the development of
physiologic closed-loop controllers


IEC 60601-1-11 ed1.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-11: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: Requirements for medical electrical
equipment and medical electrical systems used in the home healthcare environment


IEC 60601-1-12 ed1.0


Medical electrical equipment - Part 1-12: General requirements for basic safety and
essential performance - Collateral Standard: Requirements for medical electrical
equipment and medical electrical systems intended for use in the emergency medical
services environment


IEC 60601-2-1 ed3.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-1: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of electron accelerators in the range 1 MeV to 50 MeV


Appendix B
IEC 60601-1 Collateral Standards (© IEC, http://webstore.iec.ch/?ref=menu)




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IEC 60601-2-2 ed5.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-2: Particular requirements for the basic safety
and essential performance of high frequency surgical equipment and high frequency
surgical accessories


IEC 60601-2-3 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-3: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of short-wave therapy equipment


IEC 60601-2-4 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-4: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of cardiac defibrillators


IEC 60601-2-5 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-5: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of ultrasonic physiotherapy equipment


IEC 60601-2-6 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-6: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of microwave therapy equipment


IEC 60601-2-8 ed2.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-8: Particular requirements for basic safety and
essential performance of therapeutic X-ray equipment operating in the range 10 kV
to 1 MV


IEC 60601-2-10 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-10: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of nerve and muscle stimulators


IEC 60601-2-11 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-11: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of gamma beam therapy equipment


IEC 60601-2-16 ed4.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-16: Particular requirements for basic safety
and essential performance of haemodialysis, haemodiafiltration and haemofiltration
equipment


IEC 60601-2-17 ed3.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-17: Particular requirements for the basic
safety and essential performance of automatically-controlled brachytherapy
afterloading equipment


IEC 60601-2-18 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-18: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of endoscopic equipment


IEC 60601-2-19 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-19: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of infant incubators


IEC 60601-2-20 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-20: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of infant transport incubators


IEC 60601-2-21 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-21: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of infant radiant warmers


IEC 60601-2-22 ed3.1
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-22: Particular requirements for basic safety
and essential performance of surgical, cosmetic, therapeutic and diagnostic
laser equipment


IEC 60601-2-23 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-23: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of transcutaneous partial pressure monitoring equipment


Appendix C
IEC 60601-2 Particulars Standards (© IEC Geneva, Switzerland)




40


IEC 60601-2-24 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-24: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of infusion pumps and controllers


IEC 60601-2-25 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-25: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of electrocardiographs


IEC 60601-2-26 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-26: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of electroencephalographs


IEC 60601-2-27 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-27: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of electrocardiographic monitoring equipment


IEC 60601-2-28 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-28: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of X-ray tube assemblies for medical diagnosis


IEC 60601-2-29 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-29: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of radiotherapy simulators


IEC 60601-2-31 ed2.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-31: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of external cardiac pacemakers with internal power source


IEC 60601-2-33 ed3.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-33: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of magnetic resonance equipment for medical diagnosis


IEC 60601-2-34 ed3.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-34: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of invasive blood pressure monitoring equipment


IEC 60601-2-36 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-36: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of equipment for extra-corporeally induced lithotripsy


IEC 60601-2-37 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-37: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of ultrasonic medical diagnostic and monitoring equipment


IEC 60601-2-39 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-39: Particular requirements for basic safety andessential performance of peritoneal dialysis equipment


IEC 60601-2-40 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-40: Particular requirements for the safety ofelectromyography and evoked response equipment


IEC 60601-2-41 ed2.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-41: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of surgical luminaires and luminaires for diagnosis


IEC 60601-2-43 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-43: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of X-ray equipment for interventional procedures


IEC 60601-2-44 ed3.1 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-44: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of X-ray equipment for computed tomography


IEC 60601-2-45 ed3.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-45: Particular requirements for basic safety and
essential performance of mammographic X-ray equipment and mammographic
stereotactic devices


IEC 60601-2-46 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-46: Particular requirements for basic safety andessential performance of operating tables


IEC 60601-2-47 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-47: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of ambulatory electrocardiographic systems




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IEC 60601-2-49 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-49: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of multifunction patient monitoring equipment


IEC 60601-2-50 ed2.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-50: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of infant phototherapy equipment


IEC 60601-2-52 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-52: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of medical beds


IEC 60601-2-54 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-54: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of X-ray equipment for radiography and radioscopy


IEC 60601-2-57 ed1.0
Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-57: Particular requirements for the basic safety
and essential performance of non-laser light source equipment intended for
therapeutic, diagnostic, monitoring and cosmetic/aesthetic use


IEC 60601-2-62 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-62: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of high intensity therapeutic ultrasound (HITU) equipment


IEC 60601-2-63 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-63: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of dental extra-oral X-ray equipment


IEC 60601-2-64 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-64: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of light ion beam medical electrical equipment


IEC 60601-2-65 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-65: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of dental intra-oral X-ray equipment


IEC 60601-2-66 ed1.0 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2-66: Particular requirements for the basic safetyand essential performance of hearing instruments and hearing instrument systems


IEC 60601-2-68 ed1.0


Electrical medical equipment - Part 2-68: Particular requirements for the basic safety
and essential performance of X-ray-based image-guided radiotherapy equipment for
use with electron accelerators, light ion beam therapy equipment and radionuclide
beam therapy equipment


Appendix D
Patient Environment


1


1.5 m 1.5 m


2.5 m







42


Appendix E
Example documentation template


Appendix E Example documentation template


Testing organization: Test before putting into service (reference value)
Recurrent Test


Test after repairName of testing person:
Responsible organization:


Equipment:


Type: Production No./Serial Nr.:
Manufacturer: Class of protection: I II Battery


Applied part type: 0 B BF CF
Accessories:


Visual inspection:


Functional Test (parameters tested):


Deficiency / Note:


Overall Assessment:


Name:


PIE Permanent installed equipment
NPS Non-DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORD
DPS DETACHABLE POWER SUPPLY CORD


Date/Signature:


Next recurrent test necessary in 6 / 12 / 24 / 36 months


No safety or functional deficiencies were detected
No direct risk, deficiencies detected may be corrected on short term
Equipment shall be taken out of operation until deficiencies are corrected
Equipment does not comply – Modifications / Exchange of components / Taking out of service – is recommended


Measurements: Measured value
Protective earth resistance Ω
Equipment leakage current (according to Figure.....) mA
Patient leakage current (according to Figure....) mA
Insulation resistence (according to Figure.....) MΩ


Test:
Measurement equipment:


Complies
Yes No


Mains connection: PIE NPS DPS


ID Number:


1)


1)




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i Effects of Electrical Current on Heart Rhythm, HOCHBERG, HOWARD M.1971


ii “Harm” is a defined term in ISO 14971:2000 as “physical injury or damage to the health of people
or animals, or damage to property or the Environment”


iii In IEC 60601, safe levels of current are defined as 10µA AC / DC for CF applied parts and 100µA
AC / 10µ DC for B / BF applied parts and touch current. Ground leakage limits are higher at 500µA
RMS for equipment with conductive accessible parts that may become hot under a fault condition
and 5000µA RMS for grounded devices with no conductive accessible parts. Under fault
conditions, higher values are allowed.


iv A free application note on this subject is available at; www.rigelmedical.com/rigel-downloads


v Comparing the tests of a 12 lead ECG (CF) monitor which requires 290 AC and DC leakage
readings under IEC 60601 (excluding SIP-SOP) and only 4 leakage readings in IEC 62353


vi Information gathered by Rigel Medical during over 40 international seminars on IEC 62353




Electrical Safety Analyzers


The Rigel range of battery powered electrical safety testers
offers an accurate and fast solution for meeting
international and local safety standards.


These uniquely designed testers incorporate an
uncompromised list of test features within one compact
unit, including automatic leakage, ground bond and
insulation testing to international and local standards
including IEC 62353, 60601-1 and NFPA-99.


An integrated keyboard enables detailed equipment data
to be stored on-board alongside electrical safety test
results; providing complete traceability of results.


With a choice from 2 up to 10 individual patient leakage
circuits, we have the right solution to test any medical


equipment, from beds to multi-parameter monitors in
a single test routine.


A combined high and low ground bond test current
ensures accurate resistance measurements are made
and that poor mechanical connections can be identified.


Automatic warnings of incorrect test setups help to avoid
false readings, for example when secondary ground paths
are present, providing confidence in results and enabling
improved patient safety.


Use the Rigel safety analyzers with Med-eBase software
to unlock enhanced customisation features, create
bespoke test templates and improve traceability and
management of test results.


Rigel 288+ and 62353+
Electrical Safety Analyzers


Functions available under battery power
Tests Ground bond • Insulation
Data transfer Download results Upload sequences, templates and assets
Scanning Barcode
Printing Results • Pass/Fail labels


Setting up Test sequences • Test codes • Asset trace variables – site, location etc • Bluetooth System configuration • Viewing results/data


44




Scan QR
code to find
out more


t Features 288+ 62353+
IEC 60601* leakage
IEC 62353 leakage
IEC 61010 leakage
Applied Parts
Max groundbond current
Point to point measurement
Insulation test
IEC lead test
Manual mode
Automatic mode
Custom test sequencing
Battery operation
Data storage
Data entry
Barcode scanning
PC download
Secondary ground warning
Line voltage check
Direct print facility
Weight (kg)


nn n
10


30A**nnnnnnnn
ABCDnnnnn
<1.7


n
2


30A**nnnnnnnn
ABCD


nnn
<1.7


* including all local derivitives (AAMI, NFPA, AS/NZ, VDE)
** using high current low energy method


Product Benefits:


Full compliance
Have peace of mind when it
comes to having to comply with
(international) standards and
recommendations including
IEC 62353 and leakage tests in
accordance with IEC 60601,
NFPA, AAMI and AS/NZ 3551.


Battery powered
Save valuable time by using
standard AA batteries to keep your
tester operational in between tests
when moving from one mains
socket to the next.


Automated testing
Save time and money by automating
test procedures, and be assured that
test procedures are performed in a
consistent manner.


Electronic data storage
Reduce the risk of data capture
errors or manipulation and speed-up
administration with automated
data storage.


Automatic test verification
Get the correct results first time and
avoid time-consuming re-tests with
Rigel’s unique and automated
verification of secondary ground
paths and incoming mains
configurations.


Unique ground bond technology
Rigel’s unique high current, low
energy ground bond test, gives
accurate and precise readings,
saving time and unnecessary
replacement of good mains cables.


Smallest and most compact
Reduce the burden of carrying
multiple instruments from site to site
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45




Version 1.0_2015


Rigel Medical (Seaward Group USA), 6304 Benjamin Road,
Suite 506, Tampa, Florida, 33634


Tel: (813) 886 2775 Fax: +1 (813) 886 2754
Email: sales@seaward-groupusa.com Web: rigelmedical.com


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