XRAPR

X-ray equipment
maintenance
and repairs
workbook


for
radiographers &


radiological technologists


by
Ian R McClelland


Chief technical support engineer (retired)


Diagnostic Imaging and Laboratory Technology
Essential Health Technologies


Health Technology and Pharmaceuticals
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION


Geneva




WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data


McClelland, Ian R.
X-ray equipment maintenance and repairs workbook for radiographers and
radiological technologists / Ian R. McClelland.


1.X-rays 2.Radiography 3.Technology, Radiologic 4.Maintenance—methods
5.Problems and exercises I.Title.


ISBN 92 4 159163 3 (NLM classification: WN 150)


E


© World Health Organization 2004


All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from
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Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int).
Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications—whether for sale or for
noncommercial distribution—should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax:
+41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int).


The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply
the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization
concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent
approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement.


The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that
they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of
a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of
proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters.


The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this
publication is complete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result
of its use.


The named authors alone are responsible for the views expressed in this publication.


Designed by minimum graphics, New Zealand
Typeset by SNP Best-set Typesetter Ltd., Hong Kong
Printed by Interprint, Malta




CONTENTS


iii


Contents


Introductory remarks v
Acknowledgements vi


Part I. Introduction 1


Introduction 3
Questionnaire—Student’s own department 6
Pre test 8


Part II. Routine maintenance modules 11


Module 1.0 Routine maintenance overview 13
Task 1. Maintenance survey for an X-ray room 17


Module 1.1 X-ray generator maintenance, fixed installation 19
Task 2. X-ray control familiarization. Part 1 24
Task 3. X-ray control familiarization. Part 2 26
Task 4. Test for X-ray tube overload calibration. Part 1 28
Task 5. Test for X-ray tube overload calibration. Part 2 31


Module 1.2 X-ray generator maintenance, mobile unit 32
Module 1.3 X-ray generator maintenance, C D mobile 37
Module 1.4 X-ray generator maintenance, portable unit 41
Module 2.0 X-ray tube stand maintenance 44


Task 6. X-ray tube-stand maintenance 47
Module 2.1 X-ray tube maintenance 48
Module 2.2 Collimator maintenance 50


Task 7. X-ray tube and collimator maintenance 52
Module 3.0 Bucky table & vertical Bucky maintenance 53
Module 3.1 Tomography attachment maintenance 55
Module 4.0 Fluoroscopy table maintenance 57
Module 4.1 Fluoroscopy TV maintenance 60


Part III. Fault diagnosis and repair modules 63


Module 5.0 Common procedures, for fault diagnosis and repairs 65
Task 8. Fuse identification 70


Module 6.0 X-ray generator repairs, fixed installation 71
Task 9. No Preparation, Part 1 86
Task 10. No Preparation. Part 2 87
Task 11. No Exposure 88
Task 12. X-ray output linearity 89


Module 6.1 Mobile or portable-generator repairs 90
Module 6.2 C D mobile repairs 94
Module 7.0 X-ray tube stand repairs 99


Task 13. Bucky tabletop and tube-stand centre 103




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


iv


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Module 7.1 X-ray tube repairs 104
Module 7.2 Collimator repairs 110


Task 14. Help! No spare globe for the collimator 116
Module 7.3 High-tension cable repairs 117
Module 8.0 Bucky and Bucky table repairs 121


Task 15. A film exhibits grid lines 126
Module 8.1 Tomography attachment repairs 127
Module 9.0 Fluoroscopy table repairs 130
Module 9.1 Fluoroscopy TV repairs 135
Module 10.0 Automatic exposure control, operation and problems 140


Part IV. Automatic film processor 145


Module 11.0 Automatic film processor, routine maintenance 147
Module 11.1 Automatic film processor repairs 151


Task 16. Films appear too dark 156
Task 17. Films exhibit symptoms of low fixer 157


Module 11.2 The Film ID printer 158


Part V. Appendices 161


Appendix A. Sensitometry 163
Appendix B. Recommended tools and test equipment 169
Appendix C. Graphs, check sheets and record sheets 177
Appendix D. Routine maintenance check sheets 186
Appendix E. X-ray equipment operation 205
Appendix F. Teaching techniques 248
Appendix G. Health and safety 253


257


Post test 259
Glossary 262


Part VI. Post test and glossary




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


v


Introductory remarks


This document, which is developed by the International Society of Radiographers and Radiological Technologists
(ISRRT) under the umbrella of the WHO Global Steering Group for Education and Training in Diagnostic Imaging,
is the second in a series targeting technical aspects, including quality control of diagnostic imaging services. The
document is primarily aiming at assisting radiographers and radiological technologists working in small and mid-
size hospitals where resources often are limited, to optimize and improve diagnostic imaging, and to ensure the
best possible use of resources according to local needs.


The document can be obtained by contacting the following address:


Team of Diagnostic Imaging and Laboratory Technology (DIL)
World Health Organization
20, Avenue Appia
CH-1211 Geneva 27
Switzerland


Fax: +41 22 7914836
e-mail: ingolfsdottirg@who.int


Harald Ostensen, MD
Geneva, July 2004




Acknowledgements


For their considerable input and assistance in producing this workbook, special thanks are due to:


Peter J Lloyd, Peter Hayward, Brett Richards, Sue Salthouse, Peter K Mutua, M Jean Harvey, Leonie Munro,
Martin K West, Jiro Takashima, and to Graham English.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


vi


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PART I
Introduction




E




Introduction


accepts that responsibility and ensures that the
programme happens effectively.


This workbook will be used by radiographers and
radiological technologists as well as other medical
and technical staff members involved in diagnostic
imaging, to:


● achieve a good working knowledge of equipment
maintenance routines;


● adopt a logical and practical approach to diagnos-
ing equipment problems;


● on returning to their respective areas after com-
pleted training, teach other members of their staff
to carry out the routines or techniques that they
have learned;


● assist in establishing, or implementing, a suitable
routine maintenance programme;


● be encouraged to directly carry out adjustments
or minor repairs, or provide suitable assistance to
other staff as needed;


● provide accurate reporting of problems to seniors
or service engineers;


● assist in establishing criteria for equipment replace-
ment, where it is not cost effective to continue
maintenance.


Expected benefits


It is expected that after going through the training
and experiences discussed in this workbook, the
knowledge and skills will be put into practise. If so:


● Heads of departments will find that the standard
of radiography will be maintained at the highest
level.


● There will be fewer equipment failures.This reduces
costs.


● Where a failure does occur, local hospital staff may
be able to repair without an expensive service call.


● When an external service call is required, the service
technician can arrive fully informed to deal with the
situation, together with appropriate equipment or
parts. This will reduce the possibility, and expense,
of repeated visits.


PART I. INTRODUCTION


3


It is preferred to call this a workbook rather than a
manual or textbook, because the intent is to, not only
give technical information, but to set practical exer-
cises that students can work through, responding to
specific questions. Above all, the students should feel
that they have actually carried out the tasks them-
selves and will be more confident to teach others and
ensure that these exercises continue to be carried out
in their respective areas.


The topic of this workbook is routine maintenance
and repairs. The material is designed to assist in the
maintenance of equipment, and provide guidelines for
locating equipment problems. In many cases this
will allow local correction of fault situations. Where
external assistance is required, good communication
of the diagnosed problem will assist in reducing delay,
or multiple service calls.


Routine maintenance
The overall maintenance programme;put in place
to ensure that a comprehensive range of mainte-
nance procedures are systematically carried out.


Fault diagnosis and repairs
The means by which the cause of incorrect equip-
ment operation may be located. This includes
adjustment where required, and simple repairs.


A Routine Maintenance Programme should be com-
prehensive, looking at all aspects of the work involved
in ensuring equipment is properly maintained, and
capable of producing accurate results. Such a pro-
gramme can be cost effective, and contribute to
minimum failure of equipment. By encouraging local
staff to be actively involved in maintenance or minor
repairs, delays and expensive service calls may be con-
siderably reduced.


The ultimate responsibility for setting up, running,
evaluating and taking remedial action lies with the
head of department, although appropriate delegation
may be necessary. It is important that someone




● Where work is carried out by an external service
organization, the maintenance inspection will ensure
this has been carried out fully and effectively.


● Work environments will be improved. Tasks will
become easier.


● Repeat films will be kept to a minimum. Staff job
satisfaction will increase.


● Patients will receive less radiation and less
inconvenience.


● A record and audit trail will exist as proof of high
standards.


Achieve some of these, and this workbook has been
worthwhile!


What this workbook aims to achieve


● Provide the knowledge and skills required for main-
tenance of imaging equipment.


● Increase awareness, interest and understanding of
maintenance issues.


● Enable radiographers to establish and continue to
carry out an effective preventive maintenance
programme.


● Provide the knowledge tools to assist in diagnosing
equipment problems.


● Provide the knowledge and encouragement to carry
out adjustments and minor repairs.


● Raise equipment performance standards.
● Reduce maintenance and service costs.
● Reduce the possibility of equipment malfunction


causing injury.
● Improve job satisfaction through correctly func-


tioning equipment.


Summary of the content of
this workbook


● Background information.
● A questionnaire seeking information about each


student, and their own department.
● A pre test of student’s knowledge.
● 13 modules related to routine maintenance of X-ray


equipment.
● 14 modules concerned with fault diagnosis and


repairs.
● A separate module, concentrating on the film


processor.
● A revision of X-ray equipment design and operation.
● 17 tasks the student must perform.
● A list of suitable tools and test equipment, and how


to make simple test tools.
● Useful charts and forms.


● Copies of routine maintenance check sheets.
● Advice on teaching methods.
● Health and safety issues.
● A post test of student’s knowledge.
● Glossary of terms.
● Reference list.


How to use this workbook


The entire workbook can be used for self-study or
self-assessment, ideally as working material during a
work shop or a seminar with individual tutors for the
students. In either case, however, the book should
be approached as indicated below.


The section headed STUDENT’S OWN DEPART-
MENT, should be completed by the student before
commencement of the study or course. This takes the
form of a questionnaire which, when completed should
give the tutor a background knowledge of the student
and their work environment. This background infor-
mation will allow the tutor to apply the correct empha-
sis when providing and supervising the training.


The student must complete a PRE TEST prior to
starting the course. This is an assessment of the
student’s relevant knowledge before the course. This
will be compared to the results of a similar POST TEST
completed by the student after completion of the
course. These tests are for student information and
course evaluation only and are not used in student
assessment.


The section on TEACHING TECHNIQUES first gives
a broad overview of teaching methods.This is followed
by the recommended approach to teaching with this
workbook. Both tutor and student should read this
section. This is a reprint from the WHO ‘Quality assur-
ance workbook’ and is included here for convenience.


The section on HEALTH AND SAFETY draws atten-
tion to all the health and safety issues appropriate
to an X-ray department and how to make the work
environment a safe and healthy one. This is an extract
from the WHO ‘Quality assurance workbook’, edited for
use with this workbook.


The workbook is divided into modules


● The modules are in three groups.
a. Routine maintenance of X-ray equipment.
b. Fault diagnosis and repairs of X-ray equipment.
c. The automatic film processor, routine mainte-


nance, fault diagnosis and repairs.
● The student should work through one module at a


time, studying the technical information and testing
methods.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


4


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● Note. Although the modules are designed as indi-
vidual projects, due to the complexity of this work-
book, it will be necessary at times to refer to other
modules. Where this is required, a note is inserted
pointing to the first page of the reference module.


● At the end of each module, tasks have been set.The
student must carry out each task and answer
the questions asked, and the teacher/tutor where
available, will comment or correct these.


The APPENDICES contain information on making
simple test tools, report forms, record sheets, and
test result sheets for use in the student’s own depart-
ment. The APPENDICES also contain information
from the WHO ‘Quality assurance workbook’. This
includes sensitometry, teaching techniques, and health
and safety. The GLOSSARY contains a list of terms
found in the text, with meanings. The REFERENCES
provide a source of further reading.


When used in the scope of a work shop or seminar,
The POST TEST must be answered, on completion of
the course. The workbook is then handed to the tutor
for final assessment.


The student is encouraged to:


● complete all pre reading, discuss the material with
colleagues and fill in the questionnaire,‘STUDENT’S
OWN DEPARTMENT’, before starting the course;


● carry out the PRETEST immediately before starting
the course;


● carry out the POST TEST immediately upon com-
pletion of the course/self-study.


In daily routine work the workbook and newly gained
knowledge and expertise should be used to establish
a routine maintenance programme, and train col-
leagues under the direction of their department
manager.


PART I. INTRODUCTION


5




Questionnaire
Student’s own department


In order for this course to meet your needs, your tutor must know something about yourself, and the department
in which you work. Please answer the following questions in the spaces provided, before you commence the course.


1. Hospital name and address.


2. Your name and address.


3. Your education qualifications. Please include details of any additional training.


4. How many X-ray examination rooms are there?


5. How many mobile or portable X-ray generators are there?


6. Tell us what X-ray equipment you have. Eg, general-purpose table with Bucky etc. Please include the type, make
and model number.


Room 1


Room 2


Room 3


Mobile or portable units


4. How many darkrooms are there?


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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5. State the type of film processor in each darkroom. e.g. type, make, model, processing cycle.


Darkroom 1


Darkroom 2


6. How many staff act as radiographers? Qualified radiographers? Others?


7. How many darkroom technicians are there?


8. Does your hospital have access to an electronics service technician?


9. Does your hospital have an electrician? With electronics knowledge?


10. Do you already run any form of preventive maintenance programme.Yes/No


11. If ‘Yes’, state here what you do, including details of any external assistance.


13. Is all the X-ray / processor equipment operating at a satisfactory level? If not, describe areas requir-
ing attention. Include equipment waiting parts or further service.


14. Including all equipment, what is the total number of days ‘out of action’ for last year?


15. What was the average time ‘out of action’? And the maximum time?


16. List any test equipment or quality control test tools you have.


17. If you have any issues relating to maintenance, or fault diagnosis / repairs, please state them here.


PART I. INTRODUCTION


7




Pre test


3. What is meant by the term ‘trouble shooting’?
a) A method to diagnose a problem.
b) How to deal with under performing staff.
c) The X-ray generator fails to expose.


4. To check if the light field and the X-ray field of a
collimator are correctly aligned:
a) Look into the collimator mirror.
b) Place metal markers on the face of a loaded


cassette to indicate the light field and make an
exposure.


c) Adjust the collimator knob to the film size as
indicated on the collimator.


5. An aluminium disc is often inserted between the
collimator and the X-ray tube. The purpose of this
disc is to:
a) Adjust the spacing between the collimator and


the X-ray tube.
b) Prevent light from the tube filament shining


through the collimator.
c) Filter low energy X-ray photons.


6. An ‘mAs’ control is used in:
a) An automatic exposure control.
b) Single knob adjustment of time and mA.
c) Automatic regulation of mA as kV is adjusted.


7. The term ‘space charge’ relates to:
a) High-energy cosmic radiation, causing film


fog.
b) A ‘cloud’ of electrons around a heated filament.
c) The rental fee for a private X-ray practice.


8. A ‘relay’ is:
a) A competitive sports event.
b) A replacement of floor covering.
c) An electromagnetic switch.


9. An ‘interlock’ is:
a) A safety device to prevent incorrect operation.
b) The door locks for entry to the X-ray room.
c) A device to prevent tampering.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


8


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The student must complete this test before starting
the course. The intention is to test your knowledge on
the topics covered by this workbook before the course,
or before starting studying the work book.


Name and address


Hospital name and address


Instructions


This is a multiple-choice test. In each question you are
given three possible answers.


Read each question carefully.
Indicate the answer that you feel is the most accu-


rate by placing an ‘X’ in front of the letter preceding it.


Example:
A personal radiation monitor (TLD) should be worn


a) Outside a lead rubber apron.
X b) Under a lead rubber apron.


c) There is no need to use one when wearing a lead
rubber apron.


Answer: b)


All questions must be answered


1. What is meant by the term ‘preventive maintenance’?
a) Maintenance must be carried out by tradesmen


only.
b) Maintenance is not required.
c) Maintenance to reduce equipment failure.


2. What is meant by the term ‘quality assurance’?
a) The equipment is covered by a maintenance policy.
b) A repair is guaranteed for three months.
c) A system that attempts to maintain a high


standard of work in all areas.




10. A ‘spinning top’ is used to:
a) Check kV accuracy.
b) Check exposure time accuracy.
c) Check mA accuracy.


11. A ‘stepwedge’ is used to:
a) Calibrate the height of the tomograph fulcrum.
b) Make comparative measurements of radiation


output.
c) Assist in patient positioning.


12. Before attempting to replace a fuse, you should:
a) Check the fuse rating.
b) Inform the chief radiographer.
c) Ensure the main power isolation switch is


turned off.


13. When making an exposure via a Bucky:
a) The grid should move immediately X-rays are


produced.
b) The grid should commence movement when


the exposure button is pressed, and exposure
occurs after the grid is in position.


c) The Bucky should commence operation as soon
as the preparation button is pressed.


14. The first aid treatment for a processing chemical
splash in the eye is:
a) Blink continuously for at least 30 seconds.
b) Wash the eye thoroughly with water.
c) Wipe the eye with a tissue.


15. Developer temperature should be checked:
a) Only if the film densities appear different.
b) Daily.
c) Once a week.


16. Replenishment rates in automatic processors are
checked by:
a) Referring to the operator’s manual.
b) Measure the relative decrease of level in the


replenishment supply tank.
c) Diverting the replenishment pump output into


a graduated flask.


17. Automatic processing temperature should be:
a) 20°C
b) 25°C
c) 35°C


18. A sensitometer:
a) Is used to measure sensitivity of film to light.
b) Is used for printing a test strip onto film for


film processor monitoring.
c) Checks the developer concentration in the


processor.


19. If the focal length of the grid fitted to a wall Bucky
is too short for the required distance:
a) The film will be dark in the centre, and light at


the sides.
b) The film will be light in the centre, and dark at


the sides.
c) Grid lines will appear.


20. Before using a multimeter to test continuity, you
should:
a) Touch the test leads together to ensure the


meter reads ‘Zero ohms’.
b) Fit a new battery to the meter.
c) Ensure the power isolation switch for the X-ray


room is turned off.


21. During preparation for an exposure, which item
should not occur?
a) X-ray tube anode rotation.
b) Adjustment of kV output.
c) X-ray tube filament heating.


22. The maximum possible anode rotation speed for a
low-speed tube operating at 50Hz is:
a) 2500 RPM
b) 3000 RPM
c) 5000 RPM


23. A high-speed tube has a ‘brake’ cycle at the end
of an exposure. This is to:
a) Reduce unnecessary noise in the X-ray room.
b) Increase bearing life.
c) Prevent damage caused by ‘resonant periods’


as the anode slows down.


24. The woven metal sheath of the high-tension cable
is to:
a) Shield against the possibility of transmitting


electronic interference into other equipment
during an exposure, especially with a high-
frequency generator.


b) Increase the resistance to wear, and act as a
deterrent to rat damage.


c) In case there is a fault in the cable insulation,
the metal sheath provides a safe electrical con-
duction to ground.


PART I. INTRODUCTION


9




25. When exposing a large format film, a reduction in
film density to one side of the film is noticed. This
is probably due to:
a) The dwell time of the processor is incorrect.
b) Heel-effect of the X-ray tube.
c) Poor film screen contact.


26. All exposures suddenly show an increase in film
density. The most possible cause is:
a) An increase in developer temperature.
b) The generator kV calibration is incorrect.
c) The processor fixer has become diluted.


27. You have a choice of three X-ray tubes as a
replacement. They are identical except for the
anode angle. Which tube will have the highest
output?
a) 7 degrees
b) 12 degrees
c) 16 degrees


28. Again, considering the same X-ray tube, which will
give the best film coverage?
a) 7 degrees
b) 12 degrees
c) 16 degrees


29. A capacitor discharge mobile has:
a) A non-linear X-ray output.
b) A similar output to a single-phase generator.
c) Long exposure times.


30. A spinning top test is made of a single-phase self-
rectified (Half wave) portable generator operating
on 50Hz. Twenty dots appear on the film, indicat-
ing an exposure time of:
a) 0.02 seconds
b) 0.2 seconds
c) 0.4 seconds


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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PART II
Routine


maintenance
modules






MODULE 1.0


Routine maintenance overview


a. What is ‘routine maintenance’?


Routine maintenance is a procedure to ensure equip-
ment is kept in good condition, and provide a long
operating life. Routine maintenance may also discover
potential problems, which could cause equipment
failure. Potential problems can then be corrected, with
a minimum of down time.‘Quality control’ procedures,
to ensure correct operation and calibration, are also a
part of routine maintenance.


Carrying out routine maintenance produces good
knowledge of the equipment, and in case of a problem,
this knowledge will help to locate the cause. Where
there is a more serious problem, accurate reporting
for assistance will allow faster and more economic
response. For example, the service engineer can then
arrive with suitable parts and test equipment.


A major part of routine maintenance is just inspec-
tion of equipment.This should be done as if seeing the
equipment for the first time. At the same time, make
note of less understood operation areas, and refer to
the operation manual for explanation.


This is also an opportunity to correct any ‘legacy’
problems. As an example of a legacy problem, a gen-
erator might have a notice,‘Do not use fine focus’.This
notice may have been there for some time. And, due
to staff movements, the reason is not known. As part
of maintenance, this long accepted problem should be
investigated. It could be an X-ray tube that has a failed
fine focus. (Then the tube should be replaced) But
more often, this might have been due to some other
problem, or even operator error. So, although a note
was attached, no action was taken to correct the
problem, or to investigate further. Sometimes a part
is required, but the service provider has forgotten to
come back with this part. In which case routine
maintenance inspection ensures that:


● The nature of the problem is properly investigated
and documented.


● If needed, a ‘follow up’ reminder is sent to the
service provider.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


13


Aim


The aim is to provide an overview of routine mainte-
nance requirements. This includes requirements to
commence, or carry out, a routine maintenance
programme.


Objectives


On completion of the routine maintenance modules,
the student will have developed knowledge and skills
to apply a practical maintenance programme for X-
ray equipment. This includes keeping proper records
of tests, and ensuring all documents and required
manuals are available.


Task-1 ‘Maintenance survey for an X-ray room’ should
be performed on completion of this module.


Contents


a. What is ‘routine maintenance’?
b. Who should carry out routine maintenance?
c. Objections to routine maintenance
d. How often should maintenance be carried out?
e. Typical objectives of routine maintenance
f. Familiarization of equipment
g. Routine maintenance programme
h. Keeping a logbook
i. Routine maintenance modules




b. Who should carry out routine maintenance?


This depends on the size of the department, and avail-
able staff. In a district hospital, which has just one
radiographer, then perhaps that radiographer is ‘it’.
However, external assistance should be made available
if required, for example, assistance provided by an
electrician.


When the department has a number of staff,
one member should be selected as maintenance co-
ordinator. Other staff members may be allocated
specific areas or items of equipment to be checked.
Where possible, these duties should be rotated. This
allows all staff to become familiar with the equipment.


In some hospitals, an electronics technician may
be available. But, as the technician does not use the
equipment, problems may go undiscovered. For this
reason a staff member needs to assist the electronics
technician, during maintenance or repairs.


c. Objections to routine maintenance


Existing staff may regard routine maintenance as
an unwanted extra duty. This list provides answers for
possible objections.


● This is boring.
Yes, it can be. But even more boring, or frustrating,
is using equipment that does not function correctly.


● This is not my responsibility.
Even when a specific member of staff does carry
out a comprehensive maintenance programme, your
own input will be appreciated.This can be as simple
as reporting a problem area, to taking direct action.
For example, tighten that loose screw on a Bucky
tray handle, before the handle falls off.


● The department is kept very busy. There is no spare
time.
And to make matters worse, you have to use equip-
ment that does not operate correctly. A mainte-
nance programme does not have to take the room
out of action. Instead, just one section at a time
can be checked.This may take only ten minutes for
each section.After the reported problem areas have
been fixed, the room will become more efficient.


● The hospital has a paid routine maintenance con-
tract with an X-ray service company. This is carried
out every six months.
You are lucky. However you still need to carry out
an inspection to ensure the service is completed as
required. A service technician may find a problem,
which requires immediate attention. This reduces
the time available for the remainder of the mainte-
nance.As a result, some areas are not checked.Your


own inspection, together with suitable record
keeping, will help ensure contract service is carried
out correctly.


d. How often should maintenance be
carried out?


● Equipment in heavy use, for example a mobile
travelling to different parts of the hospital, should
be checked every four months.


● Other equipment, such as a Bucky or Fluoroscopy
room, every six months.


● However, in many respects, maintenance in the form
of observation is a continuous process. If a minor
problem occurs, always enter this in the logbook, so
it will receive attention during the next opportunity.


e.Typical objectives of routine maintenance


● A complete operation and function inspection, list
any incorrect operation or area requiring further
attention.


● By means of prepared checklists, ensure all required
areas are covered. The results are to be retained in
a suitable folder. Any problems or areas requiring
further attention are entered in the logbook.


● When a problem is located, if this is minor, correct
the problem immediately. In case of a larger
problem, still attempt to complete the rest of the
routine maintenance, while waiting to have the
specific problem corrected.


● In case of a specific problem outside local resource
to immediately correct, and then request an elec-
trician, or the service department, for assistance.
If such a problem is found, be sure to file a report
and enter specific details in the logbook.


● Inspection of all electrical plugs, cables, and other
electrical connections.


● A full mechanical inspection, adjustment and
lubrication as required.


● Tests for calibration of equipment.This may also be
part of a quality control programme.


● Cleaning of equipment. Remove pieces of sticky
tape, old sticking plaster marks etc.


f. Familiarization of equipment


With much equipment there is often a legacy of mis-
understanding. As a result many functions may be
ignored or incorrectly interpreted.


Common reasons are:


● The operation manual has been lost. Or is only
referred to as a last resort.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


14




● Replacement staff may be incorrectly instructed in
the use of the equipment. This legacy tends to be
passed on.


● A pre-existing fault is accepted as part of the
normal operation of the equipment, and possible
correction is ignored.


● The equipment was modified to interface with a non
standard system. As a result, some controls are dif-
ferent to those described in the operation manual.


● Where there are any specific limitations or precau-
tions, these should be listed in the logbook. This
will assist any replacement staff. This information
should also be shown to the service technician


During routine maintenance, you should attempt to be
familiar with all operation modes of your equipment.
This includes.


● Indicator lights. When do they light up? What do
they mean?


● Audible signals. When do they occur? What is the
reason?


● During preparation, or an exposure, do you hear a
contactor or relay operating?


● What is the normal sound produced by the X-ray
tube anode, during preparation?


● What sound does the Bucky make during an
exposure?


● Meters or indicators can display different readings
depending on the generator operation. For example,
a meter might first display a percentage of X-ray
tube load, then display the mAs obtained after an
exposure.


g. Routine maintenance programme


To commence a routine maintenance programme, the
following is suggested.


● Where a quality control programme is to be
established, ensure that all required procedures for
routine maintenance are properly documented.


● Make a list of replacement parts or materials that
may be required.


● Suitable tools. A list of suggested tools is provided
in appendix ‘B’ page 169.


● Test tools. Simple test tools that may be con-
structed are also described in appendix ‘B’ page
169.


● Be familiar with all operation modes of the equip-
ment to be maintained.(Study the operation manual).


● Allocation of a specified time period to carry out
maintenance. This will depend on the patient
workload, and will need to be flexible.


● Record keeping.
i. A separate logbook should be kept for each


room of equipment. In the case of mobile or
portable equipment, an individual logbook
should be kept for each unit.This may be in the
form of a loose-leaf binder, and allow insertion
of checklists as maintenance is carried out.


ii. A sample logbook page is provided in appendix
‘C’ page 177.


iii. Proper identification of all equipment is
required. This includes make, model and serial
number, date of installation, and any special
features, such as a high-speed starter option
or AEC. This information should be entered into
the logbook.


iv. An individual checklist for each item of equip-
ment helps ensure all-important areas are
covered. External contractors may also use
these lists to assist correct service. Completed
checklists, together with service job sheets,
should be kept in a master file, or logbook, for
each X-ray room. This provides quick reference
for future service, or else a previous problem.


v. Sample checklists are provided in appendix ‘D’
page 186.


vi. If an additional repair or service is required,
mark this for attention in the logbook. Other-
wise, if there is a long delay, the repair or service
might be forgotten.


● Equipment manuals.
Manuals need to be kept in a safe designated area.
If manuals are lost or stolen, then every effort
should be made to obtain a replacement. Manual
title and publication numbers should be recorded
in the logbook. Depending on the manufacturer,
manuals may be presented in many different
formats. Some may be in separate folders, while
other manufacturers may combine all in the one
folder. Typical manuals, which should be available,
are listed below.
i. Operation.
ii. Specification.
iii. Parts list.
iv. Installation, including calibration procedures.
v. Data sheets for the X-ray tube.
vi. Service. (*)
vii. Circuits or connection diagrams.
viii. Technical explanation of operation. (*)
ix. (*) Indicates these manuals might be restricted


to a service department, or available only on
request.


● In some countries, the equipment supplier is
required to supply two complete sets of all manuals


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


15




originally supplied with the equipment. One set is
kept in the X-ray department, and the other
retained by the government purchase authority.This
provides a backup copy in case of lost or damaged
manuals.


● As some information in the manuals can be confi-
dential, manuals need to be kept in a safe place,
and restricted to authorized use only.


h. Keeping a logbook


● The logbook may be of any convenient construction.
● The logbook should not confine entries to a single


line. Leave space to provide full details.
● If additional columns are required, the logbook may


also cover the opposite page.
● The logbook need not be hard bound, but instead


be a collection of report sheets kept in an ‘insert’
folder. This can include the checklists, produced
after routine maintenance. Coloured dividers can
separate each section.


● A single logbook can contain all the required infor-
mation for an X-ray room. A separate logbook
should be kept for a mobile generator, or a portable
system.


● The front page of the logbook should include all
details of the equipment, (Make, model, serial No.
etc.)


● The logbook should also contain a list of all equip-
ment manuals. This should include any reference


numbers, to facilitate re-ordering of lost or
damaged manuals.


i. Routine maintenance modules


The modules are for routine maintenance of equip-
ment. Due to the diversity of equipment that may be
in use, from very old to the latest technology, not all
of the suggestions will apply to your system.


The maintenance modules are designed as
individual units, however some cross-reference is
required. The reference module name, and title-page
number, is indicated in the text as required.


A sample routine maintenance checklist for each
module is provided in appendix ‘D’ page 186.


The equipment covered in the maintenance
modules includes the following.


● X-ray generator, fixed installation.
● X-ray generator, mobile unit.
● X-ray generator, capacitor discharge.
● X-ray generator, portable system.
● X-ray tube stand.
● X-ray tube.
● Collimator.
● The Bucky table and vertical Bucky.
● Tomography attachment.
● Fluoroscopy table.
● Fluoroscopy TV systems.
● Automatic film processor.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


16


Fig 1–1. A typical logbook page


Data Requirement Response Performedly Reference No


24-12-02 Routine maintenance Carried out by staff John Bell Report no 75
of tube stand


2-2-03 Tube stand has failed Request attention by X-ray service Job No X2203
bearing X-ray service ltd


4/2/03 Collimator lamps Ordered 3 from Osram Jean Wells Order No 45963
required supplies


10-4-03 No exposure See service request John bell Order No 45964
form. Unit out of action
waiting handswitch


14/4/03 New handswitch Fitted new handswitch John Bell Report No 76




TASK 1


Maintenance survey for
an X-ray room


You are required to make a basic maintenance survey of a general purpose Bucky room. This may be a room in a
different hospital, OR, it may be a room with which you are fully familiar.


The hospital administration has offered to have all defects rectified, but first requires a quick report; a more
detailed report can be supplied later.


When making this survey, look for minor defects as well as those affecting performance.


X-ray control:


Tube stand:


X-ray tube and collimator:


Bucky table and Bucky:


Wall Bucky:


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


17




Condition of the room and accessories: Suggestions to make this an efficient environment, and aid patient
management.


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


18




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


19


MODULE 1.1


X-ray generator, fixed installation


a. Safety precautions


Before removing any covers, ensure the genera-
tor is switched off, and the room power-isolation
switch is also turned off.


b.Visual inspection of the control desk,
power off


● Check all knobs and switches. Where knobs have
a pointer attached, check that the pointer aligns
correctly at all positions of the indicated scale. Tip.
Check the pointer at full clockwise and counter
clockwise positions of the knob. Look for possible
loose knobs, or for push button switches that might
tend to stick.


● If controls have had extra labels attached, are
these labels still required? If so, are they in good
condition?


● Older X-ray controls often have analogue meters
instead of digital displays.
i. With power switched off, the meter needle


should be pointing at the ‘zero’ calibration mark.
ii. Most meters have a small adjustment screw for


zero calibration. If adjusting, first tap gently in
case the meter tends to ‘stick’.


iii. Caution. Contact the service department before
adjusting. In some cases, the meter may be
deliberately adjusted ‘off zero’, as an incorrect
method of calibration.


c. Operational inspection of the control desk,
power on


● Check all indicator lamps. If necessary, operate dif-
ferent selection techniques to ensure all indicators
operate correctly. In particular, pay attention to the
following. (Depending on make or model, some of
these indicators may not be available).
i. Small focus / broad focus selection indication.


On some controls, the mA selection switches


Aim


The aim is to provide information and procedures for
routine maintenance of an X-ray generator, installed as
a fixed installation in an X-ray department. Mainte-
nance for the X-ray tube is provided in module 2.1
page 48. Instructions for generator repairs are pro-
vided in module 6.0 page 71.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for the X-ray
generator. These procedures can also be used as a
version of quality control, together with the routine
maintenance check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5 should be attempted on comple-
tion of this module.


Contents


a. Safety precautions
b. Visual inspection of the control panel, power off
c. Operation inspection of the control panel, power on
d. X-ray tube overload protection
e. mA calibration
f. Radiation reproducibility
g. X-ray output linearity


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Stepwedge.*
■ 24/30 cm Cassette.
■ Two pieces of lead rubber.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cleaning solvent.
■ Cloth.


* The stepwedge is described in appendix ‘B’ page
169.




control selection of the focal spot. Other con-
trols can have a separate focal spot selection
switch.


ii. X-ray tube number, or position. This should be
linked to technique selection. Some controls
may also indicate the actual fine and broad
focus size.


iii. X-ray tube overload protection. Select high pre-
exposure factors, and check operation of the
overload light. (On some controls with a micro-
processor, the system might not allow selection
of excessive output.)


iv. Automatic Exposure Control (AEC), or Photo-
timer. When this option is fitted, check that all
chamber and station selection indicators
operate correctly.


v. Note. On older systems, it may be possible to
select an AEC chamber or station combination
that is not available. In that case ensure a
notice is fitted, to warn against incorrect
operation.


vi. Illumination of kV, mA, and time selection.
Where a digital readout of selected values is
provided, select a number of different values to
ensure there are no display errors, or missing
segments of the display.


● Older controls may have manual adjustment of
power line voltage, with a meter to indicate correct
compensation. Check the range of adjustment. It
should be possible to reset the voltage by 10%,
above, or below, the required voltage.


d. X-ray tube overload protection


Note. Reference to X-ray tube rating charts is required
for this section.


Tip. You may select specific values from the chart,
and record them separately on a check sheet.This will
save time in the future.


● Maximum radiographic kV.
i. Select a short exposure time, and a low mA


station. Increase kV setting till the exposure-
prevention, or inhibit, light operates.


ii. The maximum available kV should not exceed
the specified kV for the particular X-ray tube.


iii. In some cases, the available kV limit may be
10% less than the possible maximum. For
example, a 150kVp tube may be limited to
140kVp. This is a safety precaution, as 150kV
is the maximum limit only when the tube is in
excellent condition.


● Minimum radiographic kV. This will often be set at
40kV, depending on individual country regulations.
Variations will exist where an interlock at the colli-
mator is provided for different filters.
i. Select a low mA station and a short exposure


time. Adjust kV towards the minimum available
value. An exposure inhibit should occur if kV is
too low.


ii. Repeat this test for systems that have a remov-
able filter in the collimator. In this case, with
the filter removed, an exposure inhibit should
occur as kV is increased. (Depending on the
system, this may be above 60kV.)


iii. Note. Although the collimator will have the
required minimum filtration for full operation,
an additional filter, typically 0.5mm, may be
inserted.This is an option, and does not require
an interlock.


iv. On older generators, especially those with ‘stud’,
or switch selection, and pre-reading kV meters,
it may be possible to set kV below the safety
requirement. Where this can occur, provide a
warning notice, and contact the service provider
in case an upgrade is available.


● Minimum kV for filament over-heat protection.
Refer to the rating charts, to see if a particular
combination of high mA and low kV should be
avoided. This is to avoid overheating the filament
during preparation.
i. Select the maximum available mA station and


a short exposure time. Reduce kV towards the
minimum kV available. Either the kV will not be
permitted to extend below the minimum spec-
ified value, or else should cause an exposure
inhibit to operate.


ii. As an example, the minimum kV with 500mA
selected may be 55kV, while if 400mA is
selected, the minimum kV might extend down
to 45kV.


iii. Repeat for both focal spots.
iv. Note. This protection may not be available on


older X-ray controls. If a combination of high
mA and low kV is possible, provide a warning
notice. In some cases, an upgrade may be avail-
able from your service provider. In other cases,
a re-allocation of available mA stations may be
available.


● Anode maximum heat load. This is the maximum
instantaneous heat input to the anode.
Note. The X-ray tube rating charts assume a cold
anode. For this reason, some X-ray controls de-rate
the maximum output. This allows for anode heat
produced by previous exposures.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


20




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


21


For example, on over-table operation, output may
be limited to 95% of maximum, while with a fluo-
roscopy table, this limit be reduced to around
70~80% of maximum output.
i. Select the appropriate anode-rating chart for


the X-ray tube in use.
The anode speed is normally controlled by the
power frequency.
Take care to select between 50 or 60hz for low-
speed operation, or between 150 or 180hz for
high-speed operation.


ii. In addition to anode speed, select either single
or three phase operation,depending on the type
of generator.


iii. If you have a high frequency generator, select
the three-phase chart. This will still apply if the
generator is supplied by single-phase mains
power.


iv. Note. The rating charts provide a family of
curves. It is not required to use the same mA
or kV for testing. For example, 0.1 sec’, 125kV
& 360mA is the same as 90kV & 500mA.


v. On the rating charts, select suitable time
periods. (For example. 0.02, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 5.0
seconds). At these time selections, determine a
suitable mA station, and the maximum kV that
can be used with that mA selection. Adjust the
kV towards this maximum value. The exposure
inhibit should occur before this value is
reached. Repeat this test for each of the
preselected time settings.


vi. Repeat this test for each mA station; together
with both fine and broad focus spot selection.


vii. Some X-ray controls may have provision for
both high and low speed operation. In these
cases, the maximum load available for low
speed operation, should not exceed 85~90% of
the value indicated in the low speed chart.


● Note. Many microprocessor-controlled systems
have the rating charts pre-installed in computer
memory. On selection of the manufacturers X-ray
tube, a code for that tube is entered into the com-
puter. If the manufacturer of the X-ray control does
not supply the X-ray tube, a good match of a rating
chart may not be possible. In this situation, contact
the service department for advice.


e. mA calibration


(For this test, the X-ray control is required to display
the actual mA, or mAs, resulting from an exposure.The
control may have either an mAs meter, or a quick
acting mA meter).


Microprocessor controlled systems have an internal
switch, which is set to ‘calibration mode’. This should
only be adjusted on direct advice from the service
department.


When the X-ray control has an mAs meter:
i. mAs meters may be of two types. Type one is


‘ballistic’. With this version, watch for the
maximum reading on exposure, before the
needle returns to zero.


ii. The other version is a true integrating mAs
meter. This type will hold the reading for a
period of time, often while the preparation
button is kept pressed at the end of exposure.
With this type of meter, ignore the peak needle
deflection, and only record the steady reading.


iii. mAs meters may be dual function. In some
controls, the meter will first indicate the % of
anode load, and on preparation change over to
the mAs function. Another type first indicates
the preselected mAs, and on exposure indicates
the actual mAs. Actual mAs remains displayed
until preparation is released.


iv. When choosing an exposure time, avoid uneven
times like 0.01, 0.03, etc. This avoids timer
problems that can exist on older units. Select
an exposure time of 0.1 second for easy
calculation.


v. Test mAs output using two kV positions. Values
suggested are 60kV and 90kV.Repeat this test
for all mA stations and focal spots.


vi. The test mAs output should be within 10% for
older systems, and in modern equipment within
5%. Variations of mAs between adjacent mA
stations should be less than 5%, including older
designs.


vii. When preparation is complete, allow another
half to one second before exposing. This is to
eliminate possible errors due to incorrect
pre-heating of the filament.


viii. To check for a possible filament pre-heating
problem, select 60kV, and the largest mA
station. Make an exposure immediately prepa-
ration is completed, and record the mAs
output. Now make another exposure, but this
time wait for about one second after prepara-
tion is completed, then make an exposure.


ix. If the difference between the two tests is more
than 5%, contact the service department for
advice. The generator should have the filament
pre-heating adjusted, or else a small increase
in preparation time.




When the X-ray control has a mA
meter only:


i. Select a low kV, between 60 and 70kV.
ii. Make an assessment of tube loading with the


selected mA station by selecting an exposure
time of two seconds.


iii. Assuming a two second time would permit an
exposure; now select a time of 0.8–1.0 second.
This time allows the mA meter to reach a
steady reading, during the exposure.


iv. When preparation is complete, allow another
half to one second before exposing. This is to
eliminate possible errors due to incorrect
pre-heating of the filament.


v. On exposing, watch the mA meter needle arrive
at the expected value. Record the steady
reading. (Ignore any bounce or overshoot.)


vi. MA should be within 10% of the required value.
vii. Repeat this test on both focal spots. Test only


the mA stations that are well within the anode
load safety limit, at the exposure times of
0.8–1.0 second.


viii. Between test exposures, allow at least three to
five minutes for anode cooling.


ix. To check for a possible pre-heating problem,
select 60kV, and the largest mA station that
was previously tested.Make an exposure imme-
diately preparation is completed, and record
the mA output. If the change in mA is more
than 5%, contact the service department
for advice. The generator should have the
pre-heating adjusted, or else a small increase
in preparation time.


f. Radiation reproducibility tests, using
a step-wedge


● This test should be carried out after the film proces-
sor has received its general maintenance.


● Adjust the FFD to 100cm.
● Place the stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● Select a suitable mAs and kV combination, and
make a total of four exposures.
i. Allow about 0.5–1.0 second delay after


preparation is completed, before making each
exposure. This is to ensure the filament has
reached a stable temperature.


ii. After each exposure, reposition the stepwedge
and lead rubber on the cassette.


iii. Develop the film. As the exposure settings are
the same for all exposures, the film should show
very little variation.


iv. If necessary, change kV or mAs so the film dis-
plays a good range of densities, then repeat this
test.


● Make another series of four exposures, using the
same settings as before.
i. This time, do not delay the exposure, but expose


immediately preparation is completed.
ii. This is a test for filament pre-heating, or


temperature stability.
● Compare all eight exposures. If available, use a den-


sitometer. As the same output settings were used,
the exposures should show very little variation.
i. If the second group is lighter, or darker, than


the first group, the filament pre-heating or
preparation time should be adjusted. Contact
the service department for advice.


ii. In case there is a general variation of densities
in either group, this may be due to power mains
voltage fluctuations. If suspect, repeat this test
at a later time when power is more stable.


iii. Variable output can be caused by a poor con-
nection to the X-ray tube filament. This is due
to a problem with the cathode high-tension
cable, where the cable-end plugs into the X-ray
tube housing. See module 7.3 page 117.


● Repeat the test for each focal spot.
● Record the settings used in the maintenance


logbook for future use. Include which cassette used.
Retain the test films for comparison with future
tests.


g. X-ray output linearity test, using
a step-wedge


This is an important check on overall performance.
By using a stepwedge, a comparison test may be
made, not only between the mA stations of the unit
under maintenance, but also with other units in the
department.


● This test should be carried out after the film
processor has received its general maintenance.


● Note. This test will indicate variations in kV output
as well as mAs.


● For this test, select an mAs value that can be
repeated over a number of mA stations by chang-
ing time factor only. (To avoid possible errors due to
kV rise and fall time, avoid exposure times below
0.02 seconds.)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


22




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


23


● Set 80kV, and a FFD of 100cm.
● Position the stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● Using the selected value of kV and mAs make a
series of exposures. Change the mA station after
each exposure, and adjust the time to obtain the
same mAs.
i. Allow about 0.5–1.0 second delay after prepa-


ration is completed, before exposing. This is
to ensure the filament has reached a stable
temperature.


ii. If the film is too light, increase the kV, and
repeat the test.


iii. If the film is too dark, add extra aluminium
under the step wedge. Or, place a sheet of paper
between one side of the film, and the intensify-
ing screen in the cassette.


● It may not be possible to obtain the same mAs value
for all mA stations. In this case, select a different
mAs value, but include one of the mA stations
previously tested. Repeat the test with the new
selection of mA values.
This is illustrated in table 1–a, where 100ma is used
for both 20mAs and 30mAs comparisons.


● If one of the mA stations shows a significant change
in density, make another test with that mA station,
this time change kV to obtain the required film
density.
i. Providing the required kV change is not more


than 2~3%, the station is within tolerance.
ii. If no more than 3~5% it is still within tolerance.


However, make a note in the maintenance
record, and have the calibration checked next
time the service department pays a visit.


iii. If greater than 5%, then that station is out of
tolerance.This may be due to mA or kV calibra-
tion. If significant, then place that mA station
‘out of operation’ and contact the service
department for advice.


iv. An estimation of mA calibration error can be
made by a comparison exposure, changing time
only. This needs an initial time setting of 0.1
second or greater. For example, if the suspect
mA station of 200 mA showed a low output, and
on changing the exposure time to 0.11 second
still showed a slightly low output, then the mA
station is more than 10% out of calibration.


v. Besides a possible change of mA or kV calibra-
tion, the timer may not be accurate. A single-
phase generator can have an error of plus or
minus 0.01 seconds.This is a large error at short
time settings. A ‘Spinning top’ test can indicate
single-phase generator exposure times. See
appendix ‘B’ page 169.


● Record all calibration settings used with the step-
wedge in the logbook. Include the kV,mAs,FFD,and
the cassette used. This will allow a quick set-up
when this test is repeated. Save the films for
comparison with future tests.


Table 1–a. Selection of mAs values for test


mA Time mAs mA Time MAs


500 0.04 20 100 0.3 30


400 0.05 20 150 0.2 30


200 0.1 20 300 0.1 30


100 0.2 20




TASK 2


X-ray control familiarization
Part 1


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


24


You have just been transferred to an X-ray department in another hospital, and have been requested to commence
a routine maintenance programme. You are not familiar with this particular X-ray control. The control is situated
in a standard Bucky table room, with an over-table X-ray tube only.


1. Locate the manufacturer model and serial number, for recording in the logbook. (In some cases, it may be
necessary to look behind the control desk or X-ray control cabinet.)


2. Check carefully the range and type of controls. Some are unfamiliar. Suggest a way that the function of these
controls may be verified.


3. Check and list the full range of mA stations available. Which mA stations are available for the broad focus,
and for the fine focus?


4. Is individual selection of fine and broad focus available? If so, which mA stations may be used on either fine
or broad focus?


5. It is possible that initial inspection indicates the control operates on selection of mAs and kV only. (‘Two knob’
technique.) Is there a control switch to enable operation by individual selection of mA, time, and kV? (‘Three
knob’ technique.)


6. Older basic X-ray controls often have a meter and knob to adjust line voltage. If your unit has such a system,
does the meter have a calibration mark? Is it possible to adjust line voltage so the meter indicates excessive
voltage, as well as low line voltage?




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


25


7. kV selection and method of generation depends greatly on the type, model and age of X-ray control being
investigated. From your general inspection, which method of kV generation is applicable to this control?


Single phase, self rectified.


Single phase, full wave rectified.


Three phase, six or twelve pulse.


High frequency inverter system.


Capacitor discharge.


8. Discuss possible methods to identify the other versions of kV generation.


9. What is the maximum and minimum possible kV to select with this X-ray control? (Make this test after select-
ing low mA and a short exposure time.)


10. Is it possible to obtain a simultaneous selection of maximum kV, mA, and time? In this case an overload or
exposure inhibit signal should be indicated. What form does this take?


11. On some controls, selection of a high mA station and low kV may generate an overload or inhibit signal, even
for very short exposure times. This inhibit signal disappears on increasing kV, or reducing mA. Does this apply
to this X-ray control?


Discuss the reason for such a protection, and to which part of the X-ray tube this is applicable.


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor




TASK 3


X-ray control familiarization
Part 2


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


26


You have identified the functions of the various controls on the X-ray generator control desk. In addition, you have
made a test to ensure the overload protection system is working, and correct line voltage can be obtained. It is
now time to make test exposures, and carefully observe the system in operation.


1. Ensure the X-ray tube collimator is closed, and the tube is angled away from the control desk.


2. Select 100mA, 60kV and 0.1 s time. (Or 10mAs if individual selection is not available). Ensure there are no
warning lights or signals displayed. Select non-Bucky operation.


3. Press the preparation switch. Note; if a single button controls both preparation and exposure, at this point, only
press it half way.


4. Carefully observe the control panel. Did any meters change their reading, or indicator lamps immediately signal
a different operation mode?


5. Shortly after pressing the preparation switch, the control should indicate ‘Ready for exposure’ How is this
indicated? Approximately how long is the delay time before ‘ready’ is indicated?


6. Release the preparation switch, and again press to go into preparation. This time listen carefully for sounds of
a relay or contactor. It is possible several may operate. Hint. If the X-ray control has a door that may be opened,
this will allow better observation. Take care not to touch or open any of the internal sections.


7. Once again carry out preparation. This time listen carefully at the X-ray tube. It should be possible to hear the
anode speed up, and when preparation is released, to slowly slow down.


You may need an assistant to carry out preparation for you, as you will need to be close to the X-ray tube.


Is the acceleration of the anode during preparation clearly audible?


Does the anode gradually slow down when preparation is released?




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


27


8. If the X-ray tube is operated at high-speed, you should hear a fast drop in anode speed when preparation is
released.This is the brake cycle.There are two types of brake cycle.The DC brake cycle quickly slows the anode
to a complete stop.A dynamic brake cycle will quickly reduce the anode speed to about 3000 RPM, after which
the anode gradually slows down to a full stop.


Assuming high-speed operation.
On release of preparation, does the anode come quickly to a full stop?


Or, does the anode quickly brake to a slow speed, then very slowly coast to a full stop?


9. Once again, go into preparation mode. This time, when ‘ready’ appears, press the exposure button. Keep press-
ing this button after the exposure ends. At the same time carefully observe the control panel.


Does a radiation ‘On’ indicator light up on the control panel?


Does an audible signal occur during the exposure?


Is there an indication of the mA or mAs generated during the exposure?


If the control has an mAs meter, does the reading of the mAs meter remain until the exposure, or preparation,
switch is released?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor




During the routine maintenance check, you decide to ensure the X-ray tube operating parameters are within safe
limits. You also want to check if this X-ray tube allows optimum use of the generator output power.


Please note; this test assumes the generator has independent selections of mA and time. Some controls may
allow an mAs mode as well as individual selection of mA and time. In that case switch off the mAs mode.


If the control only provides mAs selection, this test is still valid, providing the control indicates which mA
position is actually in use.


1. Locate the make, model and serial number, also the focal spot sizes, of the X-ray tube.
a. Note, in some cases the label with this information may be on the side of the X-ray tube throat. You may


need a mirror and torch to read the label.
b. Enter this information into the routine maintenance logbook, and check sheet.


2. Depending on the mains power-supply frequency, what is the theoretical maximum anode speed for low speed
operation?


a. Input power-supply frequency.


b. Anode speed, low speed operation.


3. Does this generator have a high-speed starter? If so;
a. What is the frequency generated by the high-speed starter? (Two common frequencies are 150hz and


180hz)
Hint. Refer to the specifications for the starter, in either the operation or installation manual for the starter,
or the generator. The frequency generated by the starter need not be related to the power frequency.


b. Depending on the starter frequency, what is the possible maximum anode speed?


c. Is high speed anode rotation:
i. Always high-speed?


ii. Automatic selection between high or low speed depending on the X-ray tube load?


iii. High or low-speed is individually selected by the operator?


4. Is the generator single or three-phase operation? (A high frequency generator is considered three-phase.)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


28


TASK 4


Test for X-ray tube overload
calibration
Part 1




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


29


5. From the information obtained in the preceding parts, select the appropriate anode load charts from the X-
ray tube specification or operation manual. Note. To avoid mistakes, tick the appropriate charts, and place a
cross against the unwanted charts.


6. Select a suitable series of exposure times. Times of 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 1.0, and 3.0 seconds are suggested.
Using these times, determine from the charts the maximum kV/mA product that is allowed.
● kV max is the maximum kV indicated on the charts for an individual mA/time selection.
● kV test refers to the maximum kV the control would allow for an exposure, at the same selections of


mA/time. This should be less than kV max.


a. Broad focus
i. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


ii. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


iii. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


iv. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


v. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


vi. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


b. Fine focus.


i. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


ii. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


iii. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


iv. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


v. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


vi. Time _______ mA _______ kV-max _______ kV-test _______


7. Using the values for time, mA, and kV max, set the control to the predetermined mA and time. Advance the
kV setting until the control indicates an inhibit signal. Enter that value for kV-test.
a. If the control has optional high and low speed operation, the above test should first be made with high-


speed selected.After which make a second test for low speed, using data from the appropriate load charts.
b. Some later model controls may have a selection for ‘Load full’ or ‘Maximum load’. Ensure this selection is


made for the above test.


8. Compare kV-max and kV-test. kV-test should be less than kV-max. Are there any points where kV-test is just
under or slightly over kV-max?


Express an opinion if this could be a reason for concern. For example, are normal exposures close to these
limits?




9. Compare the generators rated maximum output, at 0.1 second, with that of the X-ray tube. (Also at 0.1
second). Does the present tube make optimum use of the generator power?


10. Based on (9), if the X-ray tube was replaced, would you prefer any change in the X-ray tube specifications?
Discuss the reasons why.


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


30




PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


31


TASK 5


Test for X-ray tube overload
calibration
Part 2


You have verified the anode load parameters are operating within the X-ray tube specifications. There remain two
areas to test.


1. Maximum kV protection.
a. Select the large focal spot, combined with the lowest mA station and a short time.
b. From the X-ray tube specifications, what is the maximum kV that may be used?
c. Increase the kV selection at the generator. Is an exposure inhibit generated before the maximum kV is


reached?


2. Minimum kV protection.
a. From the X-ray tube rating charts, examine the fine and broad focus characteristics, and look for a possi-


ble mA limitation related to kV. As an example, a 60kV curve may be shown part dotted, or have a cut off
line. This indicates the maximum mA available for that kV value.


b. Take care to use the charts related to either single or three-phase operation, depending on the generator
mode of operation.


i. From the chart data, are any generator mA stations affected by this restriction?


ii. What is the minimum kV for these mA stations?


c. Select the affected mA station and set a short time.Try reducing kV below the indicated minimum level for
that station. Is an exposure inhibit generated before that level is reached?


d. If it is possible to adjust kV below the minimum kV requirement, describe how accidental operation could
be reduced, or what action should be taken.


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor




Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for a mobile X-ray generator.Within the mobile gener-
ator capabilities, a similar check is made as used for
a fixed installation. Maintenance includes mechanical
operation of the mobile, together with the X-ray tube
and collimator. Instructions for repairs to the mobile
are provided in module 6.1 page 90.


Capacitor discharge mobile procedures are pro-
vided in module 1.3 page 37.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for a mobile X-
ray generator. These procedures can be used as a
version of quality control, together with the routine
maintenance check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Visual inspection of the control panel, power off
c. Mechanical and electrical inspection, power off
d. Operation inspection of the control panel, power on
e. Mechanical and electrical inspection, power on
f. X-ray tube and collimator
g. Milliampere calibration
h. Radiation reproducibility
i. Radiation linearity


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template. *
■ Stepwedge. *
■ 24/30cm Cassette.
■ Two pieces of lead rubber.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cleaning solvent.
■ Cloth.


* The template and stepwedge is described in appen-
dix ‘B’ page 169.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


32


MODULE 1.2


X-ray generator, mobile unit


a. General precautions


● Before removing any covers, or testing any wires or
connections, ensure the system is switched off, and
unplugged from the power point.


● Mobile high-frequency generators may be battery
operated. The batteries in these are connected in
series, and may have a total voltage of up to 240 V
DC. Refer to the operating or installation manuals
for the position of the battery isolation switch, and
ensure this is switched off before removing any
covers.


● If the power plug has loose connections, have an
electrician check the plug. The plug may be assem-
bled incorrectly.


b. Visual inspection of the control panel,
power off


● Check all knobs and switches. Where knobs have
a pointer attached, check that the pointer aligns
correctly at all positions of the indicated scale.
Tip. Check the pointer at full clockwise and counter
clockwise positions of the knob. Look for possible
loose knobs, or for push button switches that may
tend to stick.


● Where controls have had extra labels attached, are
these labels still relevant? If so, are they in good
condition?


● Older X-ray mobiles often have analogue meters
instead of digital displays.




i. With power switched off, the meter needle
should be on the ‘zero’ calibration mark.


ii. If not, first tap gently in case the meter tends
to ‘stick’. If the needle is not sitting on the zero
mark, most meters have a small adjustment
screw in the middle for zero calibration.


iii. Caution. Contact the service department before
adjusting. In some cases, the meter may be
deliberately adjusted ‘off zero’, as an incorrect
method of calibration.


● With the aid of a suitable solvent, clean off the
residue left behind from sticking plaster, and pieces
of sticky tape.


c. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
power off


● Look for any loose panels or sections. Pay particu-
lar attention to the mounting of the collimator.With
a screwdriver, check for possible loose screws, par-
ticularly with the tube support arm and the verti-
cal bearing tracks.


● With the X-ray tube set to minimum height, check
the vertical suspension wire rope for possible broken
strands. CAUTION, do not test with bare fingers, and
instead test by rubbing the cables up and down
using a piece of cloth.


● Check the action of the tube-stand bearings. Are
there any visible gaps between the bearings and
the track surface? Also are there any ‘clunking’
noises or ‘jerking’ when moved, which can indicate
damaged bearings.


● Spray the tube stand tracks and bearings with a
light aerosol lubricant.Wipe down afterward, so only
a very small film is left on the tube stand tracks.


● Check for possible loose lock handles, and ensure
manually operated locks have an adequate range of
adjustment.


● Ensure the mobile brakes operate in a positive
fashion when the hand is released from the handle,
and that they are fully released while the mobile is
travelling.


● Pay particular attention to the cabling from the X-
ray tube and tube stand. All movements of the
system should not cause any stress or pulling of the
cables.


● Inspect the HT cables for any sign of damage to the
safety earth shield at the X-ray tube cable ends.
Ensure the cable ends are firmly inserted into the
X-ray tube, and the securing ring nut is not loose.


● Where there is evidence of twisting or pulling on the
HT cables, particularly at the X-ray tube end, inves-


tigate means of providing additional support. If nec-
essary, discuss with the service department.


● Examine carefully all plugs and sockets attached to
cable ends.The outer insulation of cables should not
be pulled out from the cable clamp.


● Check the condition of the power cable. If neces-
sary, remove the plug cover, and ensure terminations
are tight, and no connections are stretched or have
broken strands. Should the cable exhibit excessive
twisting, or have cracks in the outer sheath, ask an
electrician for to replace the cable or plug.


● Older mobiles with battery operated power assis-
tance should have the battery electrolyte level
checked.
i. Ensure first that the power cable is unplugged


from the power point.
ii. To gain access to the battery, refer to the oper-


ation or service manual.
iii. Top up with either distilled water or else fresh


rainwater.
iv. Later systems use sealed or ‘low maintenance’


batteries. This includes high-frequency mobile
generators.


d. Operation inspection of the control panel,
power on


● Check all indicator lamps etc. If necessary, operate
different selection techniques to ensure all required
status indicators operate correctly.


● Where a digital readout of radiograph settings
is provided, select a number of different values
to ensure there are no display errors or missing
segments.


● Older controls may have manual adjustment of
power line voltage, with a meter indicating correct
compensation. Check the range of adjustment. It
should be possible to reset the voltage by 10%,
above or below, the required voltage.


● With battery-operated equipment, check the status
of the battery charge indicator. If low,place the unit
on charge, and check that after a reasonable time
the system indicates fully charged.This time should
not be greater than an overnight period.


e. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
power on


● Test operation of the electromagnetic locks. There
should be no hesitation in operation, nor should the
lock ‘stick on’. In some cases the surface of the lock
may require cleaning, to obtain a better ‘grip’


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


33




● With power assisted mobiles, check for correct
operation in all forward and reverse modes. Where
there is an anti-crash bumper, manually operate the
bumper. This should stop motor drive. (Do NOT test
by standing in front while the unit is moving
forward)


f. X-ray tube and collimator


● Inspect the X-ray tube housing for possible oil leaks.
● When in preparation, listen for excessive X-ray tube


bearing noise.
● Check the operation of the collimator lamp timer.


With mechanical timers, listen for possible sticking
of the clockwork.


● Check the alignment of the collimator lamp and
X-ray beam. This should be checked through 180
degrees rotation of the collimator.


● The collimator has a scale associated with the
adjustment knob to indicate the field size.The knob
can slip on the shaft, or not be correctly positioned
after replacing a collimator globe.
i. Place a 24/30 cm cassette on the tabletop.


Adjust the FFD to 100 cm
ii. With the collimator light switched on, check the


knob pointer indicates the correct position on
the scale.


iii. If necessary, reposition the knob on the shaft.
iv. Repeat this test for other cassettes in use.
v. If the scale is worn or not legible, use a marker


pen to indicate positions for common cassettes
in use. Order a new scale from the service
department.


vi. While waiting for a new scale, ensure you have
a spare collimator globe in stock.


● To test the rotation accuracy of the light beam;
i. Rotate the collimator 90 degrees in either


direction.
ii. With the light on, open the collimator so an


average size field is projected on the tabletop.
For example, a 24/30 cm cassette size.


iii. Place markers to indicate the light beam
position.


iv. Now rotate the collimator 180 degrees in the
opposite direction. The light field should be
within 1% or better, compared to the previous
position. If not, see module 7.2 page 110.


● To test the alignment of the X-ray to the light beam;
i. Place the X-ray alignment template on a


24/30 cm cassette.
ii. Adjust the FFD to 100 cm.
iii. Adjust the light beam to the template markers.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure.


v. Develop the film.
vi. Measure the distance where the X-ray does not


coincide with the markers. Any error should be
inside the compliance requirements for the
country. See module 7.2 page 110.


vii. Repeat this test, with the collimator rotated 90
degrees clockwise, and 90 degrees counter
clockwise.


viii. If there is an alignment problem, see module
7.2 page 110.


g. mA calibration


● Some microprocessor-controlled mobiles allow mA
to be checked and also calibrated via the front panel.
These systems require either an internal switch to be
operated,or else a code entry at the panel.To test or
adjust calibration, the procedure in the manufac-
turer’s service manual must be referred to.


● This test only applies to older mobiles that allow
individual selection of mA and time. A panel
mounted mA meter is also required.
i. Use 70~80kV and an exposure time of around


1.0 second. (The actual exposure time used
should allow the mA meter to just reach a
steady reading)


ii. Select the mA station to be tested, and obtain
preparation.Wait about 1.0 second after ‘ready’
is obtained, then expose. Record the reading
obtained from the mA meter.


iii. Milliampere should be within 10% of the
required value.


● Repeat the above for all mA stations, and both focal
spots. Caution, as the X-ray tube for the mobile will
have a small heat capacity, allow cooling time be-
tween exposures.


● Filament pre-heat test.
i. Select the highest mA station, and 60 kV. Go


into preparation, and immediately ‘ready’ is ob-
tained, make an exposure.


ii. Make another exposure. This time wait about
one second after ‘ready’ is obtained, before
exposing.


iii. If the difference between the two tests is more
than 5%, contact the service department for
advice. The generator should have the filament
pre-heating adjusted, or else a small increase in
preparation time.


h. Radiation reproducibility


● This test should be carried out after the film proces-
sor has received its routine maintenance.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


34




rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● For this test, select an mAs value that can be
repeated over a number of mA stations by chang-
ing time factor only.


● Set 80kV, and a FFD of 100cm.
● Using the selected value of kV and FFD make


a series of exposures, changing the mA station,
and adjusting time setting to obtain the same
mAs.
i. Allow about 0.5~1.0 second delay after prepa-


ration is completed, before exposing. This is
to ensure the filament has reached a stable
temperature.


ii. If the film is too light, select a different mAs
value, or kV, and repeat the test.


iii. If the film is too dark, add extra aluminium
under the step wedge. Or, place a sheet of paper
between one side of the film, and the intensify-
ing screen in the cassette.


● It may not be possible to obtain the same mAs value
for all mA stations. In this case, select a different
mAs value, but include one of the mA stations
previously tested. Repeat the test with the new
selection of mA values.


● This is illustrated in table 1–b, where 10ma is used
for both the 20mAs and 30mAs comparisons.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


35


● Position the stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● Adjust the FFD to 100cm
● Select a suitable mAs and kV combination, and


make a total of four exposures.
i. Allow about 0.5~1.0 second delay after prepa-


ration is completed, before making each expo-
sure. This is to ensure the filament has reached
a stable temperature.


ii. After each exposure, reposition the stepwedge
and lead rubber on the cassette


iii. Develop the film. As the exposure settings are
the same for all exposures, the film should show
very little variation.


iv. If necessary, change kV or mAs so the film dis-
plays a good range of densities, then repeat this
test.


● To test filament-heating stability, make another
series of four exposures, using the same settings
as before. This time expose immediately ‘ready’ is
obtained.


● Develop the film and compare to the first series of
exposures. If any significant difference is obtained,
either filament pre-heating or preparation time may
need adjustment. Contact the service department
for advice.


i. X-ray output linearity test, using
a step-wedge


Note. This test is only applicable to mobiles with
independent selection of mA and time settings.


This is an important check on overall performance. By
using a stepwedge, a comparison test may be made,
not only between the mA stations of the unit under
maintenance, but also with other units in the
department.
Note. This test will indicate variations in kV output, as
well as mAs.


● This test should be carried out after the film proces-
sor has received its routine maintenance.


● Position the stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead


Table 1–b. Selection of mAs values for test


mA Time mAs mA Time MAs


50 0.4 20 10 3.0 30


40 0.5 20 15 2.0 30


20 1.0 20 30 1.0 30


10 2.0 20


● If one of the mA stations shows a significant change
in density, make another test with that mA station
only, but this time change kV.
i. Providing the required kV change is not more


than 2~3%, the station is within tolerance.
ii. If no more than 3~5% it is still within tolerance.


However, make a note in the maintenance
record, and have the calibration checked next
time the service department pays a visit.


iii. If greater than 5%, then that station is out of
tolerance.This may be due to mA or kV calibra-
tion. If significant, then place that mA station
‘out of operation’. Contact the service depart-
ment for advice.




iv. Besides a possible change of mA or kV calibra-
tion, the timer may not be accurate. A single-
phase generator can have an error of plus or
minus 0.01 seconds.This is a large error at short
time settings. A ‘Spinning Top’ can check single-
phase generator exposure times. See appendix
‘B’ page 169.


Record all calibration settings used with the step-
wedge in the logbook. Include the kV, mAs, FFD, and
the cassette used. This will allow a quick set-up when
this test is repeated. Save the films for future com-
parison tests.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


36




Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for a capacitor discharge (CD) mobile generator.
Within the CD mobile capabilities, a similar check is
made as for a conventional mobile.There are however,
some important differences. These relate to the non-
linear output due to the kV/mAs relationship,plus other
modes of operation. Maintenance includes mechanical
operation of the CD mobile, together with the X-ray
tube and collimator. Instructions for repairs to the CD
mobile are provided in module 6.2 page 94.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for a portable
X-ray generator. These procedures can be used as a
version of quality control, together with the routine
maintenance check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Visual inspection of the control panel, power off
c. Mechanical and electrical inspection, power off
d. Operational inspection of the control panel, power


on
e. Mechanical and electrical inspection, power on
f. X-ray tube and collimator
g. mAs calibration
h. Radiation reproducibility


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template.*
■ Stepwedge.*
■ 24/30 cm Cassette.
■ Two pieces of lead rubber.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cleaning solvent.
■ Cloth.


* The template and stepwedge is described in appen-
dix ‘B’ page 169.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


37


MODULE 1.3


X-ray generator, capacitor
discharge mobile


a. General precautions


● Before removing any covers, or testing any wires or
connections, ensure the system is switched off, and
unplugged from the power point.


● If the power plug has loose connections, have an
electrician check the plug. The plug may be assem-
bled incorrectly.


● Do NOT make any adjustments to the HT cables
without first discharging the capacitor. See module
6.2 page 94.


b.Visual inspection of the control panel,
power off


● Check all knobs and switches. Where knobs have a
pointer attached, check that the pointer aligns cor-
rectly at all positions of the indicated scale.
Tip. Check the pointer at full clockwise and counter
clockwise positions of the knob. Look for possible
loose knobs, or for push button switches that may
tend to stick.


● Where some mobiles have had extra labels
attached, are these labels still relevant? If so, are
they in good condition?




● Older CD mobiles have an analogue kV meter
instead of a digital display. With power off, the
meter needle should be on the ‘zero’ calibration
mark, providing the capacitor is fully discharged.
If not, first tap gently in case the meter tends to
‘stick’.Do not attempt to adjust the meter zero posi-
tion without reference to the service manual, and
operation of the internal capacitor discharge device.


● Other CD mobiles may have a line voltage meter.
This meter should read zero on power off. If neces-
sary, the meter zero position may be adjusted by the
centre screw. Tap the meter gently first, to ensure
the meter is not sticking.


● With the aid of a suitable solvent, clean off the
residue left behind from sticking plaster, and pieces
of sticky tape.


c. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
power off


● Inspect for any loose panels or sections. Pay par-
ticular attention to the mounting of the collimator.
With a screwdriver, check for possible loose screws,
particularly with the tube support arm and the
vertical bearing tracks.


● With the X-ray tube set to minimum height, check
the vertical suspension wire rope for possible broken
strands. CAUTION, do not test with bare fingers.
Test instead by rubbing the cables up and down with
a piece of cloth.


● Check the action of the tube-stand bearings. Are
there any visible gaps between the bearings and the
track surface?


● Are there any ‘clunking’ noises or ‘jerking’ move-
ments, when the X-ray tube is positioned? This can
indicate damaged bearings.


● Spray the tube stand tracks and bearings with a
light aerosol lubricant.Wipe down afterward, so only
a thin oil film is left on the tube stand tracks.


● Check for possible loose lock handles, and ensure
manually operated locks have an adequate range of
adjustment.


● Ensure the mobile brakes operate in a positive
fashion when the hand is released from the handle,
and that they are fully released while the mobile is
travelling.


● Pay particular attention to the cabling from the X-
ray tube and tube stand. All movements of the
system should not cause any stress or stretching of
the cables.


● Inspect the HT cables for any sign of damage to
the safety earth shield at the X-ray tube cable


ends. Ensure the cable ends are firmly inserted into
the X-ray tube, and the securing ring nut is not
loose.


● Note. Never remove the HT cable ends unless the
capacitor is fully discharged, and the capacitor
safety switches are operated. See module 6.2 page
94.


● Where there is evidence of twisting or pulling of the
HT cables, particularly at the X-ray tube end, inves-
tigate means of providing additional support. If nec-
essary, contact the service department for advice.


● Examine carefully all plugs and sockets attached to
cable ends.The cable outer insulation should not be
pulled out from the cable clamp.


● Check the condition of the power cable. If neces-
sary, remove the plug cover, and ensure terminations
are tight, and no connections are stretched or have
broken strands. Should the cable exhibit excessive
twisting, or have cracks in the insulation, replace-
ment is required. An electrician should carry out any
repairs to the power cable or plug.


● With motorized mobiles check the battery elec-
trolyte level.
i. Ensure the power cable is unplugged from the


power point.
ii. To gain access to the battery, refer to the opera-


tion or service manual.
iii. Top up with distilled water or else fresh


rainwater.
iv. If the mobile is fitted with a ‘low maintenance’


battery, contact the service department for
advice.


d. Operational inspection of the control panel,
power on


● Check all indicator lamps operate.
● For CD mobiles equipped with an analogue or


digital kV meter, test the kV adjustment for correct
operation.
i. Set the required kV to 60kV and press the


charge button.
ii. The charge light should illuminate. Once the


required kV is reached, then the ‘ready’ lamp
should light up.


iii. Check that the kV displayed on the meter
closely agrees with that indicated at the kV
control knob.


iv. Observe the kV meter for a few minutes. The
kV should slowly drop back by about 2~3kV,
then return briefly to the charge mode. (This is
called ‘topping up’)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


38




ii. With the collimator light switched on, check the
knob pointer indicates the correct position on
the scale.


iii. If necessary, reposition the knob on the shaft.
iv. Repeat this test for other cassettes in use.
v. If the scale is worn or not legible, use a marker


pen to indicate positions for common cassettes
in use. Order a new scale from the service
department.


vi. While waiting for a new scale, ensure you have
a spare collimator globe in stock


● Check the alignment of the collimator lamp and
X-ray beam. This should be checked through 180
degrees rotation of the collimator.


● To test the rotation accuracy of the light beam;
i. Rotate the collimator 90 degrees in either


direction.
ii. With the light on, open the collimator so an


average size field is projected on the tabletop.
For example, a 24/30cm cassette size.


iii. Place markers to indicate the light beam
position.


iv. Now rotate the collimator 180 degrees in the
opposite direction. The light field should be
within 1% or better, compared to the previous
position. If not, refer to the collimator service
notes.


● To test the alignment of the X-ray to the light beam;
i. Place the X-ray alignment template on a


24/30cm cassette.
ii. Adjust the FFD to 100cm.
iii. Collimate the light beam to the outer 20 by


26cm rectangle.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure.
v. Develop the film.
vi. Measure the distance where the X-ray does not


coincide with the markers. Any error should
be inside the compliance requirements for the
country. See module 7.2 page 110.


vii. Repeat this test, with the collimator rotated
90 degrees clockwise, and 90 Degrees counter
clockwise.


viii. If there is an alignment problem, see module
7.2 page 110.


● Check operation of the ‘dark current’ shutter. This
is an additional lead shutter fitted close to the focal
spot. Its purpose is to block all radiation except
when making a radiographic exposure. (In some
mobiles, the shutter is retracted immediately prior
to the exposure, in other mobiles the shutter is
retracted during preparation.)
i. Place the X-ray alignment template on a


24/30cm cassette.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


39


v. Increase the set kV to 90kV. The charge light
should illuminate, until the kV meter reaches
90kV.


vi. Now reset the required kV back to 60kV. The
X-ray ON light should illuminate. At the same
time the indicated kV should quickly drop down
to the required value.


vii. Note. A low mA X-ray exposure is produced
when the kV is reset. Radiation is blocked in
this mode by a lead shutter in the collimator.


viii. In case the kV resets very slowly, similar to dis-
charge prior to topping-up, this can indicate a
problem. See module 6.2 page 94.


● Some CD mobiles have an adjustment for power line
voltage. A meter indicates when the voltage is
correct. Check the range of adjustment, to ensure
compensation may be set approximately 10% above
or below the required voltage.


● Note. The power line voltage adjustment can
directly affect the kV charge on the capacitor.


● With motorized mobiles, check the status of the
battery charge indicator. If low, place the unit on
charge. Charging time should not be greater than
an overnight period.


e. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
power on


● Test operation of the electromagnetic locks. There
should be no hesitation in operation, nor should the
lock ‘stick on’. In some cases the surface of the lock
may require cleaning to obtain a better ‘grip’


● With motorized mobiles, check for correct opera-
tion in all forward and reverse modes. Where there
is an anti crash bumper, manually operate the
bumper. This should stop motor drive. (Do NOT test
by standing in front while the unit is moving
forward)


f. X-ray tube and collimator


● Inspect the X-ray tube housing for possible oil leaks.
● During preparation, listen for excessive X-ray tube


bearing noise.
● Check the operation of the collimator lamp timer.


With mechanical systems, listen for possible stick-
ing of the clockwork.


● The collimator normally has a scale associated with
the adjustment knob to indicate the field size. The
knob can slip on the shaft, or not be correctly posi-
tioned after replacing a collimator globe.
i. Place a 24/30cm cassette on the tabletop.


Adjust the FFD to 100cm




ii. Adjust the FFD to 100cm
iii. Adjust the light beam to the central markers.
iv. Set 90kV on the control panel, and press the


charge button.
v. When the mobile indicates ‘ready’, or ‘charging


completed’, do not expose or enter preparation.
Instead, reset the kV down to 60kV.


vi. A low mA X-ray exposure is produced when the
kV is reset. Radiation is blocked in this mode by
the dark-current shutter in the collimator.


vii. Wait till the control again indicates ‘ready’, and
then process the film. The film should be clear,
and not indicate any patterns from the align-
ment test phantom.


g. mAs calibration


● Note. This only applies to mobiles fitted with an mAs
control, and a kV meter.


● A CD mobile has a direct relationship of mAs and
kV. During an exposure, the kV will drop by one kV
per mAs. (This is for a one microfarad mobile)


● Ensure the collimator is fully closed.
● Select 90kV and 20mAs
● Once charging is completed, make an exposure,


observing the kV meter.There should be a drop from
90kV to 70kV.


● (In some cases a smaller drop of kV may occur. For
example, from 90 to 72kV. This is due to capacitor
manufacturing tolerance.)


● Select several other combinations of kV and mAs
and repeat the above test.


h. Radiation reproducibility


● This test should be carried out after the film proces-
sor has received its general maintenance. The test
films can be used for comparison with future tests.


● Adjust the FFD to 100cm.
● Place the stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● Select a suitable mAs and kV combination, and
make a total of four exposures.
i. After each exposure, reposition the stepwedge


and lead rubber on the cassette.
ii. Develop the film. As the exposure settings are


the same for all exposures, the film should show
very little variation.


iii. If necessary, change kV or mAs so the film dis-
plays a good range of densities, then repeat this
test.


● Note. If a step wedge is not available, a water
phantom may be used. In which case a series of four
films are required.


● Record all calibration settings used with the step-
wedge in the logbook. Include the kV,mAs,FFD,and
the cassette used. This will allow a quick set-up
when this test is repeated. Save the films for future
comparison tests.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


40




Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for a portable X-ray generator.Within the portable gen-
erator capabilities, a similar check is made as for a
mobile generator.The portable generator may be either
self-rectified, or else full wave rectified. The stationary
anode X-ray tube and HT transformer are contained in
a single housing. Maintenance includes mechanical
operation of the portable, together with the X-ray tube
and collimator. Instructions for repairs to the portable
generator are provided in module 6.1 page 90.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for a portable
X-ray generator. These procedures can be used as a
version of quality control, together with the routine
maintenance check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Visual inspection of the control panel, power off
c. Mechanical and electrical inspection, power off
d. Operation inspection of the control panel, power on
e. X-ray tube and collimator
f. mA calibration
g. Radiation reproducibility


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template.*
■ Stepwedge.*
■ 24/30 cm Cassette.
■ Two pieces of lead rubber.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cleaning solvent.
■ Cloth.


* The template and stepwedge is described in appen-
dix ‘B’ page 169.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


41


MODULE 1.4


X-ray generator, portable unit


a. General precautions


● Before removing any covers, or testing any wires or
connections, ensure the system is switched off, and
unplugged from the power point.


● If the power plug has loose connections, have an
electrician check the plug. The plug may be assem-
bled incorrectly.


b.Visual inspection of the control panel,
power off


● Check all knobs and switches. Where knobs have a
pointer attached, check that the pointer aligns cor-
rectly at all positions of the indicated scale.
Tip. Check the pointer at full clockwise and counter
clockwise positions of the knob. Look for possible


loose knobs, or for push button switches that may
tend to stick.


● Where extra labels have been attached, are
these labels still relevant? If so, are they in good
condition?


● The generator will often have an analogue line-
voltage and mA meter. These meters should read
zero on power off. If necessary, the meter zero
position may be adjusted by the centre screw. Tap
the meter gently first, to ensure the meter is not
sticking.


● Caution; check the meter zero position when the
control is mounted, or placed, in its usual position.


● With the aid of a suitable solvent, clean off the
residue left behind from sticking plaster, and pieces
of sticky tape.




c. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
power off


● Look for any loose panels or sections. Pay particu-
lar attention to the mounting of the collimator.With
a screwdriver, check for possible loose screws, par-
ticularly with the tube support arm and the verti-
cal bearing tracks.


● Check the operation of the height adjustment
system. Does it operate smoothly without binding
or sticking?


● Check the action of the height adjustment bear-
ings. Are there any visible gaps between the bear-
ings and the track surface?


● Are there any ‘clunking’ noises or ‘jerking’ move-
ments, when the X-ray tube is positioned? This can
indicate damaged bearings.


● Check for possible loose lock handles, and ensure
the locks have an adequate range of adjustment.


● Spray the height adjustment tracks and bearings
with a light aerosol lubricant.Wipe down afterward,
so only a thin oil film is left on the height adjust-
ment tracks.


● Examine carefully all plugs and sockets attached to
cable ends.The outer insulation of cables should not
be pulled out from the cable clamp.


● Check the condition of the power cable. If neces-
sary, remove the plug cover, and ensure terminations
are tight, and no connections are stretched or have
broken strands. Should the cable exhibit excessive
twisting, or have cracks in the insulation, ask an
electrician to replace the cable or plug.


d. Operation inspection of the control panel,
power on


● Check all indicator lamps operate in each mode of
operation.


● Check the range of adjustment of line voltage, to
ensure this may be set approximately 10% above or
below the optimum position.
Note. Adjustment of the line voltage can directly
affect the radiographic kV.


e. X-ray tube head and collimator


● Look for possible oil leaks.
● Check operation of the collimator lamp timer. (If


fitted)
● With clockwork lamp timers, check for possible


sticking of the clockwork.
● To test the alignment of the X-ray to the light beam;


i. Place the X-ray alignment template on a
24/30cm cassette.


ii. Adjust the FFD to 100cm.
iii. Collimate the light beam to the outer 20 by


26cm rectangle.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure.
v. Develop the film.
vi. Measure the distance where the X-ray does not


coincide with the markers. Any error should be
inside the compliance requirements for the
country. See module 7.2 page 110.


vii. Some units may be fitted with a rotating col-
limator. Repeat this test, with the collimator
rotated 90 degrees clockwise, and 90 degrees
counter clockwise.


viii. If there is an alignment problem, see module
7.2 page 110.


f. mA calibration


● Note. Depending on system design, mA selection
may be linked to the kV knob. Other units may have
an independent selection of mA.


● Ensure the collimator is fully closed.
● Select 60kV and the maximum associated mA


station. Select an exposure time of 1.0 second.
● Commence preparation, and expose when prepara-


tion is complete. Observe the mA meter, and record
the indicated value.


● Repeat this test for all other mA and kV combina-
tions. Record the results.


● If mA on any position has an error of more than
10%, recalibration is required. On some systems,
this may be accessed with a screwdriver through an
access hole. Please refer to the operation or service
manual before adjusting.


● If in doubt, contact the service department for
advice.


g. Radiation reproducibility


● This test should be carried out after the film proces-
sor has received its general maintenance.


● Place a stepwedge on a 24/30cm cassette.
● Several exposures can be made on the one piece of


film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against either side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber prevents unwanted radiation entering the
cassette.


● Adjust the FFD to 100cm.
● Select a suitable mAs and kV combination, and


make a total of four exposures.
i. After each exposure, reposition the stepwedge


and lead rubber on the cassette.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


42




ii. Develop the film. As the exposure settings are
the same for all exposures, the film should show
very little variation.


iii. If necessary, change kV or mAs so the film dis-
plays a good range of densities, then repeat this
test.


● Note. If a step wedge is not available, a water
phantom may be used. In which case a series of four
films are required.


Record all calibration settings used with the step-
wedge in the logbook. Include the kV,mAs,FFD,and
the cassette used. This will allow a quick set-up
when this test is repeated. Save the films for future
comparison tests.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


43




MODULE 2.0


X-ray tube-stand


a. General precautions


● Electrical safety.
i. In most installations the tube-stand power will


come from the generator, but in some installa-
tions, switching off the generator does not
remove power from the tube stand.


ii. Before removing any covers, ensure the genera-
tor is switched off, and the room power isolation
switch is also turned off.


iii. This also applies if testing wiring connections, or
electrical components.


● If removing an X-ray tube, or collimator.
i. See module 7.1 page 104, and module 7.2 page


110.
ii. Ask an electrician or electronics technician for


assistance.
iii. Do not rely on the vertical lock system.
iv. Attach a rope so that the system cannot move


upwards, once the weight of the collimator or
X-ray tube is removed.


v. The X-ray tube is heavy. Removal or replacement
requires two people.


vi. Make a diagram of electrical connections.
Attach labels to wires or high-tension cables.
This is to ensure correct connection when an
X-ray tube or collimator is replaced.


vii. Place all screws or other small parts in a box,
so they are not lost.


● Do not place a ladder against a tube stand.The tube
stand may suddenly move.


● An adjustment to any tube-stand bearing requires
skill, and good mechanical knowledge. When a
problem is identified, request a mechanic, or
the service department, to make the required
adjustments.


b. Mechanical and electrical inspection


● Inspect for any loose panels or sections. Pay par-
ticular attention to the collimator and the control
panel.


● Check the tube-stand suspension, tracks and
bearings.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


44


E


Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for the X-ray tube-stand, or suspension. The instruc-
tions provided are for the floor ceiling tube stand.Most
of these procedures can also be applied to a ceiling
mounted tube suspension. Repair procedures are pro-
vided in module 7.0 page 99.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for the X-ray
tube-stand.These procedures can be used as a version
of quality control, together with the routine mainte-
nance check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Task 6, ‘X-ray tube-stand maintenance’, should be
attempted on completion of this module.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Mechanical and electrical inspection
c. Tube-stand lateral centre
d. Tube stand command arm, or panel


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template. *
■ 24/30 cm cassette.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cleaning solvent.
■ Cloth, for cleaning.


* The template is described in appendix ‘B’ page 169.




i. With the X-ray tube set to minimum height,
check the vertical suspension wire rope for
broken strands. CAUTION, do not test with bare
fingers.Test by rubbing the cables up and down
with a piece of rag.


ii. With the vertical lock released, the X-ray tube
should balance in the vertical direction. It
should need the same effort to move either up
or down.


iii. Check the action of the tube-stand bearings.
Are there any visible gaps between the bear-
ings and the track surface?


iv. Are there any ‘clunking’ noises or ‘jerking’
movements, when the X-ray tube is positioned?
This can indicate damaged bearings.


v. Check the vertical guide rails. Look for loose
mounting screws.


vi. Spray the tube stand vertical guides and bear-
ings with a light aerosol lubricant. Wipe down
afterward, so only a thin oil film is left on the
vertical guide rails.


vii. Clean any accumulated dirt on and inside the
floor track. Spray the track and tube-stand
floor-bearings with a light aerosol lubricant.
Wipe off any excess.


viii. Look for loose mounting screws along the floor
rail.


ix. Observe the position of the bearings on the
ceiling rail.These should be fully engaged along
the full length of the rail. Check the rail is prop-
erly fastened in place, and does not move.


● Check for loose mechanical lock handles, and
ensure manually operated locks have an adequate
range of adjustment.


● Test operation of the electromagnetic locks. There
should be no hesitation in operation, nor should the
lock ‘stick on’. In some cases the surface of the lock
will require cleaning, to obtain a better ‘grip’ when
operated.


● HT cables should be supported at the X-ray tube, to
minimize twisting or pulling at the cable end.


● Pay attention to the cabling from the X-ray tube and
tube stand. Any movements of the system should
not cause any stress or stretching of the cables.
Nylon or plastic cable-ties should be used to secure
loose cables, not sticking plaster.


● Examine carefully all places where cables pass into
different sections of the tube-stand.
i. Where the cables pass though holes in a metal


cover, there should be protective inserts to avoid
damaging the cable insulation.


ii. Look for possible damage to the outer insula-
tion of electrical cables.


iii. Check electrical cables where they enter plugs
and sockets, the outer insulation may be pulled
back, exposing individual conductors.


c.Tube-stand lateral centre


Lateral centring over the Bucky table should be
checked in both directions. In some cases this may be
accurate only when approached from one direction.


i. Tape a thin piece of wire, or a paper clip, to the
centre of a 24/30cm cassette. Place the cas-
sette in the Bucky.


ii. Position the X-ray tube to the lateral centre
position.


iii. Adjust the table top also to the lateral centre
position.


iv. Bring the collimator face to rest on the table-
top, and ensure it is flat against the tabletop.
Then rise to 100cm S.I.D.


v. As the collimator moves away from the table-
top, check that the light beam remains central
to the tabletop. If not, adjust the tube angle
a small amount so the light beam remains in
position.


vi. If the tube-stand centre position appears incor-
rect, this may need adjustment. Before adjust-
ing, continue with the rest of these checks.


vii. Place the X-ray alignment template on the
centre of the tabletop.


viii. Adjust the light beam to the template markers.
ix. Select a low kV and mAs, expose and develop


the film.
x. The radiation field should be centred to the


template markers. If not, the collimator
requires adjustment. This should be corrected
before any adjustment to the tube-stand
centre. See module 7.2 page 110.


xi. The position of the template marker is com-
pared to the wire marker on the cassette. This
checks the tabletop centre accuracy. If not
correct, see module 8.0 page 121.


xii. If the tube stand centre is not correct, see
module 7.0 page 99.


● After checking lateral centring to the table Bucky,
check the centring to the wall Bucky.
i. Keep the X-ray tube rotation in the trunnion


rings at the same setting for the Table Bucky.
ii. Bring the collimator close to, or up against the


wall Bucky. The light field should be centred to
the Bucky-centre mark.


iii. Move the tube stand away from the Bucky to
the distance normally used. The light beam
should remain centred.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


45




iv. In case of a small error, a compromise adjust-
ment of the tube rotation in the trunnion rings
may be made. Otherwise, see module 7.0 page
99, and module 8.0 page 121.


d.Tube stand command arm, or panel


● The X-ray tube trunnion-ring rotation-lock should
operate firmly, and prevent unwanted rotation.


● Hand grips should not be loose.
● The indicator for tube angle should rotate smoothly,


and not hesitate before changing its position.


● Check all indicator lamps and switches for correct
operation.


● Check alignment of the Bucky centre light. (When
fitted.)


● Ensure all labels are legible.
● With a tape measure, check for correct indication


of the focal spot to Bucky distance. (FFD.)
● Rotate the tube head and check the angulation


indicator operates smoothly and does not stick.
● Clean and remove remains of sticking plaster, adhe-


sive tape, etc.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


46


E




TASK 6


X-ray tube-stand maintenance


The X-ray tube stand in room 1 is due for its maintenance check.
Carry out this check, using the maintenance checklist provided in appendix ‘D’ of this workbook as a guide.


What is the tube stand model No? Serial No?


Was it necessary to make any adjustments? (Provide details)


Are there any areas still requiring attention?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


47




MODULE 2.1


X-ray tube


a. General precautions


● Before disconnecting any wires, or removing a
cover, always ensure power is turned off and
unplugged from the power point. If the equipment
is part of a fixed installation, besides switching
the generator power off, ensure the isolation power
switch for the room is also switched off.


● During the seasoning technique, make sure the col-
limator is closed. Aim the X-ray tube away from the
X-ray control.


● If a problem occurs during seasoning, stop. Depend-
ing on the symptoms, see module 7.1 page 104, or
module 7.3 page 117.


b. X-ray tube inspection


● Check rotation of the X-ray tube in the trunnion
rings. The locking device should hold the housing
firmly in place, but allow free rotation on release.


● Ensure no attachments, such as a command arm
control panel, or collimator, have become loose.


● Examine electrical cables to the X-ray tube. Ensure
they are securely clamped into position, and not
subject to being pulled. Where cables pass into the
housing, they should be protected from sharp edges.


● Inspect the HT cables for any sign of damage to the
safety earth shield, at the X-ray tube cable ends.


● Ensure the HT cable ends are firmly inserted into the
X-ray tube, and the securing ring nut is not loose.
Note. In some systems there is a locking screw on
the side of the ring nut. Undo this screw first, and
then check the ring nut is fully tightened, then re-
fasten the locking screw.This check is most impor-
tant if the X-ray tube or cables have recently been
replaced.


● Where there is evidence of twisting or pulling on the
HT cables, particularly at the X-ray tube receptacle,
investigate means of providing additional support.
If necessary, contact the service department.


● Examine the X-ray tube housing for any oil leaks.
● At the generator, go into preparation, then release


preparation without exposing. Listen to the anode
rotation for excessive noise.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


48


E


Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for the X-ray tube.This includes techniques to improve
the high-voltage performance or reliability of the X-ray
tube. Fault diagnostic procedures are provided in
module 7.1 page 104.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance procedures for the X-ray
tube. These procedures can be used as a version of
quality control, together with the routine maintenance
check-sheets provided in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. X-ray tube inspection
c. X-ray tube ‘seasoning’


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Cable ties.




● If a high-speed tube, check that the anode brake
cycle operates normally.
i. Some systems use direct current (DC brake) to


bring the anode to rest.
ii. Other use alternating current, to bring the speed


down to 3000rpm,after which the anode coasts
to rest.


c. X-ray tube seasoning


● This is also called ‘ageing’,and is a process to reduce
residual gas in the X-ray tube. Seasoning improves
the stability of the tube,when operated at high kV.


● Seasoning should always be performed if a new X-
ray tube is installed, or has not been used for more
than one month. The same applies where the tube
has not been used over 80~90kV for some time,
and then it is desired to use 110kV or higher.


● If using an X-ray tube of 125kV capacity at 110kV
or higher, seasoning should be performed each day
prior to use. If the tube is rated at 150kV, the same
applies if operating above 125kV.


● During seasoning, an X-ray tube may at first appear
unstable.After two to three exposures,the tube should
now be stable. If not, see module 7.1 page 104.


● Many manufacturers specify a seasoning procedure.
This can be found in the X-ray tube operation
or installation manual. Operation or installation
manuals for mobile generators may include a sea-
soning procedure.


● Table 2–a is suggested for a 150kVp X-ray tube with
a fixed installation.


● Table 2–b is typical for a mobile generator, with a
125kVp tube.


Note
i. Recommended output is 200 mA and 0.1 sec


for 20 mAs. For 10 mAs use 100 mA and
0.1 sec.


ii. # Steps 1,2, and 3 are only required if the tube
is just installed, or has not been in use for more
than one month.


iii. * If, for example, you never use above 125 kV,
then ignore steps 11 and 12.


iv. ** Although an X-ray tube is rated at 150 kV,
this is the absolute maximum rating. This can
reduce as the tube becomes worn, and espe-
cially as metal evaporation collects on the glass.
Operation above 140 kV may result in prema-
ture failure.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


49


Table 2–a. Seasoning technique for a 150 kVp
X-ray tube


Step kV mAs Times Pause time
(Seconds)


1 # 60 20 2 40


2 # 70 20 2 40


3 # 80 20 2 40


4 90 20 2 40


5 100 20 2 40


6 110 20 2 40


7 115 20 2 40


8 120 20 2 60


9 125 20 2 60


10 130 10 4 60


11 135* 10 4 60


12 140** 10 2 60


Table 2–b. Seasoning technique for a 125 kVp
tube


Step kV mAs Times Pause time
(Seconds)


1 # 60 10 2 40


2 # 70 10 2 40


3 # 80 10 2 40


4 90 10 2 40


5 100 10 2 40


6 110 10 2 50


7 115 10 2 50


8 120* 10 2 60


9 125* 10 2 60


Note
i. The majority of mobiles provide selection of mAs


only. If mA and time selection is available, then
aim for exposure times less than 0.3 sec.


ii. # Steps 1,2, and 3 are only required if the tube
is just installed, or has not been in use for more
than one month.


iii. * If, for example, you never use above 110kV,
then ignore steps 8 and 9.




MODULE 2.2


X-ray collimator


a. General precautions


Whenever changing a collimator lamp, always ensure
power is turned off and equipment unplugged from the
power point. If the equipment is part of a fixed in-
stallation, besides switching the generator power off,
ensure the isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


b. General maintenance


● Check electrical cable to the collimator. Ensure the
cable entry is protected against sharp edges of
the collimator housing. Rotation of the collimator
should not stretch or pull the cable.


● Check the operation of the collimator blades.These
should stay in position when adjusted, and not slip
if the X-ray tube is repositioned. If adjustment of
the clutch or brake is required, see module 7.2 page
110. (Do not rely on adhesive tape to hold the knob
in position.)


● Check the operation of the collimator lamp timer.
With clockwork systems, look for possible sticking
of the mechanism.


● Evaluate the intensity of the light beam from the
collimator. If too dim, see module 7.2 page 110.


● Check the type of globe fitted, and make sure you
have a spare globe in stock. Note. Some globes may
appear similar but have the filament in a different
position. See module 7.2 page 110.


● The following precautions should be observed if
changing the globe.
i. Ensure power to the generator and/or tube


stand is turned off.
ii. If a globe has just failed, wait for it to cool


down.
iii. When unpacking and inserting a new globe, do


not handle it directly. Instead use a tissue or a
piece of cloth so your fingers do not touch the
globe. This is very important when handling
Quartz-Halogen globes.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


50


E


Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for the X-ray collimator. These maintenance sugges-
tions are for a standard collimator used on a standard
tube-stand. Adjustment procedures are provided in
module 7.2 page 110.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance and performance checks
for the X-ray collimator.These procedures can be used
as a version of quality control, together with the
routine maintenance check-sheets provided in the
appendix.


Task 7,‘X-ray tube and collimator maintenance’, should
be attempted on completion of this module.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. General maintenance
c. Alignment tests


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template.*
■ 24/30 cm cassette.
■ Cloth, for cleaning.
■ Detergent.


* The template is described in appendix ‘B’ page 169.




c. Alignment tests


● Check the crosshair alignment of the front trans-
parent cover.
i. With the collimator blades almost closed, the


crosshair should be in the centre of the light
field. Check at both horizontal and vertical
settings.


ii. If adjustment is required, on most collimators,
the cover may be moved after loosening the four
retaining screws. (In some cases, the cover may
at first stick in place.)


● Check the Bucky centre light, if fitted. If out of
alignment, see module 7.2 page 110.


● The collimator has a scale combined with the
adjustment knob to indicate the field size.The knob
can slip on the shaft, or not be correctly positioned
after replacing a collimator globe.
i. Place a 24/30cm film on the tabletop, and


position the X-ray tube 100cm above the
tabletop.


ii. With the collimator light switched on, adjust
the light field to the film size.


iii. Check that the knob pointer indicates the
correct position on the scale.


iv. If necessary, reposition the knob on the shaft.
v. Repeat this test for other films in use.
vi. If the scale is worn or not legible, contact the


service department and obtain a new scale. In
the meantime, use a marker pen to indicate
positions for common cassettes in use.


vii. Attention to the scale is important. The lamp
might fail, and the spare globe has already been
used.


● To test the alignment of the X-ray to the light beam;
i. Place the X-ray alignment template on a


24/30cm cassette.


ii. Collimate the light beam to the outer 20 by
26cm rectangle.


iii. Make a low KV and mAs exposure.
iv. Develop the film.
v. In many cases the collimator is enabled to


rotate. Repeat the above test, with the collima-
tor rotated 90 degrees clockwise, and then 90
degrees counter clockwise.


vi. If there is an alignment problem, see module 7.2
page 110.


● Does the alignment meet the required compliance?
Two versions are provided as an example only. The
actual compliance requirement will depend on
individual country regulations.
i. The X-ray field edges should not deviate by more


than 2% of the distance between the plane of
the light field and the focal spot.
[ a1 ] + [ a2 ] £ 0.02 ¥ S.
[ b1 ] + [ b2 ] £ 0.02 ¥ S.
Where S is the distance from the focal spot, a1
and a2 are the two sides on one axis, and b1
and b2 are the two sides of the other axis.
For example, at a FFD of 100cm, if the two ver-
tical edges of the light field were displaced by
1.0cm, this would be at the limit of acceptance.
If only one edge was displaced, then 2.0cm is
at the limit of acceptance.


ii. Another version has a different requirement.
The total misalignment of any edge of the light
field with the respective edge of the irradiated
field must not exceed 1% of the distance
between the plane of the light field and the
focal spot.
For example, at a FFD of 100cm, the maximum
displacement of any edge should be less than
1.0cm.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


51




TASK 7


X-ray tube and
collimator maintenance


The X-ray tube and collimator in room 1 is due for its maintenance check.
Carry out this check, using the maintenance checklists provided in appendix ‘D’ of this workbook as a guide.


What is the X-ray tube model No? Serial No?


Focal spot sizes are; Broad focus. Fine focus.


Collimator model No? Serial No?


Examine carefully the HT cables as they enter the X-ray tube. Note, you will need to undo the retaining ring nut,
and slide back the cable support clamp.


Is the safety earth shield in good condition?


Examine the collimator globe. How would you describe this globe if requesting a replacement? (Hint, look in the
parts manual)


Carry out tests for X-ray beam and light beam alignment. Is this correct for all rotation positions of the
collimator?


If alignment is outside acceptable limits, explain how to readjust the collimator.


Were any adjustments required? Provide details.


Do any areas still require attention?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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MODULE 3.0


Bucky table and vertical Bucky


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before removing a cover, always switch the genera-
tor power off, and ensure the isolation power switch
for the room is also switched off.


● When removing the cover from a vertical Bucky,
make sure the Bucky cannot move upwards when
the cover is removed. For example, attach a rope
to hold it in position, or remove the cover with the
Bucky set to maximum height.


● Keep all screws, or other small parts in a container,
to avoid loss.


b. Bucky table


● Examine the physical condition of the table. Clean
the remains of adhesive tape etc from the table
body.


● Hint. Car polish, designed to ‘rejuvenate’ faded and
oxidised paint, can often improve the appearance of
an older table. Silicon furniture polish can assist in
removing scuffmarks and fingerprints etc.


● Check for loose screws on the tabletop profile rails.
The rails can become loose due to using a com-
pression device.


● Examine the condition of the compression device.
Check for correct operation. Remove the band from
the mechanism, and have it laundered.


● Check the operation of switches and indicator
lamps.


● With an elevating Bucky table, use a tape measure
to check the table height at the centre stop
position.


● Check the operation of the magnetic locks.
Note. Some movements may have two or more
magnetic locks. Carefully observe these locks and
ensure all locks are actually in operation. If adjust-
ment is required, see module 8.0 page 121.


● Check the operation of the tabletop lateral centre-
stop. Where this is mechanical, the spring tension
may need adjustment. In case of operation by the
magnetic locks, the stop position is normally


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


53


Aim


Aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures for
the Bucky table and vertical Bucky. Adjustment and
repair procedures are provided in module 8.0 page
121.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance and performance checks
for the Bucky table and vertical Bucky. These pro-
cedures can be used as a version of quality control,
together with the routine maintenance check-sheets
provided in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions.
b. Bucky table.
c. Potter Bucky.
d. Vertical Potter Bucky.


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Torch.
■ Aerosol spray lubricant.
■ Cloth, for cleaning.
■ Detergent.




controlled by a microswitch. Adjustment of this
microswitch can control the width and position of
the centre-stop operating position. See module 8.0
page 121.


● Move the tabletop in all positions. If there is scrap-
ing or binding in some positions, check the position
of the locks. Look also for a faulty bearing.


● Spray the bearing tracks and bearings with a light
aerosol lubricant, then clean the residue away from
the tracks, so only a thin film is left.


c. Potter Bucky


● Move the Bucky to both ends of the table. Check
that the Bucky carriage operates smoothly, and that
the Bucky lock operates correctly in all positions
across the table.


● Electrical cables to the Bucky should be firmly
attached at the Bucky, and no twisting or puling
occurs on the cable, at any position of the Bucky.


● Where there is a folding support arm for the con-
necting cable, look for possible binding or excessive
‘droop’. This can indicate loose mounting screws.


● Spray the Bucky track with a light aerosol lubricant,
and then wipe the residue from the track.


● Remove the Bucky tray. With a torch, examine the
Bucky interior for lost film markers.


● Look for loose screws holding the tray handle. Take
care not to over-tighten, as this might damage the
thread.


● Test the action of the Bucky tray cassette clamps.
If they do not hold the cassette firmly, see module
8.0 page 121.


● Spray the moving sections on the underside of the
Bucky tray with a light aerosol lubricant, move the
cassette clamps in and out, and then clean off all
residue. Take care that no residue appears on top
of the tray.


● Test the grid oscillation.
i. At the generator, select the lowest mA station,


50kV, and exposure time of 1~2 seconds.
ii. Ensure the collimator is closed, and the tube is


positioned away from the Bucky. Then make an
exposure with the Bucky selected.


iii. During the exposure, check for smooth opera-
tion of the grid.


iv. Watch for any shaking,or vibration of the Bucky,
as the grid reverses its movement. Or else, just
as the grid first starts to move.


v. Should shaking or vibration occur, this can
cause reduced sharpness of the radiograph. If
this occurs, contact the service department for
advice.


d.Vertical Potter Bucky


● The vertical Bucky should be checked in the same
manner as the table Bucky, but with the following
provision for retrieving lost film markers. These
markers can fall into the motor section at the
bottom of the Bucky, and may cause a problem. To
inspect, it is necessary to remove the front cover.
i. With power off, ensure the vertical lock firmly


holds the Bucky in place. If not, keep the Bucky
in position by tying with a rope, or by adding
extra weights.


ii. Carefully examine the method of attaching the
front cover. In most cases this is a series of
screws around the front cover. Other systems
may attach by screws on the top and bottom
sides.


iii. If separating profile rails from the front cover,
make a small mark so they can be returned to
the same position, including left and right, on
re-assembly.


iv. After removal of the front cover, look carefully
for any film markers. A torch will help to locate
them.


v. Re-assemble the front cover, taking care not to
over-tighten any screws.


● Check operation of the vertical lock.
● Vertical movement. Check and lubricate the verti-


cal track. Wipe off any excess.
● Check the rotation or tilt lock. (Only on Bucky with


this option)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


54


E




MODULE 3.1


Tomography attachment


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before removing a cover, always switch the genera-
tor power off, and ensure the isolation power switch
for the room is also switched off.


● Keep all screws, or other small parts in a container,
to avoid loss.


b. Mechanical and electrical inspection


● Inspect all sections of the attachment for loose or
missing screws.This can be a common problem with
some coupling arms.


● Inspect connecting cables. The outer insulation of
electrical cables should not be pulled out from the
plug or socket cable clamps.Plugs or sockets should
be in good condition and fit firmly into position.


● Check the rotation lock on the tube stand.With the
rotation lock ‘off’, the X-ray tube should rotate
easily.


● The Bucky lock should disengage, and the Bucky
move freely along the guide rails.


● When assembling the unit, pay attention to bear-
ings or pivot points, which the coupling arm passes
through. The arm should move up and down freely.


● When attaching the coupling arm to the tube
stand, ensure the clamp holds the arm firmly.


● With the coupling arm attached, switch off the tube
stand longitudinal-lock. Disengage the tomographic
motor, and push the tube stand by hand to each
end of the normal tomographic travel. Check that
the tube stand and Bucky moves smoothly, and
there is no sudden jerking to the movement. (This
test depends on individual system design, and may
not be possible with some units)


● Check the fulcrum height adjustment. This should
operate smoothly, and have a clear indication of
setting height.This may be a scale and pointer, or a
digital readout in later systems.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


55


Aim


Aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures for
a tomographic attachment. This may be fitted to a
standard tube stand, or integrated with a Bucky table.
Adjustment and repair procedures are provided in
module 8.1 page 127.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance and performance checks
for the tomographic attachment. These procedures
can be used as a version of quality control, together
with the routine maintenance check-sheets provided
in the appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions.
b. Mechanical and electrical inspection
c. Operation test.
d. Performance test.


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Tomography resolution tool.*
■ Or, tomography test tool.*


* The tomography resolution tool is described in
appendix ‘B’ page 169.


* A tomography test tool is described in the WHO
‘Quality assurance workbook.’




c. Operation test


● This test may be performed by using the ‘Reset’
switch to drive the unit to either direction. If this
facility is not available, or is only available at a
slow speed, then it is necessary to produce a radi-
ographic exposure. In this case, select minium kV
and mA, an exposure time sufficient to allow full
operation, and ensure the collimator is closed.


● Operate the tube stand travel in all speeds and
modes of operation. Check for the following
possibilities.
i. Lack of positive drive during the start of travel.


For example, the drive system is slipping.
ii. Poor stopping position or overshoot at the end


of travel, especially when operated at maximum
speed and angle.


iii. Shaking or uneven travel through the active area
of movement. Some initial shaking may occur at
the start of travel, but should stop before reach-
ing the exposure position.


d. Performance test


● This is a test for layer height, and providing the
tomography resolution test is used, an evaluation of
image sharpness.


i. Select a low kV and mA position.
ii. Select a medium angle. Set exposure time to


suit the speed and angle.
iii. Adjust the fulcrum height to the centre height


position of the test piece.
iv. Perform a tomographic exposure.
v. Examine the film.There should be even blurring


of the test objects above and below the test
piece centre, which should be sharply defined.


vi. If the top and bottom paper clips are not
equally blurred, then adjust the fulcrum height
a small amount, and repeat this test.


vii. If the central paper clips are blurred in any
direction, this can indicate shaking or uneven
movement of the Bucky, or tube stand. See
module 8.1 page 127.


viii. Repeat this test using the maximum angle and
speed, then again using minimum speed.


ix. Retain the films as a record. Include on the
films the exposure setting and mode of
operation.


● In case the fulcrum height is incorrect, or the image
sharpness is poor, record the test procedures used.
Include the tomograph speed and angle. Contact
the service department for advice.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


56


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MODULE 4.0


Fluoroscopy table


a. General precautions


● Before removing any cover, always switch the gen-
erator power off, and ensure the isolation power
switch for the room is also switched off.


● If removing a cover, or dismantling any section,
place the screws in a container to avoid loss.


b. Mechanical and electrical inspection


● Make a general inspection of the table body and
serial-changer. Tighten any loose screws, or panels
and fittings.


● Check the rails holding the tabletop in place.
Tighten any loose screws.


● Examine all suspension system cables and chains
for any sign of wear, or uneven tension in the case
of dual systems.


● Check electrical cables, particularly at the rear of
the table. Pay special attention to cables that may
be twisted or tangled. It may be necessary to
remove existing cable ties, reposition the cables, and
then install fresh cable ties. (Use plastic or nylon
cable ties only)


● Where electrical cables enter the table, check that
the cable clamps properly secure them.The protec-
tive outer insulation of the cable should not be
pulled back, exposing inner conductors.


● The serial-changer should be able to move smoothly
from the ‘park’ position, and lock firmly into place.


● Check the operation of all switches and operation
lights on the serial-changer.


● Additional control switches are sometimes placed
on the side of the table body. Patient trolleys can
damage these switches.


● Older systems with a demountable image intensifier
(II).
i. The II should balance vertically when removed


from the serial-changer.
ii. The II should be held firmly in position when


clamped to the serial-changer. Look for loose
clamps.


● Is the serial-changer lead-rubber radiation shield in
good condition? Can it be easily positioned?


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


57


Aim


Aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures for
the fluoroscopy table. These procedures are intended
for an under-table tube fluoroscopy table. The under-
table Bucky maintenance procedures are described in
module 3.0 page 53.


Fluoroscopy TV maintenance is provided in module
4.1 page 60. Adjustment and repair procedures are
provided in module 9.0 page 130.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance and performance checks
for the fluoroscopy table. These procedures can be
used as a version of quality control, together with the
routine maintenance check-sheets provided in the
appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions.
b. Mechanical and electrical inspection.
c. Operation test, table body.
d. Operation test, serial-changer (Spot filmer).
e. X-ray beam alignment.
f. Cleaning.


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Torch.
■ Spirit level.
■ Cloth, for cleaning.
■ Detergent.




● With the aid of a torch, make a careful examina-
tion for lost film markers inside the serial-changer.


● The footrest requires careful attention. If there is
any tendency for the locking mechanism to slip, this
will require urgent correction.


c. Operation test, table body


● Check operation of all locks.The serial-changer ver-
tical lock should operate quickly when operated,
and not ‘stick on’ when released.


● Check all switches and indicator lamps for correct
operation.This especially includes those on the table
body, which may be damaged by patient trolleys.


● Operate the tabletop in all positions. Listen for any
unusual squeaks or bearing rattles.


● On tabletops fitted with a lateral centre stop, the
stop position should be checked. Use the proce-
dures described in module 2.0 page 44.


● Rotate the table to the vertical and Trendelenburg
positions. Listen for unusual bearing or motor noise
while the table is rotating. Does the table stop
quickly after the rotation control is released,or does
it tend to continue or ‘coast’ for a short while? This
could indicate a failure of the motor brake system.
Contact the service department for advice.


● The table should stop in the horizontal position, on
returning from the vertical position.Use a spirit level
to check the horizontal position.


● With the table tilted at maximum position in either
direction, check the electrical cables are not pulled
tight, or restrict the movement of the serial-
changer up and down the table.


● Some tables have power assistance for movements,
such as longitudinal movement of the serial-
changer; this should be smooth and free from
sudden jerks. See module 9.0 page 130.


● Some tables have safety anti-crash bars or flaps.
Pushing against these safety devices should prevent
the table from rotating.


● With the vertical or compression lock ‘on’, operate
the tabletop longitudinal movement. On some
tables, movement should not operate, and on
others, the vertical lock should release on move-
ment of the tabletop. If not, contact the service
department. There may be a safety upgrade
available.


● Place a standard 24/30cm cassette in the serial-
changer. With the vertical lock ‘off’, check for ver-
tical balance when moved up and down.


● Rotate the table into the vertical position.With the
serial-changer longitudinal lock ‘off’, check the


serial-changer and tower assembly for balance,
while moving it along the table body.


d. Operation test, serial-changer (Spot filmer)


● Compression cone movement should operate
smoothly, and lock into position.
i. If the movement is stiff or hesitant, try clean-


ing the slide tracks, then spray with an aerosol
lubricant.


ii. Operate several times, and wipe off any excess
spray.


● Some serial-changers have manually operated ‘close
to film’ shutters. These are coupled to the film
format selection. If stiff or hesitant, clean and lubri-
cate the tracks in the same manner as for the com-
pression cone.


● Manually operated cassette movement.
i. Load a 24/30cm cassette in the tray.
ii. Select a low kV and mAs setting at the X-ray


control.
iii. At the serial-changer, select the four-spot


mode.
iv. Set the collimator control to ‘Automatic’.
v. Advance the cassette, and expose all four


divisions. Watch the cassette as it moves into
the 3rd spot division. If the cassette ‘slams’
into position, a pneumatic ‘damper’ may need
replacement. Contact the service department
for advice.


vi. Process the film, and check that the four spots
are evenly distributed around the film, are the
same size, and without overlap.


vii. If incorrect, see module 9.0 page 130.
viii. Provide a similar test for other split formats.


● Motorized cassette movement.
i. Place a 24/30cm cassette in the cassette


carriage.
ii. Press the ‘load’ button. The cassette should be


withdrawn and stop smoothly. A ‘bang’ at the
end of travel can indicate an adjustment
problem, caused by the cassette carriage over-
shooting, and hitting the end stop. Contact the
service department for advice.


iii. Press the ‘eject’ button. The cassette should
move to the ‘eject/load’ position, and stop
smoothly. There should be no ‘bang’ at the end
of travel to indicate travel ‘overshoot’. Enough
of the cassette should extend to allow easy
removal.


iv. Reload the 24/30cm cassette.
v. Select a low kV and mAs setting at the X-ray


control.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


58


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vi. At the serial-changer, select the four-spot
mode.


vii. Set the collimator control to ‘Automatic’.
viii. Advance the cassette, and expose all four


divisions. Watch the cassette as it moves into
the 3rd spot division, for possible failure of
the movement damper. (Only on some older
systems)


ix. Process the film, and check that the four spots
are evenly distributed around the film, are the
same size, and without overlap. If incorrect, see
module 9.0 page 130.


x. Repeat the above test for other split formats
and film sizes.


e. X-ray beam alignment


● Install a 24/30cm cassette, and select the four-spot
mode.


● At the X-ray control, select a low level of fluoroscopy
kV and mA.This should be just sufficient to see the
position of the X-ray beam shown on the TV monitor.
(Or the fluorescent screen)


● With fluoroscopy ‘on’, manually collimate the beam
to the maximum four spot size.
i. The edge of the beam should be sharply defined


by the four-spot cone or by the ‘close to film’
shutters.


ii. In case one side is less sharp, and shows move-
ment with only a small adjustment of the colli-
mator, then beam alignment is incorrect.


● Observe the beam alignment with the serial-
changer at both minimum and maximum height
positions above the tabletop.


● Repeat the above test with the table tilted to
vertical position.


● Note. In most cases, beam alignment will shift a
little when the table is moved from horizontal to
vertical. The amount of misalignment is usually due
to flexing of the table framework. In some cases
this may be due to incorrectly adjusted bearings.
Contact the service department for advice.


● If beam alignment is incorrect, see module 9.0 page
130.


f. Cleaning


● Due to the types of examinations, barium spills can
leave deposits under the tabletop, or on the pro-
tective cover under the tabletop. Inspect with the
tabletop moved to its maximum position in each
direction.


● Hint. Shine a torch beam between the tabletop and
the protective cover.


● Another cause of artefacts is contrast media from
an IVP examination.This is sometimes found under-
neath the serial-changer, as well as the tabletop.The
contrast media is not easy to see when it has dried
out.


● The contrast residues may be cleaned with a
mixture of household detergent and warm water.
Use sufficient to just dampen the cleaning cloth.


● Fluoroscopy tables are subject to marks from
patient trolleys etc.
i. These marks and scratches can be reduced with


the aid of car polish.
ii. The type to use is one with a mild abrasive,


advertized to ‘Restore faded or chalky paint’.
iii. Silicone furniture polish can help remove scuff-


marks, fingerprints etc.


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


59




MODULE 4.1


Fluoroscopy TV


a. General precautions


● Before removing any cover, always switch the gen-
erator power off, and ensure the isolation power
switch for the room is also switched off.


● Do not remove the cover of the TV monitor. Dan-
gerous voltages can exist for a considerable time
after the monitor is switched off.


● Do not attempt any adjustments to the TV camera,
unless under instruction by the service department.


● If removing a cover, or dismantling any section,
place the screws in a container to avoid loss.


b. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
image intensifier (II)


● On older systems with a ceiling suspension.
i. If the unit is dismounted from the serial-


changer, the vertical balance should be neutral.
ii. When attached to the serial-changer, the clamp


or latch system should hold the II securely, with
minimum movement.


iii. Up and down movement should be free, without
binding or unusual noises.


iv. The ceiling suspension unit should travel freely.
(Some systems may hesitate before moving, this
is normal.)


● Electrical cables to the II and TV camera should be
securely attached. The cables should not be pulled,
or stretched, during table movements.


● Push buttons and selection switches should have
their function clearly marked. Note. Some knobs or
control settings may be for an option only, and not
be installed. This should be noted in the logbook.


c. Mechanical and electrical inspection,
TV system


● Electrical cables should be securely attached to the
monitor trolley. There should be no possibility of
pulling against cable connections. This also applies
in case of wall mounted plugs and sockets.


● Examine the video cable connection, both at the
monitor and TV camera. The cable should be firmly


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Aim


Aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for the fluoroscopy TV system. These include checks
for image sharpness, and the automatic brightness
control. The basic TV imaging system consists of an
image intensifier (II),TV camera, and monitor. Systems
with greater complexity, such as DSA and electronic
radiography, are not included. Adjustment and repair
procedures are provided in module 9.1 page 135.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with maintenance and performance checks
for the fluoroscopy TV system.These procedures can be
used as a version of quality control, together with the
routine maintenance check-sheets provided in the
appendix.


Contents


a. General precautions.
b. Mechanical and electrical inspection, image


intensifier.
c. Mechanical and electrical inspection, TV system.
d. Image sharpness.
e. Automatic brightness/kV control.


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ Resolution test piece.*
■ Plastic container for water phantom.


* A ‘V’ pattern test piece is described in appendix ‘B’
page 169.




attached to the plug, including the outer earth
shield. Moving the cable at the plug should not
cause any ‘flicker’ or change in the TV image.


● Check the video-input 75ohm termination-switch.
In the case of a single video connection only, this
should be ‘ON’. If two or more monitors, then the
switch on the end monitor should be ‘ON’, while the
middle monitor, with two video connections, should
be switched to the ‘OFF’ position. (In some cases, a
termination plug is fitted to the unused video ‘out’
connection.)


● Ensure the monitor is securely fastened to the
monitor trolley. This especially applies to monitor
trolleys with a tilting platform.


d. Image sharpness


● An evaluation of image sharpness or focus is best
carried out with a ‘Line pair’ gauge. The industry
standard is one made from 0.1mm lead.


● An alternate test piece for testing focus may be
constructed from long sewing needles arranged in
a ‘V’ pattern. See appendix ‘B’ page 169.


● There are several methods used to evaluate per-
formance of an imaging system. The basic method
described here is to indicate if resolution has drifted
below an acceptable level.
i. Tape the gauge onto the centre of the input


face of the image intensifier. If access is diffi-
cult, then tape the gauge to the under surface
of the serial-changer.


ii. To avoid interaction with grid lines, attach the
gauge so it is rotated approximately 25~45
degrees. (On some CCD TV cameras, this also
avoids interaction between pixels.)


iii. Lift the serial-changer to maximum height
above the tabletop.


iv. If the system has automatic kV control, this
should be turned off. Set manual fluoroscopy
kV to 50~55kV.


v. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, adjust kV or mA to
obtain a normal brightness and contrast image
on the monitor.


vi. Carefully observe the line-pair patterns. The
limiting definition is the line pair group that is
reasonably visible, while the next group is com-
pletely blurred out. (This can sometimes be a
good test of individual eyesight.)


vii. If using the ‘V’ pattern test piece, measure the
distance to the apex before blurring occurs.


viii. Record the line pair resolution, or ‘V’ pattern
distance obtained, and compare with any
earlier tests.


ix. Repeat this test for other field sizes if a multi-
field II is installed.


x. As a guide, with a 9≤ image intensifier, resolu-
tion should not be less than 1.0 line pairs/mm.
(Typical resolutions for current systems are
1.4 line pairs/mm minimum for a standard
CCD camera, while some higher performance
systems may achieve resolutions of more than
2.0 line pairs/mm.


xi. If image sharpness, or image quality, is not
good, see module 9.1 page 135.


e. Automatic brightness/kV control


● Automatic brightness adjusts the TV image as dif-
ferent sections of anatomy are examined.


● Automatic brightness normally controls the fluoro-
scopic output, either by kV or mA, or else a combi-
nation of both kV and mA. Older methods operate
by direct compensation in the TV camera only.
Current systems often use a combination of both
methods.


● Systems with automatic control of fluoroscopy kV
or mA.
i. Place a plastic bucket or container with about


3.0cm (1.25≤) of water on the tabletop.
ii. Bring the serial-changer down close to the


water phantom.
iii. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, the image on the monitor


should be a normal brightness level.
iv. If automatic control is by kV only, or mA only,


this may not provide complete compensation.
If the image has excess brightness, it may be
necessary to reset the manual adjustment.
For example.
—If automatic control is by kV only, and kV has


reached its minimum value of 50kV, but the
mA indicates 3.0mA, then reduce the fluo-
roscopic mA setting.


—If automatic control is by mA only, and the
manual kV was set to 120kV, then of course,
reduce kV.


v. Increase the height of water in the container
to about 18.0cm (7≤) of water.


vi. With fluoroscopy ‘on’ kV or mA should
automatically adjust to maintain the correct
brightness.


vii. Close the collimator.Then with fluoroscopy ‘on’,
kV or mA should now reach its maximum value.


viii. Note. For the above tests, the brightness
should stabilize without oscillating up and
down in brightness level. (This means the ‘set-
tling time’ is not stable.)


PART II. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE MODULES


61




● Systems with automatic control of brightness by
the camera only.
i. Place a plastic bucket or container with about


5.0cm (2.0≤) of water on the tabletop.
ii. Set Fluoroscopy kV to about 60kV, and the mA


control to about 1.0mA.
iii. Bring the serial-changer down close to the


water phantom.
iv. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, the image on the monitor


should be a normal brightness level.


v. If overbright, and it is necessary to reduce kV
still further, the camera brightness control is not
effective.


vi. If brightness appears normal, increase kV in
10kV steps, till the image becomes over bright,
or ‘flaring’ occurs. A good system should be able
to compensate up to about 100kV. (This is
based on a target-controlled vidicon TV camera.
CCD types may have reduced control.


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PART III
Fault diagnosis


and repair modules




E




MODULE 5.0


Common procedures for fault
diagnosis and repairs


a. Problem diagnosis, or trouble-shooting


Method
Trouble-shooting is a procedure of observation, then
making suitable tests to either eliminate, or confirm,
a suspect section of equipment. As the area under
examination is reduced by further tests, it becomes
easier to locate the actual problem.


Note. With any trouble-shooting technique, it is not
necessary to approach a problem from any specific
direction or set of rules. Rather, you should first
observe, consider a possibility and then devise a test
to check that assumption.


Consider which items are quick or easy to check.
This can save time if first carried out.When a problem
occurs, record how the equipment was used just before
the problem occurred. This allows a similar procedure
to be used as a test, in case the symptoms of the
recorded problem are not easily reproduced.


During the process of locating the cause of a
problem, record the tests or checks made, and the
results.This will provide a valuable record if it becomes
necessary to ask advice from the service department.


Typical problems
● Operator error.
● Equipment incorrectly calibrated.
● Faulty connecting plugs, sockets, or cables.
● A safety interlock is preventing equipment


operation.
● Electrical or electronic failure.
● High-tension cable or X-ray tube failure.
● Mechanical problems.
● Alignment adjustments.


Observation of a problem
This is important, especially at the time a problem
occurs. Possibilities that may be observed are:


● Is there an operator error?
● A burning smell? Where does it come from?
● Is there an increase in temperature? For example:


—The X-ray tube housing has become very hot to
touch.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


65


Aim


The aim is to provide information for common proce-
dures involved in diagnosing or repairing a problem.
Most of these procedures are applicable to all of the
fault diagnosis and repair modules.


Objectives


On completion of this module the student will be
able to:


● Adopt a systematic approach to fault diagnosis,as an
introduction to the modules for individual equipment.


● Be aware of methods for locating broken wires, and
faults in plugs and sockets.


● Test and replace a fuse with a suitable replacement.


Task 8, ‘Fuse identification’, should be attempted on
completion of this module.


Contents


a. Problem diagnosis, or trouble-shooting
i. Method.
ii. Typical problems.
iii. Observation of a problem.
iv. Equipment manuals.
v. Request for assistance.


b. Safety first
c. Locating bad connections


i. Typical areas.
ii. Locating a broken wire or bad connection.
iii. A plug or socket may have a fault.
iv. Power plug connections.


d. Is a fuse open-circuit?
i. Indications and tests.
ii. Fuse locations.
iii. Why has a fuse failed?
iv. Removing and replacing a fuse.
v. Common fuse types.
vi. Circuit breakers.
vii. Selecting a replacement fuse.
viii. Special fuses for high frequency generators.




—A lock coil, in the area where a burning smell is
observed, is very hot to touch.


● Unusual sound. What sort of sound? Where from?
● Absence of sound. For example:


—No anode rotation noise from the X-ray tube.
—Ventilation fans are quiet


● Wrong mechanical operation.Look for obstructions,
or loose sections. For example:
—An indicator knob on a control panel has slipped


into a wrong position.
—A film is jammed in the processor.


● Visual observation. For example:
—Appearance of the film immediately as it leaves


the processor.
—Smoke rising from equipment, or a HT cable end.


Equipment manuals
Should be referred to whenever there is a problem.The
operation manuals often include a section on fault or
problem symptoms, as do the installation or service
manuals.The spare parts illustrations can help find the
physical positions of parts, such as locating a fuse in
equipment.


If during maintenance or other events manuals
appear to be missing, replacements should be
obtained as soon as possible. Quite often, service engi-
neers attending your equipment will also require these
manuals. If not available, this could lead to delays in
correcting a problem.


Request for assistance
When requesting advice from the service department,
the following information may be required.


● Hospital name, address, fax, and phone number.
● Who to contact at the hospital when discussing


the problem. Include the department and phone
number.


● Department and room number for equipment
location.


● Make and model number of equipment.
● A description of the problem. Include any


symptoms.
● What tests have been made, and the results.
● Are you asking for advice, or is this a direct request


for a service call?
● If a request for a service call, is an order number


available?
● Any conclusions that were made regarding the


cause of the problem, or what will be needed to
correct the problem.


If the request is made via e-mail or by fax, then this
information should always be included. If the request


is made via a phone call, having the information avail-
able will save time.


A record should be kept of service department
address details.This should include the address, e-mail,
phone, and fax numbers. Where a service engineer is
assisting with advice, include the engineers name and
contact details.


A sample service request form is provided in appen-
dix ‘C’ page 177.


b. Safety first


Before investigating a possible fuse or wiring
problem, always ensure power is turned off and
unplugged from the power point. If the equip-
ment is part of a fixed installation, besides
switching the generator power off, ensure the
isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


With battery operated mobiles, ensure the
battery isolation switch is in the off position. If
this cannot be located, contact the service
department for advice before proceeding.


c. Locating bad connections


Typical areas
● The generator handswitch cable.
● The connecting cable to the collimator.
● The fluoroscopy footswitch for a fluoroscopy table.
● Plugs or sockets used with mobile or portable X-ray


equipment.
● Power plugs.
● Plugs or sockets for tomographic attachments.
● Cables, which are pulled or twisted.


Locating a broken wire or bad connection
● Remove the cover from the plug or socket, and


check if wires have broken away from the contact
pins.


● Wires can break inside a cable.This will occur where
there is a lot of twisting or stretching. For example,
a handswitch cable.


● Note. Some wires may seem intact, but can be
broken a short distance from a connection point.
This is difficult to see, as the wire is covered by the
plastic insulation.


● A simple test is to give a gentle to firm tug to a
suspect wire. If a particular wire appears to stretch,
compared to other wires, it is probably broken


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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inside the insulation. However, this test is not reli-
able, as a break can occur in another position.


● A multimeter should be used to give an accurate
test of a suspect connection or broken wire.
i. Select the low ohms position of the multimeter.
ii. Connect the two probes together. The scale


should read less than 1.0ohm. If using an ana-
logue meter, adjust the zero-ohms knob on the
meter, so the meter needle is on the zero
position.


iii. Record the minimum value that was indicated
when the probes were touched together.


iv. Connect the meter probes at the two ends of
the wire being tested.The meter should indicate
less than 2.0ohms above the value previously
recorded with the probes connected together.


v. A broken wire in a cable may have a partial con-
nection, and cause an intermittent fault. Give
the cable under test a tug or twist while watch-
ing the meter. If the meter flickers or indicates
a changing value while the cable is moved, the
wire is faulty.


Check for a faulty handswitch, or handswitch cable.


Caution.
Ensure the generator is switched off, and the
room power isolation switch also turned off. If
this is a mobile or portable generator, ensure it
is switched off, and the power cable unplugged
from the power point.


● This test should be performed with the assistance
of an electrician or electronics technician.


● Make a diagram, so that when the handswitch is
disconnected or unplugged, it can be correctly
reconnected.


● A multimeter is required, set to the low ohms posi-
tion.Check that the meter indicates zero ohms with
the meter probes touching together.


● Open the hand switch assembly, and identify the
terminals of the suspect switch. With the meter
probes touching the switch terminals, operate the
switch.The meter should indicate zero ohms.Repeat
this test for other switches in the handswitch.


● Identify the connecting wires between the switch
terminals and the other end of the handswitch
cable.With the meter connected to each end of the
cable wires, the meter should indicate less than
2.0ohms. When making this last test, if at first
you have a good result, test again by tugging on the


connecting lead, and also move the cable in differ-
ent positions.


● If there is a broken wire in the handswitch cable,
this often occurs close to the handswitch, and
sometimes where the cable enters or is attached to
the control desk.


● To look for a broken wire, cut open the cable outer
insulation to expose the internal wires. Commence
where the cable enters the handswitch, and con-
tinue about 15cm down the cable. Test individual
conductors by giving a firm pull. If a broken wire
is found, shorten the cable past the bad section,
and reconnect to the handswitch. The entire cable
should be replaced as soon as possible, in case of
other partially broken wires.


● The above procedures should be repeated for all the
switches in a handswitch assembly.


A plug or socket may have a fault
This can occur due to:


● A pin or contact has moved out of position.
i. This is due to bad assembly during manufacture.


However, the plug or socket may have consider-
able use before this fault occurs.


ii. Remove the back of the plug or socket
assembly.


iii. Locate the wire attached to the pin or contact.
iv. Try pushing it firmly back into position. If it sets


in place and will not move with a gentle to firm
tug on the wire, all is well.


v. If the pin or contact is not firmly attached, then
remove it and look for bent ‘hooks’ on it.
Straighten these out, so that when reinserted
they will keep the pin or contact in position.


● The contacts of a socket may have become
enlarged,and not provide a reliable or good contact.
i. The contact can be adjusted by pushing the


sides of the contact closer together. A useful
tool is a large sewing needle.


ii. Care must be taken not to damage the contact.
iii. This problem may occur where plugs and


sockets have had a lot of use. For example, with
a portable X-ray generator.


Power plug connections
The wires connected to the power plug terminals can
become loose.This can cause arcing, and may cause a
fuse to become open circuit.


The wires must be held securely inside the plug. If
the cable is pulled, this should not pull the wires from
the plug terminals. If the plug does not have a suit-
able method to prevent this from happening, then
replace the plug with an improved type.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


67




If wires have pulled loose from a power plug, this
may be due to a previous incorrect assembly.
Have the connections checked by an electrician
or electronics technician. This is to ensure the
active and neutral wires are connected to the
correct positions on the power plug, and, most
important, correct connection of the earth or
ground wire.


While wire colours now conform to interna-
tional standards, older equipment may use non-
standard colours. If this is found, have the power
cord replaced by an electrician.


d. Is a fuse open-circuit?


Indications and tests
● Some glass fuses can visually show if they are open


circuit by metal deposited on the glass. If the failure
is a small break in the wire, this is not easy to see.


● Fuses may have fine wire, again not easy to see,
so it may appear open circuit, but still be in good
condition.


● A continuity test with a multimeter is the only reli-
able way of verifying if a fuse is good or open circuit.
The meter is set to the low ohms range. If the meter
shows no indication when the probes are attached
to the fuse, the fuse is open circuit.


● Do not try to test a fuse with a meter while it is
still connected in the equipment, this can give a
false result.


Fuse locations
The physical location of fuses will vary greatly depend-
ing on the manufacturer and model of equipment.
Electrical regulations in many countries require a fuse
to be protected from access without using a tool.
Where fingers may be able to unscrew the cap of a
fuse holder, a protective cover must first be removed.


Possible fuse locations are:


● X-ray generator, fixed installation. There will not be
any external access fuses. Most fuses will be located
in the control cabinet, and a panel will need to be
removed to gain access. In some cases, there may
be additional fuses under a cover at the HT
transformer.


● Note. In some installations miniature circuit break-
ers may be fitted instead of fuses.These have a reset
switch, or button, mounted on top of the device.


● Mobile or portable X-ray generators can have exter-
nal access fuses mounted on a rear panel. Other-
wise internal access to the equipment is required.


● The Bucky table may have an external access fuse
panel on one side, or else on the side of a small
control box. Otherwise, a panel may have to be
removed to gain access.


● The vertical Bucky and stand may have a small
power supply box for magnetic locks.This may have
external access to a fuse, or require removal of the
box cover.


● The fluoroscopy table may have external access
power fuses located at the table foot. There will be
additional fuses inside the control cabinet, or inside
electronic control boxes placed on the table body.


● A floor-ceiling tube stand can have a small power
supply box mounted at the top of the column. This
usually has external access to the fuses.


● A ceiling suspension tube support may have exter-
nal access to the fuses. In most cases a panel cover
will need to be removed.


● The operation or installation manuals often show
the location of fuses. The parts manual will also
indicate fuse positions, however the diagrams can
be very complex. Otherwise, contact the service
department for advice.


Why has a fuse failed?


● There is a fault. The fuse has blown to protect the
equipment.There will often be a heavy metal deposit
on the glass. On replacing the fuse, the new fuse will
also fail.


● There was a temporary fault caused by a power
surge.


● There is no fault. The fuse has become ‘fatigued’ or
‘tired’. This sometimes happens. If a glass fuse, the
wire may show a small broken section.


● An incorrect fuse was previously fitted. For example,
a 5A fuse fitted where a label indicates a 7.5A fuse.
This may have been a temporary replacement,
however first contact the service department for
advice.


● When a blown fuse is found, contact the service
department for advice. Give full details of the fault
symptoms, fuse number or identification, and posi-
tion in the equipment.


Removing and replacing a fuse
Never attempt to remove or replace a fuse unless all
power is switched off, and where applicable, unplugged
from the power point. In an X-ray room, also turn off
the main power isolation switch.


There are a large variety of fuse holders. Some types
are listed below.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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● The fuse is held between two spring clips.
i. Remove by pushing or lifting first at one end. If


trying to prise out by lifting in the middle, some
glass fuses may break.


ii. When re-inserting a fuse, the spring clips should
have a positive grip. If not, remove the fuse,bend
the clips inwards a little, and then reinsert the
fuse.


● The fuse is in a container, totally enclosing the fuse.
i. The front appears as a small square.There is no


screwdriver slot. In this case there should be a
small gap under the square front. Pushing a
small screwdriver into this gap will release the
catch, allowing an internal spring to push the
fuse out.


ii. There is a round cap, similar to a large version
of a toothpaste tube cap. Grip with the fingers,
and turn anticlockwise to undo.


iii. Two versions may have a screwdriver slot. One
version has a bayonet catch. To remove, first
push inwards with a screwdriver, then rotate
anticlockwise a quarter turn.This should unlatch
the top. In the second version, this is a simple
threaded type. Undo with a screwdriver, turning
anticlockwise.


Common fuse types
Fuses come in a great variety of styles, shapes
and sizes. Most common are the larger 3AG sizes,
6 ¥ 32mm, and the smaller M205 size, 5 ¥ 20mm.
The fuse may have a glass or ceramic body.


Of the above fuses, there are two main types.


● General-purpose fuse.
i. The element is normally a straight piece of wire,


or a thin metal strip.
ii. European fuses may have ‘MT’ marked on one


end.
● Slow blow or delay fuse.


i. These fuses are designed to allow a short high
surge current. This allows for the momentary
peak current demand from motors, transformers,
or power supplies, when first switched on.


ii. The element appears as a piece of wire,
attached to a spring.


iii. Another version has a wire, similar to a general-
purpose fuse. However, the wire has two small
metal beads spaced along the fuse wire.


iv. European fuses may have ‘T’marked on one end.


Circuit breakers
Circuit breakers may be fitted instead of fuses. In most
cases they are designed to handle large currents, such
as the main power supply to an X-ray generator. In
some cases, small circuit breakers are also fitted
instead of standard 5A or 10A fuses.


If a circuit breaker has tripped, the switch at the
front of the circuit breaker may be half way between
the ‘off’ and ‘on’ positions. To reset, push the switch to
the off position, then back to the on position.


Caution: Circuit breakers, like fuses, should only be
reset after the supply power is switched off.


Selecting a replacement fuse
Providing the fuse has the same rating and charac-
teristic, a ceramic fuse may be replaced with a glass
fuse.


If a fuse of the correct current rating is not avail-
able, then a smaller rated fuse might sometimes be
substituted as a temporary replacement, providing it
is close to the original value. Eg, a 2.5A fuse might
substitute for a 3A fuse. In case a delay fuse is not
available, a standard fuse of the same rating may be
tried as a temporary replacement. Do not substitute a
delay fuse for a standard fuse.


Special fuses for high-frequency generators
These are very large fuses, sometimes rated up to
200amps, for use in the inverter. The fuse may be a
long, large diameter cartridge fuse, seated in heavy-
duty brass clips; or else a large ceramic type, retained
by a nut and bolt. While inverter fuses can fail due to
fatigue, or a temporary problem due to X-ray tube
instability, there could be a semiconductor failure in
the inverter.


● Only an electrician or electronics technician should
attempt to test or replace an inverter fuse.


● Before replacing the fuse, a test for a possible short
circuit in the inverter should be made.


● Caution: High residual voltages can be present in
the power supply capacitors.


● Always consult the service department for advice
before attempting to test or replace an inverter
fuse. The service department may require specific
tests to be made before replacement, otherwise
further damage could occur.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


69




TASK 8


Fuse identification


You have been supplied with a mixed selection of fuses.


● What is the current and voltage rating of each fuse?
● Are any of these fuses a ‘delay’ or ‘slow blow’ version?


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


70


E


Fuse No Voltage Current Delay fuse?


1


2


3


4


5


6


One or two of these fuses may be faulty. Test the fuses, using a multimeter. Use the instructions provided in
module 8.0


Were any of these fuses faulty? Indicate which fuse No.


Was there any difficulty in using the multimeter?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor




MODULE 6.0


X-ray generator:
Fixed installation


Task 9.‘No Preparation, Part 1’ and task10.‘No Prepa-
ration, Part 2’, should be attempted after section one
of this module.
Task 11. ‘No Exposure’, and task 12. ‘X-ray output lin-
earity’, should be attempted after section two of this
module.


Contents


Section 1: No preparation
Part 1. Nothing happens.
Part 2. Is there a bad connection or fuse?
Part 3. Warning signals due to a fault con-
dition.
Part 4. X-ray tube tests.
Part 5. Other tests.


Section 2: No radiographic exposure
Part 6. Operation tests.
Part 7. No mA or kV.
Part 8. High-tension problems.


(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


71


Aim


The aim is to provide information and procedures for
diagnosing, or repairing, a problem with an X-ray gen-
erator.The generator is installed as a fixed installation
in an X-ray department. Flow charts are provided to
indicate logical steps, when diagnosing a problem.


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be able
to carry out a set of procedures to locate a problem
area in the generator. This will allow minor repairs to
be carried out. An electrician or electronics technician
may also provide assistance. Otherwise an accurate
description of the problem can be provided to the
service department, if requiring advice or direct
assistance.


This module is divided into two sections. The first
section looks at problems that occur during prepara-
tion for an exposure.The second section looks at prob-
lems affecting an exposure, after preparation for an
exposure has been completed.


Section 1: No preparation


This section examines a number of situations where
the generator prepares for an exposure. Before the
control system will permit preparation to begin,
the generator makes a number of safety tests. Once
the generator enters into the preparation mode, more
tests are made.When all tests are satisfied, the control
system signals ready for an exposure.There are a total
of five parts, each with an associated flow chart.
Study each flow chart first, and then read the text for
additional information.


Part 1. Nothing happens


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–1 page 75, ‘Unable
to obtain preparation, part one’.


On attempting to have the control prepare for an
exposure, nothing happens. There is no sound of X-ray
tube anode rotation. At the end of the normal prepa-
ration time, there is no sign the generator is ready for
an exposure.


Are there any warning lights on
the control panel?
The warning light could indicate a fault in the gener-
ator, or else an operator error. In some systems there
may be two warning lights, one for incorrect setting
of the X-ray control, and the other for a fault in the
generator.


In the case of a warning light indicating wrong
exposure factors, this could be due to:




● The kV set for the exposure is above the maximum
X-ray tube rating. Reduce the kV setting.


● The kV is below the minimum kV specified by
radiation regulations. Increase the kV setting.


● The mA selection is too high for the required mAs.
Select a lower mA position, and a longer exposure
time.


● The combination of a high value of mA, and a low
value of kV. This could overheat the X-ray tube
filament. Either increase kV, or else select a lower
value of mA and increase the exposure time.


● With some generators, selecting a very short expo-
sure time combined with a low mA will prevent
operation. For example, if the limit is 0.5mAs, then
500mA at 0.001 second is accepted. However, if
250mA is selected, then the minimum exposure
time becomes 0.002 second.


● The X-ray control microprocessor has calculated
the amount of heat in the X-ray tube anode from
previous exposures. A further exposure would cause
the anode heat capacity to be exceeded.Wait a few
minutes for the anode to cool down.


● Note. Most X-ray controls, which calculate total
anode heat, display the result on the control panel.
This may take the form of a number, or a bar graph.
In other cases a small symbol indicates excessive
anode heat.


Does the control panel display a message,
instead of a warning light?
Modern microprocessor-controlled generators can
have special display modes to indicate problems or
operator error. Compared to a single indicator light,
these systems give increased information.For example:


● A direct message ‘Reduce mAs’ appears on the
control panel. This direct type of message might be
displayed with microprocessor-controlled genera-
tors, together with a plasma or liquid crystal display
panel.


● The kV display does not show the required kV.
Instead a code E2 appears in the kV display.This is
another way a microprocessor-controlled generator
may indicate an error.


● The operation manual has a list of the codes and
what they mean. In this case E2 could mean ‘Set
kV is too high’. Codes are used to also indicate fault
conditions. A code F3 could mean the generated
mA exceeded the calibration limit during the previ-
ous exposure. If a fault code appears, consult the
service department for advice.


● The actual code numbers, where they appear on the
control panel, and their meanings, depend on the


make and model of equipment. Only some X-ray
controls have these features.


Does resetting the exposure factors turn off
the warning light?
● If the warning light does not turn off, go to part


three.
● If the warning light is off, then test again for prepa-


ration. If preparation can now be obtained, all is
well. Otherwise continue with ‘Other basic checks’.


Other basic checks
● Is a suitable technique selected? For example, if the


fluoroscopy table is selected instead of the table
Bucky, handswitch operation may not be permitted.


● Is a suitable focal spot selected? If the exposure
factors were suitable for the large focal spot, select-
ing the small focal spot with the same exposure
factors could prevent operation.


● Check all other settings. If unsure of their correct
use or position, please refer to the operation
manual, or contact the service department for
information.


● Was an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) in use for
the last exposure? The AEC may have generated an
inhibit signal. Disable the AEC and try again.


● Does the X-ray room have a door-open safety switch
or ‘interlock’? The operation of this switch may be
faulty.
i. When the door is closed,can you hear the switch


operate? In this case, it is probably ok.
ii. If no indication is heard, check the switch


operation with a multimeter.
iii. Ensure all power is turned off, including the


room power isolation switch.
iv. Set the multimeter to the low ohms position.


Connect the probes together. The meter should
indicate close to zero ohms.


v. With the probes connected to the switch con-
tacts, test the switch operation by opening and
closing the door.


Can preparation now be obtained?
If the answer is yes, the problem is solved. Otherwise
continue with part two.


Part 2. Is there a bad connection or fuse?


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–2 page 76, ‘Unable
to obtain preparation, part two’. In this situation, the
tests indicated in part one have been completed. No
warning lights or error codes are displayed on the
control panel.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


72


E




Is there a fault with the handswitch?
● Listen at the X-ray tube while an assistant presses


the preparation button. Is there any sound of
anode rotation, or other noise, from the X-ray tube
when the button is pressed? If there is, then the
handswitch is ok. Proceed to part four.


● On pressing the preparation button, can you instead
hear a relay operate in the generator control
cabinet? If so, the hand switch is not at fault.
Proceed to part four.


Check for a faulty preparation switch,
or handswitch cable
● First ensure the generator is switched off, and the


room power isolation switch also switched off.
● This test should be performed with the assistance


of an electrician or electronics technician.
● To test the handswitch or cable, refer to module 5.0


page 65.
● If there was no problem found with the handswitch,


or handswitch cable, proceed to part 5.


Part 3.Warning signals due to a fault condition


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–3 page 77, ‘Unable
to obtain preparation, part three’.


In this situation,a warning light or code may appear
immediately the generator is switched on, or else
during the last exposure. The checks indicated in part
one have been performed. Operator error or incorrect
exposure settings are not the cause of the problem.


A warning light or code appears when
switched on
This indicates a serious fault condition. If a code or
message is displayed, refer to the operation manual
for its meaning. If the code indicates an operator or
setting error, then recheck the tests carried out in
part one. Otherwise contact the service department.
Provide details of the fault code, and any other symp-
toms that were observed.


● A fuse may have failed, or a circuit breaker tripped.
i. Before opening any panels to check a fuse,


always ensure the equipment is switched off, and
the room power isolation switch also turned off.


ii. Procedures for testing or replacing a fuse, are
described in module 5.0, page 65.


iii. If a fuse is open circuit, or a circuit breaker
has tripped, consult the service department for
advice regarding the possible cause.


● Is the mains power supply voltage too low? Or is
one phase missing? This could happen after a storm
or power failure.
i. If the generator has a manual adjustment for


the mains voltage, check and make sure it is set
correctly.


ii. Other generator designs have automatic
compensation for changes in supply voltages.
Depending on the design, the mains voltage may
have changed outside the adjustment range of
the automatic compensation. Ask an electrician
to check or measure the supply voltage.


iii. A three-phase generator may still switch on with
only two phases of the mains supply available.
Some designs have a fault detector in case this
happens.Ask an electrician if there is a problem
with the hospital power.


A warning light or code appears
during preparation
If a code or message is displayed, refer to the opera-
tion manual for its meaning, or contact the service
department. Provide details of the fault code, and any
other symptoms that were observed.


● Does the warning light appear immediately on
pressing the preparation switch? This may indicate
a serious problem with the X-ray tube filament
control section of the generator.Contact the service
department before proceeding.


● In case the warning light occurs during or just at
the end of preparation, this may indicate a filament
connection problem, or failure to pass the anode
rotation safety test. Proceed to part four. Otherwise
contact the service department for advice.


● Did the warning light operate during the last expo-
sure? This can indicate an over current (mA) situa-
tion. Over-current may be caused by instability in
the X-ray tube, or else a fault in the HT cable or
cable end.
i. Try resetting the fault detection by switching


the X-ray control OFF then ON again. Then try
to obtain preparation.


ii. If preparation can now be obtained, go to
part 8.


iii. If preparation still cannot be obtained, proceed
to part four, or contact the service department
for advice.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


73




Part 4. X-ray tube tests


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–4 page 78, ‘Unable
to obtain preparation, part four’. There are no warning
lights or message codes. On attempting preparation,
some sound was observed at the X-ray tube. This
indicates the preparation handswitch is ok. During
preparation the X-ray control applies a test for anode
rotation,and minimum filament current in the selected
focal spot. There may be a problem with anode rota-
tion, or else a poor connection to the X-ray tube
filament.


Does anode rotation appear normal?
This should be the normal sound of the anode accel-
erating to the required preparation speed. Instead it
may be just a buzzing or humming noise. The possibil-
ities are:


● One of the three conductors for the X-ray tube
stator is broken or has a bad connection.
i. Check the stator cable where it enters the X-ray


tube housing.
ii. Does the cable show signs of being pulled or


stretched? A wire may have been pulled away
from a terminal.


iii. Before checking any connections, always ensure
the equipment is switched off, and the room
power isolation switch also turned off.


iv. Some x-ray tube housings have a plug and
socket for the stator cable connection. Has this
become loose, or is there a bad connection to
the plug or socket terminals?


● The X-ray tube itself is faulty, either with seized
bearings, or else with broken glass. If the glass is
broken, the anode may appear to rotate slowly, and
very quickly come to a stop when the preparation
switch is released.


● Is there oil leaking from the X-ray tube housing? An
arc may have occurred during the last exposure,
causing internal damage.


● Is there an open circuit fuse, or tripped circuit
breaker, supplying power to the X-ray tube starter?
This can be a common problem with some high-
speed starters.
i. Before opening any panels to check a fuse,


always ensure the equipment is switched off,
and the room power isolation switch also turned
off.


ii. If unsure where such a fuse or circuit breaker
may be located, contact the service department
for advice.


iii. If the fuse is faulty, take care to replace with
the correct size and type. See module 5.0 page
65.


iv. Examine the stator cable where it enters the X-
ray tube housing. If there is a possibility the
cable has been pulled, remove the cover plate
and check the connections for a possible short
circuit.


v. If on restoring power, or attempting preparation
again, the fuse blows, then stop, and contact the
service dept.


Is the focal spot filament connected?
During preparation the X-ray control tests for a
minimum filament current. This test is only to
ensure the filament is intact, and is at a minimum
temperature.
Note. This test does not ensure the correct mA will be
generated. A poor HT cathode-cable connection can
cause a drop in the required filament current, but still
be above the minimum value for the filament current
test. See part seven, ‘No radiographic exposure’.


● The selected focal spot may be open circuit, or have
a bad connection. Try obtaining preparation with
the other focal spot.


● There may be a bad connection to that focal spot
due to a bad HT cathode-cable cable-end pin con-
nection. There are three pins on the cable end. If
there is a bad connection at the centre pin, this will
affect both focal spots.
i. Before proceeding, ensure all power is switched


off.
ii. To check, undo the cathode cable-end retaining


ring nut. Partly withdraw the cable end about
2~4mm, then reinsert the cable end. Replace
and firmly tighten the cable-end ring nut.


iii. Test for preparation. If moving the cable end
has cleared the preparation problem, the cable
end will require further attention. This involves
removal of the cable end, cleaning the cable-end
pins, and re-sealing. For this procedure, see
module 7.3 page 117.


iv. Caution. The cable end may have silicon grease
as insulation instead of anti-corona silicon pads.
Removal of the cable end by more than 2~4mm
can reduce the effectiveness of the insulating
grease. As a precaution, do not exceed 100kV
until the cable end is re-sealed with fresh silicon
grease, see module 7.3 page 117.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


74


E




PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


75


Fig 6–1. Unable to obtain preparation, part one


Are there any
warning


indications?


Is this fault code
or a message?


Look in the operation manual
for the meaning of the


message code. If necessary,
contact the service


department.


Proceed to part three.
See text for other possible


areas to be checked.


Has the warning
light turned off?


Can preparation
be obtained now?


Has a suitable
technique been


selected?


Select a correct
technique


End


Proceed to part two for further
tests.


Is a suitable tube
or focal spot


selected?


Select a suitable
tube or focal spot.


On attempting to obtain
preparation, nothing at all


happens


End


End


Yes


No


Yes


Yes


Yes


Yes


No


No


No


No


No


YesIs there a 'door
open' safety
interlock?


End


No


No


Yes


Yes


Check the door-open safety
switch. Make sure it is operating
properly when the door is closed.
See the text for a test procedure.


Can preparation
now be obtained?


Check setting of exposure factors
for possible X-ray tube overload
protection. Include check of focal
spot selection, and minimum KV




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


76


E


Fig 6–2. Unable to obtain preparation, part two


On attempting to obtain
preparation, nothing appears to
happen. There are no message


codes or warning lights.


End


On pressing the
prep' button, can
you hear a relay


operate?


Power off. Disconnect the
handswitch cable from the control


desk. With a meter, test for
brocken wires or a faulty switch.


Preparation IS being attempted.
Proceed to part four.
Refer also to the text.


No


Yes


Power off. Turn isolation switch
off. Remove control cabinet


cover, and check for a possible
blown fuse. Refer to module 9
first for precautions in testing


or replacing a fuse.


Is there a faulty
fuse, or tripped
circuit breaker?


Refer to module
9.0 to replace a


fuse.
Contact service


before attempting
replacement.


Proceed to part five.
(See text for other possible


areas to be checked)


Yes


Yes


No


No


No


Yes


Listen at the
X-ray tube. Is


there any sound
on prep'?


Is there a broken
wire or faulty


switch?


Repair the broken wire in the
handswitch cable, or replace the


faulty preparation switch.




PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


77


Fig 6–3. Unable to obtain preparation, part three


On attempting to obtain
preparation, nothing appears to
happen. There is a permanent


message code or warning light.
The procedure in part one has


been carried out. Operation error is
not the cause of the problem.


No


Yes


Yes


Did the warning
fault light operate


immediatly on
power up?


This may be a serious fault.
Contact service for advice before


proceeding. Provide details of
tests carried out.


Did the
warning light


operate immediatly
after or during the


last exposure?


No


Yes


Contact service. Give full details
of the problem, and conditions


when the warning light operates.


Proceed to 'No exposure part 7'
Reduce kV to 60kV before


attempting another test
exposure.


No


Did the warning
fault light operate
when attempting


preparation?


Yes


No


This may be a serious fault.
Contact service for advice before


proceeding. Provide details of
tests carried out.


See the text for possible causes


See the text for possible causes


Can preparation
now be


obtained?


There may have been a high
tension fault, or excessive mA.


Switch power OFF then ON
again. Test if preparation can


now be obtained


There may be a blown fuse or
tripped circuit breaker.
Contact service before


proceeding.




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


78


E


Fig 6–4. Unable to obtain preparation, part four


On attempting to obtain
preparation, nothing appears to
happen. There are no warning


lights or message codes. However
some sound was observed at the


X-ray tube. This indicates the prep
handswitch is functioning.


No


Yes




Listen carefully at the X-ray tube
during preparation.


Contact service
before proceeding.


Try a test exposure with selection
of a different focal spot. (eg, if on


broad focus, try fine focus).


Was a broken
wire or bad
connection


found?


Contact service
before proceeding.


End


Undo the ring nut holding the
cathode cable in place. Withdraw


the cathode cable a few
millimeters only and re-insert.


NOTE, do not attempt if this is a
CD mobile.


The cathode cable end has a bad
pin connection. See module 11.3,


High tension cable.


Can preparation
now be obtained?


Contact service
before proceeding.


Can preparation
now be obtained?


There is a strong possibility that
the other focal spot is faulty. Do
not use that focal spot. Contact


service and ask for advice.


As the HT cable end has been
disturbed, refer module 11.3,


High tension cable, before
continuing to use the generator.


End


Yes


No


Yes


Yes


No


No


No


Yes


Are there any
signs of an oil


leak?


Does the X-ray
tube anode appear
to rotate normally?


Switch off. Turn the isolation
power switch off. Locate the stator
connection cable to the tube stand.
Check carefully for signs of a bad
connection or broken wire in the


cable to the X-ray tube.




Part 5. Other tests


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–5 page 79, ‘Unable
to obtain preparation, part five’.


There remain two possibilities to be checked.


● The wiring to the X-ray tube stator or the housing
over-temperature switch is broken or has a bad
connection. This could occur where it enters the X-
ray tube, or where the cable has received a lot of
flexing or twisting. See module 7.1 page 104.


● There may be an internal fault or problem in the
generator, but the warning light is also faulty or
burnt out. Test the light by setting very high expo-
sure factors, which would normally cause a tube
overload condition. If no warning light illuminates,
then the globe or control circuit is faulty.


● Include the results of all tests, when requesting help
from the service department.


Section 2: No radiograph exposure


This section assumes you are able to obtain prepara-
tion, the control has indicated preparation is com-
pleted, and is ready for an exposure. On attempting
to obtain an exposure, nothing happens. Or else, the
control appears to expose, but the film is blank or very
light. Each part has an associated flow chart. Refer to
these flow charts before reading the text.


Part 6. Operation tests


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–6 page 83, ‘No expo-
sure, part six’.


The control has indicated it is ready for an exposure.
On attempting to obtain an exposure, nothing appears
to happen.There is no sound from the Bucky.The expo-
sure light does not operate.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


79


Fig 6–5. Unable to obtain preparation, part five




No


YesWas a wiring break or bad
connection


found?


Check carefully all wiring to the
X-ray tube. Especially check for
a break in the stator cable, or to


the over-temperature safety
switch.


End


Can preparation
now be obtained?


Yes


No


Repair the break in wiring or
loose connection. If a faulty
temperature switch, make a
temporary bypass for testing


purposes.


Was there a
faulty


over-temperature
switch?


Yes


No


It is possible there is faulty or
burnt out warning light. Test by
selecting a very large mA, kV
and time setting. See if the
overload light does illuminate.
Advise the service department of
the results of this test, in addition
to all other tests and
observations.


On attempting to obtain
preparation, nothing appears to
happen. There are no warning


lights or message codes. No sound
was observed at the X-ray tube.


The hand switch and cable tests ok
There are no open circuit fuses or


circuit breakers.


Contact the service department
for advice, and to obtain a new


over-temperature switch or
sensor.


Continue to operate the system
with caution. Monitor the X-ray
tube housing, and stop using if


hot to touch.




Operation tests
● Check the technique selection to ensure a valid


operation. Look for selection buttons or switches
that are sticking, and may not have properly
operated or released.


● Is an Automatic Exposure Control (AEC) in
operation?
i. The warning light or signal with the AEC reset


button may have failed. Press reset and try
exposing again.


ii. Have you selected the correct AEC mode for the
particular Bucky or technique?


iii. Disable AEC operation, select suitable manual
exposure factors, and attempt another
exposure.


iv. If you can now expose, continue using the
system with AEC switched off. For AEC tests, see
module 10.0 page 140.


● Select the direct, or non-Bucky, handswitch tech-
nique.Try again to expose. If successful, consider the
following.
i. First ensure all power is turned off, including


the room power isolation switch.
ii. There is a possible open fuse or circuit breaker


suppling power to the Bucky. If found faulty,
check the wiring to both Bucky’s before replac-
ing the fuse. There may be loose connections,
causing a short circuit. A film marker may have
fallen onto electrical connections in the vertical
Bucky.


iii. Similar to the above, there may be a loose or
broken connection to a particular Bucky. This is
most likely to occur at either a plug or socket,
or else at the Bucky terminals on the side of the
Bucky.


iv. The grid may have become dislodged, stopping
operation of the grid drive motor. A common
cause is poor attachment of lead numerals to
the cassette. When the cassette and tray is
inserted, these catch on the grid, dislodging it.


v. Some older Bucky’s have small motor drive
gears.These gears may be damaged.As a result,
although the motor operates, the grid does not
oscillate or move to the expose position.


vi. In the case of a vertical Bucky, a lead numeral
may become dislodged, and fall into the drive
motor area. This could prevent operation, or
cause a short circuit.


vii. For other problems with the Bucky, refer to
module 8.0 page 121.


● Does the X-ray room have a safety ‘Door closed’
interlock? This may, depending on installation
methods, interrupt preparation if the door is


opened, or simply prevent an exposure. When the
door is closed, can you hear the switch operate? If
so, it is probably ok.
i. If no indication is heard, check the switch


operation with a multimeter.
ii. Ensure all power is turned off, including the


room power isolation switch.
iii. Set the multimeter to the low ohms position,


and check the meter shows minimum ohms with
the probes connected together.


iv. With the probes connected to the switch con-
tacts, test the switch operation by opening and
closing the door.


● Can you hear a relay operating on pressing the
expose switch? If so, the switch and connecting
cable are properly working.


● If the handswitch is suspect, then the switch and
connecting cable should be checked with a multi-
meter set to the low ohms scale.
i. Ensure all power is turned off, including the


room power isolation switch.
ii. If available, request an electrician or electronics


technician to assist.
iii. Use the method described in part two of this


module. ‘Check for a faulty preparation switch,
or handswitch cable’. See module 5.0, page 65.


Part 7. No mA or kV


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–7 page 84 ‘No expo-
sure, part seven’.


On attempting to obtain an exposure, the film was
blank, or very under exposed. The control indicates
preparation is completed and ready for an exposure.
The exposure indication operates on pressing the
expose position of the handswitch.
There is no warning light or fault indication during the
attempted exposure.


Check the cathode cable connection
A bad cable-end connection in the X-ray tube cathode-
receptacle is a common cause of light or blank films.
This occurs where the cable-end pins fit into the recep-
tacle. For example: Sufficient current flows through
the filament to satisfy the generator tests during
preparation. However the filament temperature is too
low for the required mA. A test exposure should be
tried first on the other focal spot.However, if the cable-
end centre pin has a bad connection, this can affect
both focal spots.
Note. During an exposure, if there is low, or no mA,
then the actual kV can rise above the set value of kV.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


80


E




As a result, a microprocessor-controlled generator may
display ‘kV too high’ as a fault message, instead of ‘low
mA’. Always select low mA and kV for test exposures.


● To check for a poor cable end connection.
i. Ensure all power is switched off, before any


adjustment is made to the HT cables.
ii. To check, undo the cathode cable-end retaining


ring nut. Partly withdraw the cable end about
2~4mm, then reinsert the cable end. Replace
and firmly tighten the cable-end ring nut.


iii. Caution. The cable end may have silicon grease
as insulation instead of anti-corona silicon pads.
Removal of the cable end by more than 2~4mm
can reduce the effectiveness of the insulating
grease. As a precaution, do not exceed 100kV
until the cable end is re-sealed with fresh silicon
grease. See module 7.3 page 117.


● Try a test exposure after adjusting the cathode
cable end. If the test exposure is OK, there was a
poor pin connection at the cable end.The cable-end
pins need to be cleaned and adjusted. See module
7.3 page 117.


● If the test exposure still fails after adjusting the
cathode cable-end, try exposing again on the other
focal spot. If the exposure is now OK, the first focal
spot may have a fault. This is caused by;
i. The filament has a short circuit to the focus cup.


Only part of the filament is heated.
ii. The filament is able to pass the ‘open circuit’


safety test in preparation, but the actual mA on
exposure is less than half the expected value. In
this case, the X-ray tube requires replacement.


iii. To inspect the filament, see module 7.1 page
104.


iv. Unfortunately, this type of fault is not uncom-
mon. The problem occurs when the filament
bends, and touches the focus cup during prep-
aration. This causes the filament to become
welded to the focus cup, shorting out a section
of the filament.


v. Contact the service department for advice.


Has an inverter fuse failed?
If a trial exposure on the other focal spot also fails,
this may be due to no high voltage. With high fre-
quency generator systems, a common cause is an open
circuit inverter fuse. This often fails due to fatigue, or
a temporary fault with the inverter. Depending on the
make or model of generator, there may be no warning
signal, or message, to indicate high-voltage failure.


● First ensure all power is turned off, including
the room power isolation switch.


● Before attempting to test or replace the fuse,
contact the service department for advice. As
well as the fuse location, special test precau-
tions can apply before and after replacement.


● Checking or replacing the fuse, should only be
performed by an electrician, or electronics
technician.


● See module 5.0 page 65.


i. Before attempting to test the fuse, measure the
primary power filter capacitors, and ensure the
residual voltage is at a safe level.


ii. If the fuse is open circuit, check the inverter
SCR or power transistors for a possible short
circuit, before replacing the fuse.


iii. After the fuse is replaced, examine the power
circuit for charging the capacitors on initial
power up. There is normally a resistor in series
with each phase to limit the charging current.
These resistors are shorted out by a contactor
after a few seconds time delay. This circuit
needs to be disabled so the resistors remain in
operation.


iv. On power up, monitor the voltage on the capac-
itors to ensure they are in fact charging nor-
mally.This ensures there is no undetected direct
short circuit in the inverter.


v. A short test exposure at low kV and mA should
be attempted. If OK, then switch off, and restore
the operation of the charge current-limit resis-
tors to normal operation.


Other possible causes for no exposure
● A faulty fuse or connector in the generator control


cabinet.
i. Ensure all power is turned off, including the


room power isolation switch.
ii. With the aid of an electrician or electronics


technician, look for an open circuit fuse, or
tripped circuit breaker.


iii. Look for loose plugs and sockets, or other
connectors.


● Look for damage caused by rats eating the wiring.
This can especially apply inside cable ducts, or
cables to the HT transformer. Some species of rats
can bite through cables, or a wiring harness, as if
their teeth were cutting pliers.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


81




Part 8. High-tension problems


Refer first to the flow chart, Fig 6–8 page 85, ‘No
exposure, part eight’.


On attempting to obtain an exposure, the film was
blank, or very under exposed. The control indicated
preparation was completed, and ready for an exposure.
The exposure indication operates on pressing the
expose position of the handswitch,but only a very short
exposure results.


A warning light or error message is generated
during, or at the end of exposure.


Record the exposure factors, focal spot, and tech-
nique in use. Include any fault codes or error messages.


Check for a high-tension fault
The cause of the problem may be due to:


● No kV was generated. The inverter fuse is open
circuit in a high frequency generator. See part
seven.


● A kV fault. Caused by a short circuit in the HT cable
or cable end.


● A high voltage arc in the high-tension generator,
cables, or X-ray tube housing.


● An unstable X-ray tube, due to gas. This can gener-
ate a kV or mA fault indication. Instability can occur
if a high kV exposure is made, after using the tube
for a long time at a medium or low kV output.


● A kV fault can be caused if mA is too low. For
example, due to a bad connection in the cathode
cable end, or a partial short circuit in the X-ray tube
filament.


● The mA output has exceeded the correct value.
For example, although 200mA was selected for an
exposure, the mA increased to over 300mA. This
could be due to a fault in the mA regulation circuit,
a high-tension fault, or an unstable X-ray tube.


Check for a HT cable fault
HT cable faults normally occur at the X-ray tube end,
due to the HT cable twisting as the tube is positioned.
Arcing can also occur where the cable ends plug into
the X-ray tube, due to a fault in the insulation grease.


● Was a ‘bang’ heard during the exposure?
● Check for a burning or acrid odour at the HT cable


ends. If not sure, undo the retaining ring nut,‘sniff’,
and then replace the ring nut.


● If at all uncertain of the condition of the HT cable
ends, refer to module 7.3 page 117.


● Caution. Do not make this test on a CD mobile,
unless the capacitor is fully discharged. See module
6.2 page 94.


● If the HT cable or cable ends appear OK, then
attempt a test exposure at low output.
i. Caution. If the fault occurred below 80kV, do


not test further without advice from the service
department.


ii. Select a low kV and mA output. A suggested
exposure is 60kV, 100mA, for 0.1 seconds. Close
the collimator and make a test exposure.


iii. If the control is fitted with an mA or mAs meter,
observe the meter carefully during the test
exposure.


iv. If the mA meter needle moves very quickly, or
the mAs meter indicates 20% more than the
expected value, this can indicate a high tension
fault.


v. Should the generator fail a test at 60kV, stop.
There is a possible fault at the HT cable ends,
these should now be removed and carefully
examined. See module 7.3 page 117.


vi. Caution. Before removing the cable ends,
contact the service department for advice.
Include the exposure factors, focal spot, and
any error codes or messages.


Test the X-ray tube high-tension stability
If the test exposure at 60kV is ok, then test the X-ray
tube at higher kV.


● Do this by applying the seasoning procedure,
described in module 2.1 page 48. When applying
this procedure, take care to observe the HT cable
at the X-ray tube, in case an arc occurs.


● Observe the mA meter (if available). An unstable
tube can indicate an increase of mA when test
exposures are first made, then return to the correct
value after a few exposures at the same kV. Then
when kV is increased, the first exposure may again
show an increase of mA, returning to the correct
value after the second or third exposure.


● In case any unusual occurrence takes place, im-
mediately stop. HT cable or cable-end faults will
become apparent at higher kV values. If not fully
checked before, do so now. See module 7.3 page
117.


● Caution. Before removing the cable ends, contact
the service department for advice. Include the
exposure factors, focal spot, and any error codes or
messages.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


82


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● If the HT cable ends have been fully checked, then
start the seasoning test again, starting at 10kV
below the level where a problem occurred. Should
the problem still occur, then stop. Consult the
service department for advice.


● Providing the X-ray tube passes the seasoning test,
all is well.


● Make an entry in the logbook. Include a description
of the problem, together with the tests and results.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


83


Fig 6–6. No exposure, part six


On attempting to obtain an
exposure, NOTHING happens.
The 'expose' indicator does not
operate. The control indicates
preparation is completed, and


ready for an exposure.


YesCan you now
obtain an
exposure?


The AEC has generated a
'Lockout' from a previous


exposure. Reselect AEC and
press 'Reset'. Try another


exposure.


Providing a definite relay 'click'
is heard inside the control, the


handswitch is OK. Otherwise still
test the handswitch.


Yes


No


No


Turn AEC (if in use) to 'OFF'
position. Then try exposing again


Can you now
obtain an
exposure?


The AEC had generated a
'Lockout'. Check for a faulty


'Reset' or 'Low Exposure'
warning light. Increase exposure
factors. (kV, mA ,or max' Time)


No


Yes


There is a problem with the AEC.
Refer to the text for further


information.
Select direct handswitch


operation. EG, Non-Bucky.
Try exposing.


Can you now
obtain an
exposure?


Yes
The Bucky failed to operate. or
return the exposure signal. See
the text for possible reasons.


(Bad connection? Grid is stuck?)




Can you hear any
relay 'click' on


trying to expose?


Is the expose
switch or cable


faulty?


Repair the cable, or replace the
switch. See the text for details.


EndEnd


Test the " Door Open" switch
for correct operation


Is the switch
faulty?


Replace the faulty switch.
If not available , connect a


temporary bypass to place out
of action.


Have the switch replaced as soon
as possible


Yes


No


No


No No


See text for other possibilities.
See also 'No exposure' part 7


Contact service.


Yes


Yes


Test the expose switch for faulty
operation, or broken wire to the


handswitch. Is there a 'Door Open'
safety switch for the X-ray


room ?




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


84


E


Fig 6–7. No exposure, part seven


On attempting to obtain an
exposure, the film is blank,


(or very under exposed.)
The exposure indicator operates.
The control indicated preparation


was completed, and
ready for an exposure.


No


YesDoes a warning fault light operate
when trying to


expose?


Can you now
obtain an
exposure?


Contact the service
department for advice


No


Undo the cathode cable end
retaining ring nut, withdraw the
cable end about 2~4mm, then


reinsert and tighten the retaining
nut.


Can you now
obtain an
exposure?


Yes
There may be a poor filament


connection for both focal spots.
Another possibility is a partially
shorted focal spot. See the text


for furthur suggestions.


No


See 'Unable to obtain exposure'.
Part eight.


The cable end will need to be
removed, have the contact pins
cleaned and adjusted. Refer to


module 11.3, high tension cables.


Try exposing on the other
focal spot.


Yes


There is probably a failure to
generate HT. If a high frequency


generator, the fuse for the
inverter may be open circuit.




PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


85


Fig 6–8. No exposure, part eight


On attempting to obtain an
exposure, the film is blank,


or very under exposed.
The exposure indicator operated.
The control indicated preparation


was completed, and
ready for an exposure.


Yes


Do the cable
ends appear


OK?


Refer to module 11.3
High tension cables.


No


Try the ageing procedure
described in module 5.1


for the X-ray tube.


Is the test
exposure OK?


Are the test
exposures OK?


The X-ray tube may have failed.
There may be arcing in the HT


cable receptacles. See the text for
other possibilities. Call the


service dept for advice.


End


No


Yes


No


Yes


In this situation, a light indicates
a fault. If a microprocessor


controlled system, there may be a
message or error code.


Select low kV (60kV or less)
and a low mA station.
Try a test exposure.


Observe the cable ends for
possible smoke or arcing noise.


This may indicate a high tension
fault, an unstable X-ray tube,


or excessive mA.
Before proceeding, check for a
burning smell at the X-ray tube


HT cable ends.




TASK 9


No preparation
Part 1


You have a patient on the table. After instructing him to ‘take a deep breath and hold it’, you press the prepara-
tion button. However, the ‘ready to expose’ signal does not occur.


What action should be taken first?


Make a list of your tests and observations.


What do you think is the cause of the problem?


What action may be taken to correct the problem?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


86


E




TASK 10


No preparation
Part 2


The X-ray control does not provide the ‘ready for exposure’ signal after pressing the preparation switch. You have
just completed a previous check for a similar report, and taken action that should have corrected the problem.
However, while there are now ‘signs of response’ when the preparation button is pressed, the ready for exposure
indication still cannot be obtained.


What was the previous observed problem, and action taken?


Make a list of your further tests and observations.


What do you think is the cause of this problem?


What possible actions may be taken to correct the problem?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


87




TASK 11


No exposure


You have positioned a patient on the upright Bucky to take a chest exposure.You place the generator into prepa-
ration, and press the exposure switch when the control indicates ‘ready to expose’. However, no exposure occurs.
After removing the patient, you investigate for a possible cause of the problem.


Make a list of possible reasons for this problem.


Describe suitable tests to either confirm, or eliminate, possibilities from this list.


Carry out these tests. What were the results?


What action is needed to correct the problem?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


88


E




TASK 12


X-ray output linearity


You have a report of ‘light’ films occurring in room 2. This appears to happen only on selection of fine focus.
Devise a test, using the stepwedge, to check the exposure linearity between the fine and broad focus selections
of mA.


Which exposure factors will be used for your generator?


After carrying out the above test, you find the 100mA station has reduced output. A comparison test of 50mA
and 200mA indicates correct results. What is the most likely cause?


What are two other possible reasons for light films on this 100mA station?


Give reasons why these possibilities are low, considering that 50mA and 200mA indicated normal results.


Make another series of stepwedge tests. This time remain on the mA station that produced a low output. Make
a series of four test strips, and increase kV by 2.0kV for each exposure. What increase of kV was required to
increase density by one step?


Your test was first carried out at 80kV.You find that if kV is increased by 4.0kV, the density steps on the 100mA
test strip are darker than the test trips for 50 or 200mA stations. In terms of a 5% permitted kV error, would
the test result be:


OK? Marginal? Outside acceptance?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


89




MODULE 6.1


Mobile or portable X-ray
generators


a. General precautions


● Before removing any covers, or testing any wires or
connections:
i. Ensure the system is switched off, and un-


plugged from the power point.
ii. Mobile high-frequency generators may be bat-


tery operated. The batteries in these are con-
nected in series, and may have a total voltage
of up to 240V DC. Refer to the operating or
installation manuals for the position of the
battery isolation switch, and ensure this is
switched off before removing the covers or
testing wires and connectors.


iii. Do not attempt to replace the batteries if a
mobile has more then two 12V batteries. Ask
for assistance from an electrician or electronics
technician.


● If removing a collimator or X-ray tube on a mobile
generator.
i. Do not rely on the vertical lock system.
ii. Ensure the suspension system is at the limit of


its maximum vertical travel.
iii. Or, attach a rope so that the system cannot


move upwards, once the weight of the collima-
tor or X-ray tube is removed.


● When replacing a motor drive battery.
i. Remove your wristwatch if it has a metallic


band.The same precaution extends to any rings.
While 12 volts, or even 24 volts, is too low to
cause a serious shock, the battery can cause
serious burns if a short circuit occurs across a
watchband or ring.


ii. Disconnect first the battery terminal that con-
nects to the mobile body or framework.This pre-
vents the danger of accidentally shorting the
other battery terminal to the mobile body.


iii. In the case of multiple battery systems, refer
always to the operation or installation manuals.
In some cases, the batteries will have the centre
connections between two batteries connected to
the mobile body. These connections should be
removed first,and replaced last. It is advisable to


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


90


E


Aim


The aim is to provide information related to servicing
or repairing a mobile or portable X-ray generator. This
information is additional to that provided for a fixed
installation described in module 6.0 page 71.
Note. Capacitor discharge mobiles are discussed in
module 6.2 page 94. Reference module page numbers
refer to the title page.


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with mobile or portable
X-ray generators.When used together with the module
6.0 procedures, the student will be able locate a
problem area, and carry out minor repairs. An electri-
cian or electronics technician may provide added
assistance where indicated in this module.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Transport problems
c. The generator will not switch on
d. No preparation or no exposure
e. The generator appears to expose, but film is blank
f. Collimator light-beam alignment keeps changing
g. The magnetic locks sometimes do not work, or are


weak in action
h. Problems with the motor drive




request the aid of an electrician. If in any doubt,
contact the service department for advice.


b.Transport problems


Mobile and portable equipment are subject to addi-
tional problems due to transport. Portable equipment
may be dropped, while mobile generators may pass
over severe bumps while travelling.There are also prob-
lems due to dust, or corrosion due to high humidity.
This last can occur if the system is used in an air-
conditioned area, then parked in a general area which
is not air conditioned.


c.The generator will not switch on


● Check the power cable.
i. Is the power point faulty? Check by plugging


a lamp or other suitable item into the power
point.


ii. Is there a broken connection at the power-
cable plug? Important, check also the earth
connection.


iii. The power cable may plug into a socket on a
portable generator. In this case check the gen-
erator socket connections as well as the cable.


iv. The power cable-reel for a mobile can have
broken wires or faulty contacts in the mecha-
nism. If faulty, have an electrician connect a
temporary power cable directly into the mobile,
while waiting for a replacement.


v. If there is a bad connection to a power plug or
socket, this should be checked and repaired by
an electrician.


vi. For information on locating bad connections,
see module 5.0 page 65.


vii. Moving the mobile while still plugged into a
power point is not recommended.


● Check for a blown or faulty fuse. See module 5.0
page 65.


● The power on/off switch is faulty. Check for loose
connections. Test the switch operation with a mul-
timeter set to the low ohms range. Ask an electri-
cian or electronics technician for assistance.


d. No preparation or no exposure


Note. The following checks are to be made with all
power disconnected. If a battery operated high fre-
quency system, ensure the battery circuit breaker or
switch is opened.


● Look for possible blown fuses. See module 5.0 page
65.


● Check the hand switch, and handswitch cable. See
module 5.0 page 65.


● Check all external plugs and sockets. See module
5.0 page 65.


● Look for dislodged components internally, or poor
connections.


● Plugs and sockets can develop poor connections
due to build up of oxides, or else slight corrosion of
the plating. Check by unplugging and reconnecting
the plugs and sockets.
i. This procedure should only be carried out by an


electrician or electronics technician.
ii. Printed circuit board edge connectors are


subject to corrosion and poor connections,
especially older types that are not gold plated.
Later model generators use plugs and sockets
for the printed circuit boards.


iii. Ensure the generator is unplugged from the
power point.


iv. Before removing a printed board, touch the
main metal framework of the generator. This is
to discharge any static electricity from the body.
This is very important if working in a carpeted
area, or there is low humidity.


v. Only remove and replace one board at a time.
Take careful note of its position, so the board is
not replaced the wrong way.


vi. On removal of the printed board, clean the edge
connectors with a cloth dampened with a little
alcohol, or methylated spirits. After cleaning, do
not touch the contacts with your fingers.


vii. Printed circuit boards may become cracked,
breaking some of the tracks. For example, if
equipment was dropped. Examine with a mag-
nifying glass for this possibility. If there are signs
of corrosion, it is possible some of the tracks on
the board have become open circuit.This can be
a problem near the sea.


● Have any relays become dislodged? Move them
slightly in their sockets in case of a bad socket
connection.


● Bad contacts on control switches etc.
i. A build up of dirt on switch contacts can cause


excessive wear, and poor contact operation. In
most cases, spraying with a suitable contact
cleaner will restore normal operation.


ii. An optimum spray is one designed to clean and
lubricate. CRC 2.26 is recommended. WD-40 is
less optimum, but may also be used. Your elec-
trician may have a suitable contact cleaner.


iii. Before spraying, cover adjacent areas with cloth
or tissues to protect from unwanted spray.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


91




iv. Note. Never use any spray on electrical equip-
ment while it is energized.


● The X-ray tube head, or housing. (An X-ray ‘tube
head’ combines the X-ray tube, and the high-tension
transformer, in one housing.)
i. Check all connections to the X-ray tube head.
ii. For mobiles with a conventional X-ray tube


housing, check the stator cable.
iii. The HT cable may have a poor connection to the


X-ray tube cathode. For test procedures, see
module 7.3 page 117.


e.The generator appears to expose,
but film is blank


● Ensure the collimator opened correctly. Look inside
the collimator for loose or disconnected parts, due
to vibration in transport.


● Was an unusual noise or arcing heard during the
attempted exposure?
i. With conventional X-ray tube housings, check


the HT cable ends for arcing. See module 7.3
page 117.


ii. If a rotating anode tube, does it slow down
quickly when preparation is released? The tube
may be broken, and the anode is now immersed
in oil.


iii. By rotating the X-ray tube head or housing, can
you hear oil moving inside the housing? This can
indicate a broken tube.


iv. See also module 7.1 page 104.


f. Collimator light-beam alignment
keeps changing


● Parts of the collimator may have become loose due
to transport vibration. Remove the collimator cover,
and check for loose sections.


● For adjustments to the collimator, see module 7.2
page 110.


g.The magnetic locks sometimes do not work,
or are weak in action


There are two types of electromagnetic locks. Older
types require power to operate. Later types have a
permanent magnet, and require power to remove, or
cancel, the magnetism.


● The lock sometimes operates, depending on the
tube stand movement.
i. There may be a poor connection to the lock coil


or the lock switch.


ii. The mechanical position of the lock coil has too
large an air gap.Adjust the position for a smaller
air gap, with the lock in the off position.


iii. There is a build up of dirt, or oil, on the lock-coil
pole-piece. A thin piece of cardboard soaked in
methylated spirits is a good cleaning aid. Place
the cardboard between the pole-piece and the
brake plate. Energise the lock, while slowly
pulling the cardboard out from between the
lock and the brake plate. Repeat this a number
of times, until fresh sections of cardboard show
no smudges of dirt from this wiping action.


● The lock does not energise. (Old type.) Or does not
release. (Permanent magnet type.) Check for the
following.
i. The lock switch may be faulty.
ii. Look for an open circuit fuse.
iii. A broken wire to the lock coil.
iv. The lock coil itself may be open circuit. Test by


disconnecting one wire, then with a multimeter
set to a medium or high ohms scale, check for
continuity of the lock coil. If necessary, request
assistance from an electrician.


h. Problems with the motor drive


Many mobiles are fitted with battery-powered motor
drives. A 12 volt car battery is most commonly fitted,
and in some cases two batteries to provide 24 volts.


Caution
Battery powered high-frequency generators operate
the motors from the same high voltage supply used to
power the high-frequency inverter. Due to the high
voltages that may be present, do not remove the
covers, or attempt any internal adjustment. This
should only be attempted by an electrician or elec-
tronics technician, under instructions from the service
department.


● There is no motor drive in either direction.
i. Units fitted with a drive control key switch.


The switch may be faulty, or have a loose
connection.


ii. The fuse for battery power is open circuit.
iii. The battery is discharged.
iv. There is a bad connection to the battery termi-


nal. Remove the battery terminals, and scrape
corrosion from the posts or terminal clamps.


v. Caution. See part a, general precautions, before
disconnecting a battery.


vi. The brake release bar on the handle operates a
microswitch. The microswitch may need adjust-
ment to operate correctly.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


92


E




vii. Check the electrical cables for loose plugs or
sockets.


● There is no forward motor drive.
i. The anti-crash bumper may be stuck in the


operated position, or one of the switches oper-
ated by the bumper is damaged.


● There is only a low level of motor drive assistance.
i. The motor may be in bedside mode. A con-


trol switch selects the change between bedside
speed, and travel speed.The control switch could
be faulty, or the knob has slipped, and indicates
the wrong position.


ii. Other mobiles require the tube stand to be
placed in the travel position before permitting
full power. In which case a microswitch to sense
the tube stand position may need adjustment.
Ask an electrician or electronics technician to
check the switch, or microswitch operation.


iii. New mobiles have microcomputer control of the
motor power. Some systems allow the opera-
tor to change the amount of power assistance.
Refer to the operation manual to adjust the level
of motor power.


iv. There may be a poor battery connection due to
corrosion. Remove the battery terminal clamps,
scrape of any corrosion, and reassemble.


v. Caution. See part a, general precautions, before
disconnecting a battery.


● The battery is not charged up.
i. The battery was not charged overnight. Or the


power point used was faulty. Check the power
point with a lamp or similar item.


ii. The power cord used for battery charging has
a bad connection. Have an electrician repair
the connection. (Do not move the mobile while
plugged into a power point.)


iii. There is an open circuit fuse, in the battery
charge section of the mobile. To check a fuse,
see module 5.0 page 65.


iv. Caution. If this is a battery operated high-
frequency generator, this check should only
be performed by an electrician, or electronics
technician.


● After charging, the battery soon looses power.
i. Has the electrolyte level of the battery been


checked? (This may not be possible with sealed
or low maintenance batteries.)


ii. The battery may have a shorted cell, or the
cells are sulphated, in this case a new battery
is required. Before replacing the battery, have
the battery tested at a garage, or by an auto
electrician.


iii. Caution. See part a, general precautions, before
disconnecting a battery.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


93




MODULE 6.2


Capacitor discharge mobile


a. CD operation modes


Unlike the fixed installation, or standard mobile gen-
erator, the CD mobile has special modes of operation.
This list is provided as a reminder.


● High voltage is applied to the X-ray tube continu-
ously while the capacitor is charged. This includes
the kV remaining after the exposure.


● When not in preparation, the X-ray tube filament
has no pre-heating. There is also a high negative
voltage applied between the cathode cup or grid,
and the filament. Despite these precautions, a very
small electron emission does occur. This is called
‘dark current’.


● To prevent X-ray emission due to dark current,
the collimator has an additional lead shutter. This
shutter blocks all X-ray emission.The shutter moves
out only when the mobile begins preparation, or else
just before the X-ray exposure.


● When in preparation, the exposure is prevented by
the negative voltage applied to the X-ray tube grid.
During an exposure, this voltage is removed, allow-
ing full emission from the cathode. At the end of
the exposure, the negative voltage is again con-
nected to the grid.This shuts off the electron beam
to the anode, ending the exposure.


● Earlier CD mobiles set the exposure as a percent-
age of kV drop during an exposure. Later systems
have an mAs timer.


● The capacitor discharges during an exposure, at the
rate of 1kV per mAs. As a result, the X-ray output
of a CD mobile is not linear. A 20mAs exposure will
not give twice the output of a 10mAs exposure.


b. General precautions


● Before removing any covers, ensure the mobile is
switched off, and unplugged from the power point.


● If removing a collimator or X-ray tube.
i. Do not rely on the vertical lock system.
ii. Ensure the suspension system is at the limit of


its maximum vertical travel.


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Aim


The aim is to provide information related to servicing
or repairing a capacitor discharge (CD) mobile. This
information is additional to that provided for a fixed
installation described in module 6.0 page 71, and
mobile generators described in module 6.1 page 90.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with capacitor discharge
mobile generators. When used together with modules
6.0 and 6.1 procedures, the student will be able locate
a problem area, and carry out minor repairs. The
student will also be aware of special precautions when
dealing with the capacitor high-voltage system, where
repairs must only be attempted by an electrician or
electronics technician.


Contents


a. CD mobile operation modes
b. General precautions
c. High-tension cable precautions
d. The mobile does not switch on
e. Unable to charge the capacitor
f. On charging the capacitor, there is a loud ‘bang’
g. Unable to obtain preparation
h. On going into preparation, the capacitor discharges
i. No exposure
j. The kV does not adjust to a lower value
k. Apparently there is an exposure, but the film is


blank
l. On exposing, the exposure continues till the capac-


itor is fully discharged
m. Problems with the motor drive




iii. Or, attach a rope so that the system cannot
move upwards, once the weight of the collima-
tor or X-ray tube is removed.


● When replacing a motor drive battery.
i. Do not attempt to replace the batteries if a


mobile has more then two 12V batteries. Ask
for assistance from an electrician or electronics
technician.


ii. Remove your wristwatch if it has a metallic
band.The same precaution extends to any rings.
While 12 volts, or even 24 volts, is too low to
cause a serious shock, the battery can cause
serious burns if a short circuit occurs across a
watchband or ring.


iii. Disconnect first the battery terminal that con-
nects to the mobile body or framework.This pre-
vents the danger of accidentally shorting the
other battery terminal to the mobile body.


iv. If two batteries are fitted, refer always to
the operation or installation manuals. In some
cases, the batteries will have the centre con-
nection between the two batteries connected to
the mobile body. These connections should be
removed first, and replaced last. It is advisable
to request the aid of an electrician. If in any
doubt, contact the service department for
advice.


c. High-tension cable precautions


Special care is required due to dangerous high voltage
stored in the capacitors. Several of the tests described
involve removing or exchanging the high-tension
cables. This requires taking care to ensure the capac-
itor is fully discharged, before any attempt is made to
remove or adjust the cable ends. Only an electrician,
or electronics technician, should attempt this
procedure.


● If possible, make an exposure to fully discharge the
capacitor, or reset the kV to the minimum level
possible.


● Wait until the kV has dropped to below 5kV, as indi-
cated on the panel meter. If no indication of capac-
itor high-voltage by a panel meter, wait overnight
before proceeding.


● Switch off, and unplug the power cord.
● Open the control panel, and locate the two manual


capacitor-discharge control knobs. These may be
operated by lifting and rotating, and must stay in
the discharge position. If uncertain of their opera-
tion, refer to the installation or service manual for
the mobile. Otherwise contact the service depart-
ment for advice.


● Before operating the discharge knobs, you may
observe two neon lamps glowing. On operation of
the discharge knobs, both of these lamps should
turn off. If one lamp continues to glow, contact the
service department for advice before proceeding.
i. Undo the ring nut holding the cable end in posi-


tion at the X-ray tube receptacle.
ii. Do not remove the cable end, but first inspect


the safety-shield metal braid for damage.Twist-
ing of the cable may have caused it to break,
and become disconnected from the cable end.


iii. If the shield does not appear damaged, then
re-tighten the ring nut so the cable shield is
properly grounded.


iv. Undo the ring nut holding the high-tension cable
in the high-tension tank receptacle. On with-
drawing the cable end, do not touch the pins,
but first short them to the side of the recepta-
cle. This is to ensure any possible charge in the
high-tension cable is completely shorted out.


v. In case the high-tension cable shield appears
damaged at the X-ray tube end, then remove
the cable end from the X-ray tube first. Again,
touch the end pins to side of the receptacle to
discharge any residual high voltage. This will
include any charge in the capacitor as well as
the high-tension cable. Now undo the ring nut,
and remove the cable end from the high-tension
tank.


vi. The above precautions are in case the knobs for
discharging the capacitors have not operated
correctly. In part (iv) only a small spark will
occur if the capacitor was not discharged, but
in part (v) take care, as there may be a very big
spark. Normally, there should be no spark at all.
In case there is, then contact the service depart-
ment before proceeding further.


● When the high-tension cable is removed or re-
placed, the cable ends must be cleaned and re-
sealed. See module 7.3 page 117.


● After replacing or adjusting the high-tension cable,
return the discharge knobs to their normal position.


d.The mobile does not switch on


● Is the power cable faulty?
i. Is the power point faulty? Check by plugging a


lamp or other suitable item into the power
point.


ii. Is there a broken connection at the power-
cable plug? Important, check also the earth
connection.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


95




iii. The power cable-reel may have broken wires or
faulty contacts in the mechanism. If faulty, have
an electrician connect a temporary power cable
directly into the mobile, while waiting for a
replacement.


iv. If there is a bad connection to a power plug or
socket, this should be checked and repaired by
an electrician.


v. For information on locating bad connections,
see module 5.0 page 65.


vi. Moving the mobile while still plugged into a
power point is not recommended.


● Check for a blown or faulty fuse. See module 5.0
page 65.


● The power on/off switch is faulty. Check for loose
connections. Test the switch operation with a mul-
timeter set to the low ohms range. Ask an electri-
cian or electronics technician for assistance.


e. Unable to charge the capacitor


On pressing the charge button, nothing happens. Oth-
erwise all appears normal.


● With power switched off, and the mobile unplugged
from the power point, check the following;
i. Some CD mobiles have the capacitor charge


switch mounted on the hand switch. There may
be a broken wire or a faulty switch.


ii. To check the hand switch or cable, see module
5.0 page 65.


iii. Open the control panel, and check for an open
circuit fuse.At this time also check internally for
loose plugs or sockets, and or loose connections.


iv. Check the wiring to the collimator for broken or
loose connections.


v. Remove the collimator cover. Locate the dark-
current shutter mechanism. Check that the
shutter is in the correct position,and the shutter
microswitch operates correctly.


vi. Have the manual capacitor-discharge knobs
been left in the discharge position, after a
high-tension cable was adjusted? Or, is a micro-
switch, operated by these knobs, sticking? This
will indicate the manual discharger is still
operated, and prevent the capacitor charging.


f. On charging the capacitor, there is
a loud ‘bang’


This indicates a high-tension fault. This could be the
capacitor, but may instead be in a cable end, or
perhaps the X-ray tube.


These tests should only be performed by an elec-
trician or electronics technician.
Refer to (b), ‘High-tension precautions’, before
proceeding.


● Undo the ring-nuts retaining the high-tension
cable-ends in the X-ray tube receptacles. Is there a
strong odour from one of the cable ends?
i. If there is, either the cable end is faulty, or there


has been an arc-over in the receptacle.
ii. With the capacitor fully discharged and safe,


withdraw the suspect cable end. (See part b.
High-tension cable precautions.)


iii. After taking the precaution of shorting the pins
to ground, examine the cable end and recepta-
cle for traces of carbon.An easy way to find con-
tamination of grease etc is to wipe with a paper
tissue.


iv. If there is no indication of arcing inside the
receptacle, but there is a strong odour from the
high-tension cable as it enters the cable end,
the cable is faulty and requires replacement.


v. In case there are signs of arcing in the recep-
tacle, then the receptacle and cable end must
be carefully cleaned, and re-sealed. See module
7.3 page 117.


vi. After a cable end has been withdrawn, it will
need to be re-sealed with fresh grease, or have
new anti-corona pads fitted. See module 7.3
page 117.


● Do the high-tension cables or X-ray tube recepta-
cles appear OK? The capacitors or X-ray tube could
have a short circuit.Contact the service department
for assistance. Provide full details of the fault, tests
made, and the results.


g. Unable to obtain preparation


● Is the capacitor fully charged? Check by pressing
the charge button. Or else by increasing the preset
kV, in which case the charge mode should operate.


● There may be a faulty preparation switch, or a faulty
cable from the handswitch. To check the switch or
cable, see module 5.0 page 65.


● Check the wiring to the X-ray tube and collimator,
especially if it has been subject to pulling. This
includes;
i. Stator cable and connections.
ii. Connections to the thermal overload switch, in


the tube housing.


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● Check for a loose plug or socket. See module 5.0
page 65.


● Look for a loose or open circuit fuse. See module
5.0 page 65.


● Contact the service department for assistance.
Provide full details of the fault, tests made, and the
results.


h. On going into preparation, the capacitor
discharges


The negative control voltage applied to the X-ray tube
grid is missing. As the filament heats up, this results in
an uncontrolled exposure, and may fully discharge the
capacitor. A common cause is a faulty high-tension
cathode cable, with an internal short circuit between
the grid wire, and one of the filament wires. To check
for a possible fault in the high-tension cable, the cables
can be exchanged between anode and cathode. (Of
course, there is a possibility the cables were previously
exchanged, but no record kept of this event.)


This procedure should only be performed by an
electrician, or electronics technician.


Refer to (b), ‘High-tension precautions’,
before proceeding.


● Mark each cable end before removal, to ensure they
are correctly exchanged after being re-inserted.


● Ensure the capacitor is fully discharged, power is
disconnected, and the manual discharge knobs are
in position.


● Undo the ring nuts’ holding the cable ends in posi-
tion, and withdraw the cable ends from the high-
tension transformer. Take note, which receptacle
is positive, and which is negative. The X-ray tube
cathode must connect to the negative receptacle.


● Remove the high-tension cable ends from the X-ray
tube housing.


● For cleaning and resealing the cable ends on rein-
sertion, see module 7.3 page 117.


● Both high-tension cables have now been discon-
nected. Now reconnect the cables to the X-ray tube
and generator. The previous cathode cable is con-
nected to the anode, and the previous anode cable
is connected to the cathode.


● Take care to connect the anode cable to the posi-
tive receptacle, and the cathode cable to the neg-
ative receptacle of the high-tension transformer.


● Power up. Recharge the capacitor and make a test
exposure.


● If all is well, attach a label to the previous cathode
cable. This should indicate it has an internal short
circuit, and is suitable as an anode cable only.


● If the problem still occurs, contact the service
department for assistance. Provide full details of
the fault, tests made, and the results.


i. No exposure


● Does the mobile have a Bucky connection option?
Try exposing with the Bucky option switched off or
bypassed.


● Is the capacitor fully charged? In some designs, if
the capacitor is not fully charged to the required
value, this will prevent preparation. In other systems
it may instead prevent a radiographic exposure.


● Check the operation of the handswitch, or a possi-
ble broken wire in the handswitch cable. To check
the switch or cable, see module 5.0 page 65.


● Check the wiring and connections to the
collimator.
i. Remove the collimator cover and check for


correct operation of the dark-current shutter.
This should move out of the way, either during
preparation, or just before an exposure.


ii. Check the microswitch operated by this shutter.
If sticking, or not fully operated, this may be the
cause.


j.The kV does not adjust to a lower value


For example, after charging the capacitor, you decide
to use less kV for the exposure. However, on trying to
reset to a lower kV, nothing immediately happens,
although the capacitor voltage may very slowly drop
in value.


To reset the kV down to the new setting, the gen-
erator makes a low mA exposure. Radiation is pre-
vented from leaving the collimator by the dark-current
shutter.The shutter also operates a safety microswitch.
This prevents the low mA exposure if the shutter is not
closed.


● Switch the power off, and unplug the power cord
from the power point.


● Remove the collimator cover.
● Check the collimator dark-current shutter for cor-


rect operation.
● Check if the shutter microswitch has operated cor-


rectly, and there are no bad connections or broken
wires to the collimator.


● If the shutter and microswitch appear correct,
contact the service department for advice. Provide
full details of the fault, tests made, and the results.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


97




k. Apparently there is an exposure, but the
film is blank


On exposing, the capacitor voltage drops the expected
amount of kV. For example, the kV dropped by 10kV
after a 10 mAs exposure.


● In this situation, the dark-current shutter has failed
to open properly. Remove the collimator covers and
check the operation of the shutter, and its associ-
ated microswitch.


l. On exposing, the exposure continued till
the capacitor was fully discharged


● The X-ray tube may have become unstable.Try a test
exposure at a much lower kV setting. If successful,
then try the X-ray tube seasoning procedure. See
module 2.1 page 48.


● If a low kV test exposure shows the same fault,
contact the service department for assistance.
Provide full details of the fault, tests made, and the
results.


m. Problems with the motor drive


Some mobiles are fitted with battery-powered motor
drives. A 12 volt car battery is most commonly fitted.
In some cases two batteries are used, to provide 24
volts.


Whenever possible, refer first to the operation
or installation manual. If in doubt contact the
service department, or request the assistance of an
electrician.


● There is no motor drive in either direction.
i. Units fitted with a drive control key switch. The


switch may be faulty, or have a loose connec-
tion.


ii. The fuse for battery power is open circuit. See
module 5.0 page 65.


iii. The battery is discharged.
iv. There is a bad connection to the battery termi-


nal. Remove the battery terminals, and scrape
corrosion from the posts or terminal clamps.


v. Caution. See part b, general precautions, before
disconnecting a battery.


vi. The brake release bar on the handle operates a
microswitch. The microswitch may need adjust-
ment to operate correctly.


vii. Check the electrical cables for loose plugs or
sockets.


● There is no forward motor drive.
i. The anti-crash bumper may be stuck in the


operated position, or one of the switches oper-
ated by the bumper is damaged.


● There is only a low level of motor drive assistance.
i. The motor may be in bedside mode. A control


switch selects the change between bedside
speed, and travel speed.The control switch could
be faulty, or the knob has slipped, and indicates
the wrong position.


ii. Other mobiles require the tube stand to be
placed in the travel position before permitting
full power. In which case a microswitch to sense
the tube stand position may need adjustment.
Ask an electrician or electronics technician to
check the switch, or microswitch operation.


iii. There may be a poor battery connection due to
corrosion. Remove the battery terminal clamps,
scrape of any corrosion, and reassemble.


iv. Caution. See part b, general precautions, before
disconnecting a battery.


● The battery is not charged up.
i. The battery was not charged overnight. Or the


power point used was faulty. Check the power
point with a lamp or similar item.


ii. There is an open circuit fuse in the battery
charge section of the mobile. See module 5.0
page 65.


● After charging, the battery soon looses power.
i. Has the electrolyte level of the battery been


checked? (This may not be possible with sealed
or low maintenance batteries.)


ii. The battery may have a shorted cell, or the cells
are sulphated, in this case a new battery is
required. Before replacing the battery, have
the battery tested at a garage, or by an auto
electrician.


iii. Caution. See part b, ‘general precautions’, be-
fore disconnecting a battery.


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MODULE 7.0


X-ray tube stand


a. General precautions


● Electrical safety.
i. In most installations the tube-stand power will


come from the generator, but in some installa-
tions, switching off the generator does not
remove power from the tube stand.


ii. Before removing any covers, ensure the genera-
tor is switched off, and the room power isolation
switch is also turned off.


iii. This also applies if testing wiring connections, or
electrical components.


● If removing an X-ray tube, or collimator.
i. See module 7.1 page 104, and module 7.2 page


110.
ii. Ask an electrician or electronics technician for


assistance.
iii. Do not rely on the vertical lock system.
iv. Attach a rope so that the system cannot move


upwards, once the weight of the collimator or
X-ray tube is removed.


v. The X-ray tube is heavy. Removal or replacement
requires two people.


vi. Make a diagram of electrical connections.
Attach labels to wires or high-tension cables.
This is to ensure correct connection when an
X-ray tube or collimator is replaced.


vii. Place all screws or other small parts in a box,
so they are not lost.


● Do not place a ladder against a tube stand.The tube
stand may suddenly move.


● An adjustment to any tube-stand bearing requires
skill, and good mechanical knowledge. When a
problem is identified, request the service depart-
ment to make the required adjustments.


b.The vertical movement is not balanced


For example, with the vertical locks off, or if power is
turned off, the tube carriage tends to move down, or
up. This problem may have occurred after fitting a
replacement X-ray tube.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


99


Aim


The aim is to provide information for repairing or
adjusting the tube stand.This is additional information
to the maintenance procedures, provided in module
2.0 page 44. Procedures for electrical tests are pro-
vided in module 5.0 page 65.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the X-ray tube stand.
When used together with the module 5.0 procedures,
the student will be able identify a problem area, and
carry out minor repairs. An electrician or electronics
technician may provide added assistance where indi-
cated in this module.


Task 13. ‘Bucky tabletop and tube-stand centre’,
should be attempted on completion of this module.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. The vertical movement is not balanced
c. When power is turned off, the tube stand starts


moving
d. The tube stand is not centred to the vertical Bucky
e. Check the tube stand centre stop position
f. Mechanical centre-stop adjustments
g. Electrically operated centre-stop adjustments
h. An electromagnetic lock fails to operate
i. A group of locks fail to operate




● Most tube stands have a system of ‘trim weights’.
Adding or removing these weights balances the
vertical suspension.
i. With ceiling suspensions, these weights may be


positioned inside the cross arm.
ii. Floor ceiling tube stands allow for trim weights


to be attached to the main counterbalance
weight. To gain access, a panel is removed from
either behind the tube stand, or from one side
of the tube stand.


iii. If added trim weights are required, these may
be formed from lead sheet, available from a
builder’s hardware shop.


● Some ceiling mounted tube stands require a spring
to be added or removed to achieve balance. The
service department should make this adjustment.


● Floor ceiling tube stands may have a large spring
instead of a counterweight.The variable ratio pulley
at the top of the tube stand can identify this
method. Final counterbalance may still be achieved
using trim weights attached to the cross-arm.
Otherwise contact the service department.


c.When power is turned off, the tube stand
starts moving


● A common reason is the support method of the HT
cables. Providing the tube stand movement is not
restricted, arrange for added or more suitable HT
cable support.


● With a floor ceiling stand, this may be due to a floor
that is not level. It may be possible to improve by
adding shims under the floor rail. Check the floor
rails with a spirit level.


● With a ceiling mounted system, the ceiling rails may
not be level. This may be due to incorrect initial
installation.There is a possibility the ceiling attach-
ment points have shifted, or a problem with the
building. Check the rails with a spirit level. Depend-
ing on the age or style of construction, have the
installation checked by a building inspector.


d.The tube stand is not centred to
the vertical Bucky


In this situation, the x-ray tube may appear to be cor-
rectly centred to the table centre. However, when the
X-ray tube is rotated, it is not centred to the vertical
Bucky.


● The tube stand may not be vertical.
i. A floor-ceiling tube stand may be checked with


an accurate spirit level. A more accurate check
is to use a plumb bob.


ii. A ceiling mounted tube stand can only be
checked with a plumb bob. With the tube
stand first at lower, then at maximum height,
the plumb bob should deviate by only a few
millimetres.


iii. A ceiling mounted tube stand may need adjust-
ment of the gantry-rail bearings.


iv. The floor-ceiling tube stand has a ceiling or wall
mounted guide rail. Check the guide-rail bearing
assembly. This may be loose or incorrectly
adjusted.


● The cross arm may not be horizontal.
i. This can be a common fault with some floor


ceiling tube stands. Check the cross arm with a
spirit level.


ii. Look for broken or loose bearings, especially
with the cross-arm bearings inside the vertical
movement.


iii. Adjustments to any tube-stand bearings require
specialized knowledge.When a problem is iden-
tified, request the service department to make
the required adjustments.


● Is the light-field vertical alignment correct?
i. Bring the collimator down onto the tabletop. If


necessary adjust the X-ray tube rotation in the
trunnion rings, so it sits ‘flat’ on the tabletop.


ii. Raise the tube a small amount. With the colli-
mator light switched on, place a marker in the
centre of the light field.


iii. Raise the collimator to the normal operating
height. The centre of the light field should stay
on the marker. If not, rotate the tube a small
amount in the trunnion rings, and repeat this
test.


iv. Alignment is correct when the light field does
not shift, as the X-ray tube is raised or lowered.


After checking the first three items, now centre the
light field to the centre of the tabletop. Caution, do
not use the cross arm centre stop as a guide, as this
may also need adjustment.


● If the Bucky table has lateral movement of the
tabletop, the centre stop position of the tabletop
should first be checked.
i. Move the tabletop to the centre position.
ii. Place a cassette in the Bucky, with a marker


positioned on the centre of the cassette.
iii. Place another marker on the centre of the


tabletop.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure. Process the


film.The markers should have the same position
on the film.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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v. If required, adjust the position of the tabletop
centring device. See module 8.0 page 121.


Rotate the X-ray tube to face the vertical Bucky.
Move the tube stand close to the Bucky.The light field
should be centred to the Bucky. Next, move the tube
stand away from the Bucky. Check the position of the
light field.


● Although the light field is not centred to the verti-
cal Bucky, it does not shift as the tube stand moves
away from the Bucky.
i. Was the vertical Bucky positioned correctly


during installation? Attach a string to the far
end of the tabletop, positioned at the centre.
Take the other end of the string to the centre
of the vertical Bucky.


ii. When the string is tightened, it should remain
centred along the full length of the tabletop.


iii. Is the tube stand movement parallel to the
tabletop? The light field should remain centred
while the tube stand is moved from the table
foot end to the table head end. If the light
moves off centre, this could indicate either the
tube stand or the Bucky table was incorrectly
installed


● The light beam shifts off centre, as the tube stand
is moved away from the vertical Bucky.
i. The tube stand cross-arm may not be horizon-


tal. Check with a spirit level.
ii. Many tube stands allow rotation of the cross


arm. (In some cases, the entire tube stand
rotates.) The rotation index-plate may be loose,
or not correctly centred.


iii. Common rotation angles are -90 degrees,
centre, and +90 degrees. A lock pin is inserted
into a slotted index-plate to hold the rotation
position.The index-plate and locking pin may be
worn, or incorrectly adjusted.


e. Check the tube stand centre-stop position


● If the Bucky table has lateral movement of the
tabletop, the centre stop position of the tabletop
should be checked.
i. Move the tabletop to the centre position.
ii. Place a cassette in the Bucky, with a marker


positioned on the centre of the cassette.
iii. Place another marker on the centre of the


tabletop.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure. Process the


film.The markers should have the same position
on the film.


v. If required, adjust the position of the tabletop
centring device. See module 8.0 page 121.


● Is the tube stand centred to the Bucky table?
i. Make this test, after checking the light-field ver-


tical alignment described in part ‘d’.
ii. Move the Bucky tabletop to the centre position.
iii. Switch on the collimator lamp.
iv. Test the lateral centre-stop position of the tube


stand. With the cross-arm retracted, move the
X-ray tube out towards the centre stop posi-
tion. The light field should be centred to the
tabletop.


v. Repeat the test, start with the cross-arm
extended, then move inwards to the table
centre. The light field should again be centred
to the tabletop.


vi. The actual centre stop position can depend on
how quickly the X-ray tube is moved across the
table, and the method used to indicate the stop
position.Depending on the design,accurate cen-
tring may require moving the X-ray tube from
one direction only.


f. Mechanical centre-stop adjustments


● A steel ball, pushed by a spring, clicks into a slot
when the cross arm is centred. This holds the cross
arm in position.


● If the spring is weak, it is difficult to feel when the
centre position is reached.


● There is usually a screw provided, to adjust the
spring tension.Adjust this screw to provide the best
‘feel’ when centring the X-ray tube.


● The centre-stop position is adjusted by changing the
position of the mechanical system on the cross arm.


● To adjust the position, see the directions provided
in the installation manual. Otherwise contact the
service department for advice.


g. Electrically operated centre-stop adjustments


Caution: Before making any electrical tests, ensure the
generator is switched off, and the room power isola-
tion switch is also turned off. An electrician or elec-
tronics technician should carry out electrical tests or
adjustments. See module 5.0 page 65.


A number of different electrical centre-stop sensors
have been developed. These operate the lateral lock
when in position.


● A microswitch, operated by a cam. In normal oper-
ation, you may hear a small ‘click’ as the switch
passes over the cam. The position of the cam con-


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


101




trols the centre stop position. A problem may be
caused by:
i. The cam height is too small. As a result, there


is insufficient pressure on the microswitch for
reliable operation.


ii. The cam or microswitch has become loose, and
the microswitch does not operate.


iii. A broken wire or connection to the microswitch.
iv. A ceiling tube stand may have incorrect adjust-


ment of the lateral movement bearings.This may
cause the cam to move away from the switch,
so it does not operate. In some cases, it may
instead move too close, damaging the switch. A
close visual inspection can indicate if this is a
problem.


● A vane operated sensor. A vane passes through a
small slot in the sensor. The position of the vane
controls the centre stop position.A problem may be
caused by;
i. The vane is positioned too high, and does not


fully enter the sensor. This can cause unreliable
operation.


ii. The vane is missing.
iii. The vane or sensor is damaged. Check by visual


observation.
iv. A broken wire or connection to the sensor.


● An optical sensor, operated by reflected light. This
system requires a white or silvered reflector,
mounted opposite the sensor at the stop position.
A problem may be caused by;
i. The reflector is a small piece of foil, with a self-


adhesive backing.Due to poor adhesive, this may
have become dislodged.


ii. The sensor is not close enough to the reflector
for reliable operation.


iii. The reflector is dirty, or there is dirt on the
sensor.


iv. A broken wire or connection to the sensor.


h. An electromagnetic lock fails to operate


This may be due to a faulty lock coil. Other reasons
may be a faulty switch, or a broken connection due to
a cable being pulled. See module 5.0 page 65.


First ensure the generator is switched off, and the
room power isolation switch is also turned off.


● The lock may have too large an air gap.This can also
cause erratic or slow operation. Most locks have
slotted mounting plates. Adjust by undoing the
screws a small amount, adjust the lock position, and
retighten the screws.


● The lock may only partially release. In this case it
may be too close to the surface. Again, adjust its
position. In some cases, the lock has residual mag-
netism. This can be a design problem with some
tube stands. Contact the service department for
advice.


● Permanent magnet locks have become popular.
These ensure the locks remain on when power is
removed.


● Some ceiling suspended tube-stands use a solenoid
operated ‘piston’, attached via a lever to a brake
pad. A spring maintains brake operation, until the
solenoid operation pulls the pad away from the
surface. If the stroke is too long, the piston fails to
pull inside the solenoid, and the lock does not
release. Adjustment is by a screw thread fitted with
a locknut.


● In some cases, there is a fuse specific to the failed
lock. Before checking fuses, ensure all power is
turned off.


● See Module 5.0 page 65.


i. A group of locks fail to operate


First ensure the generator is switched off, and the
room power isolation switch is also turned off.


● Look for an open circuit fuse at the tube stand.
● In most installations, the tube stand obtains power


from the generator. This may involve several differ-
ent voltage supplies. Check at the generator and at
the high-tension transformer for an open circuit
fuse.


● See Module 5.0 page 65.
● Check where cables enter the tube stand or control


panel. If the cables are pulled during the tube stand
movements, a wire may have broken from a termi-
nal strip.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


102


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TASK 13


Bucky tabletop and
tube-stand centre


A number of films have appeared which show incorrect lateral centring. You decide to verify the accuracy of the
X-ray tube and table centre-stop.


1. Design a method to verify the tabletop is accurately centred over the Bucky. Note: this should include possible
errors due to the film position in the cassette.


Carry out this test; include moving the tabletop to centre position from either direction.


Is the tabletop correctly centred to the cassette?


If not, is the cassette tray correctly centred in the Bucky?


Is the crosshair on the collimator faceplate correctly centred to the ‘closed’ position of the collimator leaves?


With the X-ray tube positioned close to the tabletop, is the crosshair aligned to the tabletop centre? Include moving
the X-ray tube to centre position from either direction.


As the X-ray tube is raised from the tabletop, does the crosshair move away from the centre mark?


What adjustment might be made so that the crosshair position does not move as the X-ray tube is raised from
the tabletop?


If this adjustment is performed, will it affect the centre-stop position of the X-ray tube cross-arm?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


103




MODULE 7.1


X-ray tube


a. General precautions


● Before disconnecting any wires, or removing the
high-tension cables, always ensure power is turned
off and unplugged from the power point. If the
equipment is part of a fixed installation, besides
switching the generator power off, ensure the iso-
lation power switch for the room is also switched
off.


● Mobile high-frequency generators may be battery
operated. The batteries in these are connected in
series, and can have a total voltage of up to 240V
DC. Refer to the operating or installation manuals
for the position of the battery isolation switch, and
ensure this is switched off before removing the
covers, or testing wires and connectors.


● If removing a collimator or X-ray tube from a tube
stand.
i. Do not rely on the vertical lock system.
ii. An X-ray tube is heavy. Two people are required


for removal or installation.
iii. Use a rope to prevent the system moving


upwards, when a collimator or X-ray tube is
removed.


iv. Provide a container to hold all small parts, or
screws. Protect against loss.


● If removing an X-ray tube from a capacitor dis-
charge mobile, observe the high-tension precau-
tions described in module 7.3 page 117.


b. X-ray tube failure modes


● The X-ray tube is unstable. A common cause is gas,
which causes very high current to flow during an
exposure. Unstable operation is usually corrected by
‘seasoning’.This is described in module 2.1 page 48.


● Attempts to improve the performance by seasoning
are not successful. This can be due to;
i. The glass has developed micro-fine cracks.With


the collimator removed, this will be observed as
a fine ‘crazing’ effect on the output window, or
port. These cracks indicate the glass is punc-
tured. As a result, the tube is gassy.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


104


E


Aim


The aim is to provide information for testing or replac-
ing the X-ray tube. Different failure modes are ex-
amined. This module is an extension of module 2.1
page 48. Reference should also be made to module 7.3
page 117.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the X-ray tube,
together with the test procedures. This includes
removal or replacement of the X-ray tube, together
with assistance from an electrician or electronics
technician.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. X-ray tube failure modes
c. Inspection of the anode or filament
d. Focal spot performance
e. Oil leaks
f. Removal of the X-ray tube
g. X-ray tube transport
h. Re-installation of the X-ray tube




ii. The bearings have seized, so X-ray exposures are
hitting a stationary anode.


iii. In both cases, the tube requires replacement.
● Arcing at the HT cable ends or in the receptacles.


i. You have may have observed smoke at one
receptacle. Or an actual spark.


ii. The X-ray control might generate ‘mA overload’
or ‘kV fault’ signals. This depends on the design
of the X-ray control and the severity of the
arcing.


iii. You have noticed there is a strong odour at the
suspect cable end or receptacle.


iv. High-tension cable problems are discussed in
module 7.3 page 117.


● The bearings have become very noisy. In many cases
a tube with noisy bearings can still have a useful
life. However, budget for a replacement if the anode
slows down quickly once preparation is released.
This can indicate a failure in the near future, and is
especially the case if the anode slows down while
still in preparation.


● Poor X-ray resolution.
i. The anode is badly worn.
ii. The anode is cracked or distorted, so that the


focal spot wobbles as the anode rotates.
iii. Heavy metal deposits on the output window.This


causes excessive hardening or filtration of the X-
ray output. In this case, it will not be possible to
observe the anode or cathode after removing
the collimator. Metal deposits can also lead to
a micro arc through the glass, causing the tube
to become unstable or gassy.


iv. See ‘inspection of the anode or filament’ in part
‘c’.


● A filament is open circuit. To test, use a multimeter
set to the low ohms scale. There should be a very
low resistance between any two pins in the cathode
receptacle. An exception is the X-ray tube for some
mobiles, which may have only one focal spot.


● A filament has a partial short circuit. This is due to
a section of the filament touching the cathode
focus cup, and then welding itself to the cup. Unfor-
tunately, this is not a rare occurrence.
i. The generator will indicate sudden low mA


output, while films will not only appear under-
exposed, but may also have poor contrast due
to an increase of kV. With high frequency, or
microprocessor-controlled generators, a kV fault
signal may be generated.


ii. Checking the other focal spot will indicate
normal operation.


iii. Attempting to re-calibrate mA output will indi-
cate a rapidly increasing filament drive current,


especially at higher mA output. In addition, cor-
rection of mA at medium to low kV calibration
points becomes very difficult. (Space charge
compensation).


iv. In some cases it is possible to see a faulty
filament, after the collimator is removed. See
‘inspection of the anode or filament’.


c. Inspection of the anode or filament


Note. This technique must not be attempted with
a capacitor discharge mobile, due to high voltage
that may be stored in the capacitor.


● Removing the collimator.
i. Where possible, refer first to the installation


manual of the collimator. If in doubt, contact
the service department for instruction. Two
people are recommended, to hold the assem-
bly in position as it is removed or replaced.


ii. Rotate the X-ray tube so it is aimed at the
ceiling. Adjust the height close to the tabletop.


iii. Secure the vertical movement of the tube
stand so it cannot move upwards once the col-
limator is removed. Do not rely on the magnetic
lock system, this can slip, or not operate when
power is switched off.


iv. Examine the connecting cables to the collima-
tor, and the tube-stand operation panel. Is
there sufficient length? Undo any cable ties if
required, to allow cables to hang freely.


v. Ensure all power is off. Turn of power at the
room isolation switch. Do not rely on the gen-
erator power switch, as some installations
allow direct power to the tube stand.


vi. To avoid pulling on cables once the collimator
is removed, place a box of a suitable height on
the tabletop.The collimator can rest on this box
when removed from the tube head. This may
include the tube-stand control panel.


vii. If the cables are short, disconnection is
required. Make a careful diagram of connec-
tion terminals before disconnecting,and ensure
the wires have a suitable label or mark. Ensure
any attached labels will not fall off.Any exposed
terminals attached to wires must be covered
with insulation tape. (Power may need to be
re-applied to see inside the X-ray tube.)


viii. Undo the retaining screws holding the collima-
tor to the tube housing, and place the colli-


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


105




mator on the tabletop, or box. Take care on
removal, as part of the collimator can extend
into the tube-housing port. In some cases, the
tube-stand control panel will be detached at
the same time. Assistance may be required to
hold or place components as they are removed.


ix. Have a container ready to receive screws etc.
These are easily lost.


x. The tube-housing port may have an aluminium
filter, and a lead ‘proximal’ diaphragm fitted.
The latter is often in the form of cone extend-
ing into the port, and the filter is then placed
under this lead diaphragm. The proximal
diaphragm is held in place by a spring clip, or
else by two or four very small screws. Before
removing the lead diaphragm, make a mark so
it can be replaced in the same position.


xi. Caution: do not remove the larger screws
holding the port assembly in place. Air will
enter the housing, or oil will leak out. If this
happens, the tube housing needs to be
reprocessed.


● Inspecting the anode.
ii. With the collimator, proximal diaphragm, and


any added filter removed, it should now be pos-
sible to see the anode and filament.


iii. Often observation of the anode may be made
using a torch. However, any metal evaporation
on the glass acts as a mirror, and prevents
observation.


iv. Most generators have a filament pre-heat
circuit, which will light up the filament, and
allow observation of the anode. Ensure any dis-
connected wires have their ends taped up, and
then switch on the generator.


v. Note. If the glass has heavy metal deposits, this
technique may only yield limited results. In this
case, the future reliability of the tube is not
good.


vi. To observe the anode for defects, the anode
needs to slowly rotate.


vii. To rotate the anode, press the preparation
button on the handswitch. This should be very
brief,so that the anode only just starts spinning.
Do not expose. As a safety precaution, preset
minimum kV and time, and a low mA station.


viii. As the anode slows down, carefully observe the
track area. Look for the following.
—Anode wobble, this indicates possible crack-


ing, and poor focal spot performance.
—Stationary hits.These appear as small melted


areas of the anode, as if hit by a small arc
welder.


—Worn anode. This appears as a fine crazed
pattern, like coarse sandpaper.


—Overloaded anode. This has a fine orange
peel pattern.


—Smudged areas. This often occurs during
manufacture. However, if the tube is unsta-
ble, this can be an indication of gas.


● Inspecting the filament.
ix. When the generator is switched on, the pre-


heat circuit will light up the selected focal spot.
x. Select fine focus, and then broad focus. The


broad focus will appear a little longer and
larger in diameter.


xi. (An exception to the above will occur with a
fluoroscopy table. In this case, the fine focus
remains selected at all times, unless in prepa-
ration for radiography).


xii. If there is a partial short in the broad focus,
then the broad focus will appear shorter in
length than the fine focus. Careful observation
can sometimes see a short length of filament
that is not heated.


● Are there fine cracks in the glass?
i. These can appear over the anode or cathode


area. A minor case may appear as a single fine
line, like a single strand of spider web. More
severe cases can appear as a fine crazed
pattern.


ii. These marks are due to high voltage discharge
through the glass. This condition occurs more
often with metal deposits on the glass, which
increases the possibility of arcing in this area.


iii. The presence of these marks, together with a
suspect unstable or arcing tube, means the tube
is gassy and will need replacement. In this case,
seasoning is not effective.


● Replacing the collimator.
i. Re-assembly is in the reverse order as the dis-


mantle process.
ii. Take care that any added aluminium filters are


returned to their previous position,and the prox-
imal diaphragm is correctly aligned.


iii. After reassembly the collimator will need
realignment. Please refer to module 7.2 page
110.


d. Focal spot performance


Focal spot performance can be tested using a ‘Star
pattern’ gauge.


In use, the gauge is positioned in the centre of the
X-ray beam, close to the focal spot. This gives a mag-
nified view of the star pattern. Part of this pattern is


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


106


E




blurred.The diameter of the blurred area is used to cal-
culate the size of the focal spot.


There are several versions of star patterns. Use the
directions enclosed with the pattern, which includes a
formula specific to the supplied star pattern.


A star test pattern may be obtained as a loan item
from the service department, or from the physics
department of a major hospital.


When measuring the focal spot, take the following
precautions.


● Use a low value of kV. (60~70kV)
● Use a medium value of mA suitable for the focal


spot under examination. Note. As mA is increased,
the focal spot will also increase in size.


● Use non-screened film.Or else a cassette with detail
screens.


● Exposure time should be more than 0.04 seconds.
This allows at least two rotations of the anode, in
case anode wobble is degrading the focal spot.


● If the test result is too light, increase the time or
mA station.


● If the result is too dark, consider increasing the FFD
or reducing kV.


● If the outer blurred area is too large in diameter to
measure easily, then reduce the magnification, and
adjust mA and kV to suit.


e. Oil leaks


Oil leaks should always be reported. Even a very slow
oil leak has the possibility of letting air into the
housing. An air bubble in the wrong position can lead
to arcing, and possible destruction of the X-ray tube.


● Oil leaks may be seen at either end of the tube
housing, or at the collimator, if a crack or faulty seal
occurs in the housing port.


● An X-ray tube with oil leaks will need to be repaired
by the service department. In some situations, the
service department may supply a loan unit, while
the faulty housing is repaired.


● To locate where the oil leak occurs, first thoroughly
wipe clean with a paper tissue. Leave overnight,
and then test by wiping with a fresh tissue next
morning. This will indicate the origin, and assist in
repairs when the tube is returned to the service
department.


● Occasionally, when a tube is returned after a repair,
an apparent oil leak might appear. This can be
caused by a small amount of spilt oil around such
areas as the external terminal strip etc. A few drips
may initially occur, and then no further symptoms
appear. If drips continue after a few days, then this


needs to be reported, and have the tube returned
for further attention.


f. Removal of the X-ray tube


Due to the presence of an oil leak, or to have a new
insert installed, the X-ray tube and housing is required
at the service department.


● Preparation for removal.
i. Where possible, refer first to the installation


manual of the tube stand. If in doubt, contact
the service department for instruction.


ii. Two people are recommended to assist in
removing or installing the X-ray tube assembly.
This is a heavy object.


iii. Rotate the X-ray tube so it is aimed at the
ceiling. Adjust the height close to the tabletop.


iv. Secure the vertical movement of the tube
stand so it cannot move upwards once the col-
limator is removed. Do NOT rely on the mag-
netic lock system, this can slip, or not operate
when power is switched off.


v. Examine the connecting cables to the collima-
tor, and the tube-stand operation panel. Undo
any cable ties or clamps, to allow cables to
hang freely.


vi. Carefully mark the anode and cathode cables.
vii. Hint. The stator cable normally enters at the


anode end of the housing. (In some cases, it
enters at the centre. Be careful in this situa-
tion)


viii. Ensure all power is off. Turn of power at the
room isolation switch. Do not rely on the gen-
erator power switch, as some installations
allow direct power to the tube stand.


xi. If removing an X-ray tube from a capacitor dis-
charge mobile, observe the high-tension pre-
cautions described in module 7.3 page 117.


x. Undo the ring nuts holding the HT cable ends,
and withdraw the cable ends from the housing.
As they are withdrawn touch the end pins to
the tube stand. This is to discharge any resid-
ual high-tension that may be present. When
they are withdrawn, wrap the cable ends in
cloth or paper towel to protect from damage.


xi. To avoid pulling on cables once the collimator
is removed, place a box of a suitable height on
the tabletop.The collimator can rest on this box
when removed from the tube head. This could
also include the tube-stand control panel.


xii. Disconnection of all wires to the tube housing
is required. Make a careful diagram of con-


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


107




nection positions before removing, and ensure
the wires have a suitable label or mark. Ensure
any attached labels will not fall off.Any exposed
terminals attached to wires must be covered
with insulation tape. (This is in case power is
turned back on)


xiii. Undo the retaining screws holding the collima-
tor to the tube housing, and place the colli-
mator on the tabletop, or box. Take care when
removing, as part of the collimator may extend
into the tube housing port. In some installa-
tions, the tube-stand control panel will be
detached at the same time. Assistance will be
required to hold or place components as they
are removed.


xiv. Have a container ready to receive screws etc.
These are easily lost.


● Removal of the X-ray tube housing from the tube
stand.
i. Check again, that vertical movement of the tube


stand is properly secured.
ii. After the collimator, high-tension cables, and


stator cables have been removed, examine care-
fully the shape of the trunnion mounting rings.
With the X-ray tube aimed at the ceiling, the
bottom section of the rings should be able to
hold the housing in place, after the top section
is removed. Sometimes the assembly is installed
in the reverse direction, so then the tube needs
to face the tabletop.


iii. With the housing in the required position, undo
the top half’s of the trunnion rings, taking
special note if any washers have been inserted
between where the trunnion rings are fastened
together. (These are sometimes fitted to adjust
the trunnion rings, in case they are too tight a
fit for the tube housing.)


iv. The tube housing may now be lifted up out of
the rings. This is a heavy object. Two people
should assist in this process.


g. X-ray tube transport


The X-ray tube housing offers no protection to the X-
ray tube if it is bumped or dropped. Incorrect pack-
aging for transport can easily result in a broken tube,
due to the weight of the anode.


● Before sending the tube to the service department,
take careful note of all housing and X-ray tube
details. Include serial numbers.


● Attach full documentation to the housing. This
should give a full description of the problem to be
rectified. There should also be full contact details,


such as hospital address, phone number, person to
contact, etc. Include an order number or other
authorisation if required.


● Include a request for suitable silicon grease, and or
anti-corona silicon pads to be supplied when the
tube is returned.


● Before looking for suitable boxes etc, contact the
service department.They may be able to send a suit-
able size box and packing material.


● Select a box size about twice that of the housing.
Pack the housing in the centre, using material to
cushion any bumps. For example, shredded poly-
styrene foam. Make a mark on the box to indicate
the anode end.


● Place this box in another box about twice the size
of the first box. Fill the space between the two
boxes with suitable cushion packing.


● Position the second box so that the X-ray tube is
vertical, and the anode end is towards the bottom
of the box.


● Attach very large labels with an arrow to indicate
‘This side up’ on the sides of the box.Attach another
label on the top to indicate ‘Top side’. Attach
‘Fragile, do not drop’ labels on all sides.


● Take care both the service department address and
the hospital return address is protected, eg, inside
a transparent plastic cover. If sending to another
country, be sure to provide suitable information for
customs etc.


● Ensure you have a full copy of the shipping details.
Also phone the service department and notify them
of the method of transport etc. If the X-ray tube
is sent to another country, enclose copies of the
required customs forms.


h. Reinstallation of the X-ray tube


Caution: If a new tube insert or assembly is supplied,
a complete mA re-calibration is required. This should
be performed by the service department.


The X-ray tube is re-installed in the reverse order of
the instructions for removal. Eg, first it is mounted in
the trunnion a ring, then the collimator is attached,
and finally the wiring and HT cables.These precautions
should be observed.


● Check the HT receptacles. If there is any grease
residue, this must all be removed, and the recepta-
cles left in a polished condition. Even if apparently
clean, still wipe them carefully with fresh paper
tissues. This is to remove any possible moisture. Do
not touch the inside with the fingers, or scrape the
sides with a metal object. (This may leave very slight
traces of metal behind).


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


108


E




● If the housing has been repaired, or a new insert
fitted, check carefully for any areas of oil residue,
and wipe away with paper tissues.


● Before installing the collimator, ensure the proximal
diaphragm and aluminium filters are in place.


● Reconnect the wires, using the diagram previously
made when the tube was removed. If a new tube
and housing is supplied, and the connection points
appear different, contact the service department
before connecting any wires.


● When inserting the high-tension cable ends, use the
instructions provided in module 7.3 page 117.


● Important.After the cable ends have been inserted,
and the ring nut fully tightened, retighten a few
hours later, and again next day.


● The collimator will need re-alignment. Please refer
to module 7.2 page 110.


● Before making a test exposure, just enter prepara-
tion only. Listen carefully to the tube anode as it
rotates. Is this the normal anode rotation sound?


● Providing the original tube insert and housing has
been returned, then the mA calibration should be
the same. Select a low mA position, set 60kV, and
0.1 second exposure time. Make a test exposure. If
any problem occurs, STOP. Contact the service
department for advice.


● The X-ray tube should now be seasoned. Use the
technique described in module 2.1 page 48.


● Keep the boxes and packing the X-ray tube assem-
bly arrived in for future use.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


109




MODULE 7.2


X-ray collimator


Contents


a. General precautions
b. The light field has insufficient brightness
c. Changing the collimator globe
d. A wrong collimator globe
e. This collimator was not designed to rotate
f. Centring of the collimator lamp
g. Centring of the X-ray beam
h. The light field is larger than the X-ray field
i. The Bucky centre light
j. The X-ray field fades out on one side of the film
k. The collimator blades close, after adjusting the


field size
l. The collimator lamp fails to operate
m. The globe has failed, and there is no spare globe


Equipment required


■ Basic tool kit.
■ X-ray alignment template.*
■ 24/30 cm cassette.
■ Spare collimator globe.
■ Cloth, for cleaning.
■ Detergent.


* The template is described in appendix ‘B’ page 169.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


110


E


Aim


The aim is to provide information and procedures
related to adjusting the X-ray collimator.This is in addi-
tion to the collimator maintenance,provided in module
2.2 page 50.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the collimator and
their solutions.Adjustments and repairs may be carried
out. Some tests for the collimator lamp can be
made with the help of an electrician, or electronics
technician.


Task 14. ‘Help! No spare globe for the collimator’,
should be attempted on completion of this module.


a. General precautions


● Before disconnecting any wires, or removing a
cover, always ensure power is turned off and
unplugged from the power point. If the equipment
is part of a fixed installation, besides switching the
generator power off, ensure the isolation power
switch for the room is also switched off.


● Whenever changing a collimator lamp, ensure all
power is turned off.


● If removing a cover, position the collimator close to
the tabletop. Secure the tube stand so it cannot
move upwards once the cover is removed.


● The timer switch may be fastened to the cover.
Place a small box or pillow within reach to support


the cover when removed, so the connecting wires
are not pulled.


b.The light field has insufficient brightness


This may be due to several causes, some of which can
combine to give an overall drop in light level.


● Dirt or dust builds up on the inside of the trans-
parent exit cover of the collimator.
i. To clean, it will be necessary to include removal


of the collimator outer cover. Before removal,
ensure all power is turned off.


ii. Clean with a soft rag and mild detergent. Wipe
off any residual detergent.




iii. The above also applies if cleaning the mirror.
Take care not to scratch the surface, or change
the position of the mirror.


● The globe has metal evaporation on the inside of
the globe. Fit a new globe.


● The voltage supply to the lamp is too low.This is due
to a supply voltage that has not allowed for voltage
drop, due to wiring resistance. As an example, when
the lamp is switched on, the voltage can drop by
2~5 volts.This is a common problem when installed
with long connecting cables.
i. Ask an electrician, or electronics technician, to


measure and adjust the lamp voltage.
ii. Check if the lamp has the correct voltage. To


do this, set the multimeter to a convenient AC
voltage range. For example, 25V or 100V AC.
Remove the lamp covers, and place the meter
probes on the lamp terminals. Look away from
the lamp while switching the light on, and then
measure the operating voltage. This might be
only 7~8V for a 12V lamp, or perhaps 17~20
V for a 24V lamp.


iii. A number of systems have a transformer, with
a selection of output voltages. The required
voltage is selected by changing a connection
on a terminal strip.


iv. During installation this may be set at the lamp
voltage. For example, set at 12V output for a
12V lamp.This is incorrect, as it does not allow
for voltage loss in the connecting cable.


v. A correct installation may even set the voltage
as high as 16V for a 12V lamp. This compen-
sates for voltage drop due to cable resistance,
when the lamp is switched on.


vi. If the test voltage is low, eg, below 10V for a
12V lamp, then contact the service depart-
ment for instructions to adjust the voltage
supply. Include the make and model of the col-
limator and the generator.


vii. In some other situations, there may be spare
conductors in the cable. These may be placed
in parallel with the existing wires for the lamp,
to reduce the voltage drop. This is best left to
a technician from the service department to
carry out.


viii. Note. While an 8V operating voltage for a
12V lamp is too low, increasing to the full
12V will give a shorter lamp life.A compromise
between brightness and life for a 12V lamp is
10~11V.


c. Changing the collimator globe


Before attempting to replace a collimator globe,
ensure all power is turned off.


When replacing the globe, take care not to touch
the glass with the fingers. This especially applies to
quartz iodide globes, as slight oil or perspiration from
the fingers will cause premature failure. Use a paper
tissue to hold the globe.


d. A wrong collimator globe


Two versions of a quartz iodide globe appear very
similar. If the wrong version is installed, there is a large
error between the light field, and the X-ray field.


● The correct globe has longer connecting pins. OR,
the filament is placed further towards the tip of the
lamp. Both are correct, in that the filament is the
same distance from the rear end of the pins.


● The incorrect version has shorter pins, so that the
distance between the filament and the rear end of
the pins is smaller.


● In an emergency, the short pin version may be used.
Insert the lamp sufficiently to make good contact
in the socket, however do not push it all the way in.
There will still be an error in the light beam to X-
ray alignment, so obtain the correct version as soon
as possible.


e.This collimator was not designed to rotate


Older installations may have a collimator of European
origin. With this collimator, four adjustable metal
‘fingers’ attach the collimator to a circular flange, or
plate. There is no other adjustment. Correct adjust-
ment is with the fingers tightened, so the collimator
does not rotate.


However, in some installations these fingers are not
tightened, allowing the collimator to be rotated.


● The collimator can only be aligned correctly to the
focal spot in one position.When it is rotated, correct
alignment to the light beam may be lost, especially
if the light beam has also been adjusted. See ‘Cen-
tring of the X-ray beam’, part ‘g’.


● Rotating the collimator can cause wear to the
metal fingers. As the wear increases, the collimator
may ‘wobble’ when pointed at a wall Bucky. In a
severe wear case, the top of the metal finger breaks
off. Replacement metal fingers are difficult to
obtain.


● As the adjusting screws were not tightened, these
can vibrate to a more open position.This will cause


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


111




erratic collimation. In a severe situation, the colli-
mator may even detach from the flange, and fall off.


● Assuming the collimator must rotate, please take
the following precautions.
i. Apply a very thin layer of oil to the upper surface


of the mounting ring, to reduce wear.
ii. After the metal fingers have been adjusted,


apply a dab of nail polish to the outer threads
of the adjusting screws. This will help prevent
them from unwinding.


f. Centring of the collimator lamp


There are two methods of aligning the light beam to
the X-ray field. One is to move the position of the lamp,
and the other is to adjust the position of the collima-
tor relative to the X-ray beam.


With a collimator that can rotate, it is essential to
adjust in the correct sequence, otherwise alignment is
correct only in one position.


● Bring the collimator down until it touches the table-
top, and adjust the tube rotation so the collimator
face is flat against the tabletop. Now raise the col-
limator to its normal working height.


● Rotate the collimator clockwise 90 degrees.
● Place a used X-ray film on the table top as a tem-


plate. A suggested size is 24 ¥ 30cm. Switch the
collimator lamp on, and adjust the collimator so the
light field just covers the film.


● Next, rotate the collimator anti-clockwise 180
degrees. With the lamp switched on, look for any
error in alignment. This should be less than 2.0mm
in any direction.


● Before making any adjustment, check to see the
correct lamp is fitted. If in doubt, contact the
service department to obtain positive identification.


● If adjusting the lamp position, adjust so the error
is reduced by 50%.Then adjust the film position to
the light, and test again with the collimator rotated
180 degrees to the previous position.


● Can the mirror be adjusted?
i. With most collimators, the mirror is fixed in


position. Attempting to move the mirror against
the clamping screws can distort or break it,
requiring a replacement. (If the mirror is dis-
torted, the sides of the light field are at an
angle, and not parallel).


ii. The exception is where there is a spring-ten-
sioned adjustment screw. This may be found on
some mobiles or portable units. In this case, the
lamp may be adjusted sideways, and the mirror
rotation replaces the vertical adjustment of the
lamp.


g. Centring of the X-ray beam


Attempting to adjust the collimator to the X-ray beam
should only be attempted after checking that the light
beam is correctly centred.This especially applies when
the collimator can rotate.


● An X-ray alignment template is required. A suitable
design is shown in appendix B page 169.


● Place the X-ray alignment template on a 24/30cm
cassette.


● Collimate the light beam to the outer 20 by 26cm
rectangle.


● Make a low kV and mAs exposure.
● Develop the film.
● Does the alignment meet the required compliance?


Two versions are provided as an example only. The
actual compliance requirement will depend on indi-
vidual country regulations.
i. The X-ray field edges should not deviate by more


than 2% of the distance between the plane of
the light field and the focal spot.
[a1] + [a2] £ 0.02 ¥ S.
[b1] + [b2] £ 0.02 ¥ S.
Where S is the distance from the focal spot, a1
and a2 are the two sides on one axis, and b1
and b2 are the two sides of the other axis.
For example; at a FFD of 100cm, if the two ver-
tical edges of the light field were displaced by
10mm, this would be at the limit of acceptance.
If only one edge was displaced, then 2.0cm is
at the limit of acceptance.


ii. Another version has a different requirement.
The total misalignment of any edge of the light
field with the respective edge of the irradiated
field must not exceed 1% of the distance
between the plane of the light field and the
focal spot.
For example; at a FFD of 100cm, the maximum
displacement of any edge should be less than
10cm.


● In case the X-ray field is off-centre by more than
the permitted amount, re-centring is required.


● To adjust a non-rotating collimator.
i. Refer where possible to the installation or


operation manuals for the collimator. If neces-
sary, contact the service department for infor-
mation specific to your version of collimator.


ii. Locate the adjusting screws for the metal
fingers. These usually require an Allen key for
adjustment.


iii. By slackening off one finger, then tightening
the opposite finger, the collimator will move rel-
ative to the X-ray field.Only a small adjustment,


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


112


E




of about one turn of the screw, is sufficient to
move the X-ray field several millimetres.


iv. Adjust the collimator to move in the same
direction you require the X-ray field to move.


v. After adjusting, make another test film and
compare the results.


vi. If necessary, make further adjustments until
compliance is achieved.


vii. Tighten carefully all four fingers, ensuring the
collimator position does not change.


viii. Make a final test film for verification.
● To adjust a rotating collimator.


i. Refer where possible to the installation or oper-
ation manuals for the collimator. If necessary,
contact the service department for information
specific to your version of collimator.


ii. With a true rotating collimator, the ring or
bearing on which it rotates is repositioned rel-
ative to the X-ray beam. (Unfortunately some
simplified systems may not have this facility,
and so can only be correct in one position).


iii. It is necessary to locate the screws that clamp
this ring in position. These may require a small
spanner. Undo these screws a small amount, so
the ring can just be moved.


iv. With some rotating collimators, once the rota-
tion ring is free to move, adjusting screws
similar to the fixed-collimator, are used for
alignment. Otherwise gently tap the collimator
into position, moving it only a part of a mil-
limetre at a time.


v. Adjust the position and test in the same fashion
as the fixed-collimator.


vi. Repeat the above test, with the collimator
rotated 90 degrees clockwise, and 90 degrees
counter clockwise.


vii. Ensure the ring clamping screws are correctly
tightened when alignment is satisfied. Make a
final test film for verification.


h.The light field is larger than the X-ray field


Most collimators depend on a standard distance
between the X-ray tube housing and focal spot. If a
manufacturer supplies non-standard tube housing, this
distance may be incorrect.


● The collimator is required to be positioned at a spe-
cific distance from the focal spot. Some collimators
are supplied with shims.These can be added or sub-
tracted to make the required adjustment. Check
with the service department for this possibility.


● A common reason is the method of installation.


i. The bracket for the tube-stand command panel
is placed between the collimator and the X-ray
tube port. This increases the collimator to focal
spot distance.As a result the X-ray field becomes
smaller.


ii. In some cases it may be possible to have a
mounting block machined to reduce this added
distance, or have shims removed. Otherwise the
mounting method of the control panel will need
to be changed to correct the situation.


i.The Bucky centre light


Collimators have been fitted with a number of
methods to indicate Bucky centre. Two versions are
discussed here.


● One method is a fixed slot, immediately below the
collimator lamp. If the lamp is not correctly
adjusted, then the light shines at an angle through
this slot, creating an error. This is usually corrected
by re-alignment of the collimator. See ‘Centring of
the collimator lamp’, part ‘f’.


● Other versions may have a small focussing lens,
attached to a slit in the collimator cover. Adjusting
the lens can shift the position of the light beam.


j.The X-ray field fades out on one side of
the film


If the fade out occurs towards the anode side of the
film,when selecting a large format, this is probably due
to the ‘heel affect’ of the X-ray tube anode.


Otherwise, it may be due to the following.


● The collimator is not centred to the focal spot, and
the lamp has been adjusted to align the light beam
to the X-ray field.Test by making sure the light field
remains centred as the collimator is rotated. See
‘Centring of the collimator lamp’.


● The collimator primary-beam shutter, or blade, is
touching the side of the X-ray tube port, or ‘throat’.
The cause is due to incorrect centring of the
collimator.
(This problem depends on the collimator design, and
how the collimator is attached to the X-ray tube.)


● The lead proximal-diaphragm has been incorrectly
fitted inside the tube port. For example, after
replacement of the X-ray tube.


● The collimator lead-shutters, or blades, are out of
adjustment.This may be either the middle blade, or
the bottom blade.
i. The shutters are coupled to the field size knob


by a thin stainless-steel cable.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


113




ii. The cable may be loose, or has slipped where it
attaches to the shutters. To check, remove the
collimator cover, and make a careful compari-
son of both sets of collimator blades. The lead
strip, on the bottom blades, can be adjusted in
most collimators.


● In some cases there may be a slow fade off towards
the cathode side of the film.This is more noticeable
at lower kV levels. If this is an older, or hard worked
X-ray tube, then it might be due to metal deposits
on the glass. To check, you will need to remove the
collimator. See module 7.1 page 104.


k.The collimator blades close, after adjusting
the field size


A collimator has an internal ‘brake’ or ‘clutch’. If this
becomes loose, the springs, fitted between the colli-
mator blades, cause the blades to close.


Two common methods are described here.
To adjust, it is necessary to remove the collimator


cover. Ensure power is turned off, and the tube stand
is prevented from moving vertically.


● Japanese origin.
i. The shutter control knob is attached to a round


shaft. This shaft, which controls the opening of
the blades, passes through a cylinder attached
to the inside front of the collimator.


ii. A small nylon pad forms the brake action. This
is pressed firmly against the shaft that passes
through the cylinder.


iii. A screw, attached to the cylinder, controls the
amount of pressure. As the screw is turned
clockwise, the pressure of the nylon pad against
the shaft increases.


iv. To adjust, first undo the locknut on the screw.
Then turn the adjusting screw about a quarter
turn clockwise. Retighten the locknut, and test
the feel of the control knob.


v. Repeat the above action so the knob is firm to
turn, without being over tight.


vi. Check and adjust the other shutter control knob.
vii. Replace the cover.


● European origin.
i. The shutter control knob is attached to a round


shaft. This shaft, which controls the opening of
the blades, passes through to the rear of the
collimator.


ii. At the rear of the collimator, a circular disc is
attached to the end of the shaft.


iii. There are two screws on the outer side of this
disc. These adjust the pressure of a wide spring
washer on the disc.


iv. The screws are adjusted so the control knob is
firm to adjust, but not over tight.


v. These screws tend to become loose. After they
are adjusted, clean around the screw heads
with alcohol. Then paint the immediate area
with nail polish. This will help retain the screws
in position.


● For other collimators, contact the service depart-
ment for advice regarding adjustment of the brake
and its location.


l.The collimator lamp fails to operate


The most common cause of failure is, of course, a burnt
out globe. In case this is not the reason, then check
the following. Ask an electrician, or electronics techni-
cian, for assistance.


● The lamp timer switch. Mechanical types are prone
to failure, and to a lesser degree, electronic versions.
i. Ensure all power is switched off, while removing


the cover to gain access to the timer.
Note. Some tests for the timer will require
power after the cover is removed.


ii. Check the internal wiring, looking for loose
connections.


iii. Mechanical timers have only two terminals.
Operate the timer, and with a multimeter set to
low ohms range, check the timer-switch con-
tacts for continuity. See module 5.0 page 65.


iv. An alternate test is to set the multimeter to AC
volts, and look for voltage across the terminals.
This should be 12~15V for a 12V lamp. When
the timer is operated, there should be no voltage
across the terminals.


v. Electronic timers have several connections. It is
necessary to trace out the wiring and locate the
two terminals that switch the power to the
lamp. Look for voltage across these terminals.
This should be 12~15V for a 12V lamp. When
the timer is operated, there should be no voltage
across the terminals.


vi. In case the timer is faulty, a temporary repair is
to remove the timer and replace it with a stan-
dard on-off switch. Order a new timer and
replace the temporary switch at the first
opportunity.


● No power to the collimator. Check the connecting
cable for broken connections, especially if the col-
limator is a rotating version.


● There may be a faulty fuse in the collimator power
circuit. Contact the service department for the
location of this fuse.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


114


E




m.The globe has failed, and there is
no spare globe


● The collimator should have a scale on the front.This
indicates the field aperture as the blades are
opened. The accuracy of this scale has, hopefully,
been checked at the last routine service. However,
let us assume this has not happened.
i. Lower the collimator so it is touching the table-


top.Adjust any angulation or rotation, so it sits
flat on the tabletop.


ii. Adjust the tube stand so the collimator is at
the table centre.


iii. Place a ruler on the tabletop, end-on against
the centre of the collimator. Use this as a
guide to assist in centring the Bucky to the
collimator.


iv. Raise the tube to the normal working height.
Adjust the X-ray control for a low kV and mAs
exposure.


v. Place a 24 ¥ 30cm cassette in the Bucky.
Adjust the collimator to the film size using the
scale on the collimator. Make a test exposure.


vi. If the test exposure shows all the film was
exposed, then repeat the above test, this time
reducing the collimator aperture a small
amount. If all is well, the film should now have
a border around all four sides.


vii. Continue the above test with the most com-
monly used sizes of films and orientation.
Adjust the position of the control knob on the
collimator shaft to obtain a correct indication.
Or, place a mark on the collimator front to indi-
cate the required opening for the different
films.


viii. A similar test to the above is required for the
wall Bucky.


● To estimate the position of the anatomy under
examination. AP view.
i. With the patient on the tabletop, bring the col-


limator close to the area under examination.
View the position both from the head, or foot,
end of the table, as well as the side of the table.


ii. To estimate the area to be covered, place a
sheet of film on the patient, centred directly
under the collimator.This is to simulate the pre-
vious appearance with the light beam. The
actual area will be about 10% less.


iii. Where possible, protect other immediate areas
of the patient by masking with lead rubber
strips.


iv. Raise the X-ray tube to its normal height, and
set the aperture size using the scale on the front
of the collimator.


● To assist in Bucky centring during an examination.
i. Attach a length of string to the front of the col-


limator side, positioned at the centre. Attach a
small weight at the end to act as a plumb bob.


ii. Move the X-ray tube across the table, so the
plumb bob is over the Bucky tray. Centre the
Bucky to the X-ray tube, and then return the X-
ray tube back to the table centre position.


iii. Coil up the string etc on the X-ray tube when
not in use.


● To estimate the position of the anatomy under
examination. Oblique view.
i. A simple method is to use a long ruler, or


similar object, resting against the upper or
lower side of the collimator. This is extended
towards the patient. By alternating the ruler on
the upper and lower side of the collimator, a
reasonably accurate positioning of the X-ray
field may be made.


ii. A torch may be used. The torch should be the
type that has a focussed spotlight, and a flat
bottom end.


iii. Hold the torch bottom end against the centre
of the collimator faceplate. Switch the torch
on, and place a marker in the centre of the
light beam on the tabletop.


iv. Rotate the torch, and check that the light
beam stays in position. This test indicates the
torch is suitable for use.


v. Now place the patient on the table. Adjust the
X-ray tube to the required angle. Place the
torch on the collimator front as before, and
use the torch light to indicate the X-ray beam
centre.


vi. As before, a sheet of film may be used to esti-
mate the area to be covered.


vii. Set the collimator aperture, using the scale on
the front of the collimator.


viii. Use lead rubber strips to protect the patient.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


115




TASK 14


Help! No spare globe for
the collimator


The collimator globe has failed. On checking supplies, there is no spare globe. You are required to continue pro-
cessing patients, while waiting for a new globe.
Please refer to module 11.2 for an outline of suggested techniques.
Note; for this exercise, the collimator lamp must not be used.


Using a 24/30cm film, test the accuracy of the collimator scales. Is the accuracy adequate? Does the scale need
to be reset?


Make a suggestion for other methods to achieve patient positioning, with an AP view.


Can this method be adapted for a wall Bucky?


With a water phantom to simulate the patient, try the methods suggested for an oblique view. Will this give the
required accuracy?


Discuss other problems that may arise if the lamp fails. Suggest a technique that may be used.


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


116


E




MODULE 7.3


HT cable


a. Safety precautions


● Do not attempt repairs or replacement of the HT
cables by yourself. Ask an electrician, or an elec-
tronics technician, for assistance.


● Before disconnecting any wires, or removing the HT
cables, always ensure power is turned off and
unplugged from the power point. If the equipment
is part of a fixed installation, besides switching
the generator power off, ensure the isolation power
switch for the room is also switched off.


● Mobile high-frequency generators may be battery
operated. The batteries in these are connected in
series, and can have a total voltage of up to 240V
DC. Refer to the operating or installation manuals
for the position of the battery isolation switch, and
ensure this is switched off, before removing the
covers, or testing wires and connectors.


● If removing a HT cable from a capacitor discharge
mobile, observe the high-tension precautions
described in module 6.2 page 94.


● Whenever a HT cable is removed from a receptacle,
immediately short the cable-end pins to ground.
This is to remove any residual high voltage in the
cable. The same precaution applies before applying
grease or any other handling of the cable end.
Failure to take this precaution could cause a severe
electrical shock.


b. High-tension failure of the HT cable


The HT cable tends to fail at the cable ends.This is due
to the added flexing, or twisting, as the X-ray tube is
rotated and repositioned. This is often due to poor
support of the HT cable. Failure is usually accompa-
nied with a pungent, or acrid, smell.


● A metal ‘cuff’ often hides the actual failure point.
This cuff helps support the cable end where it enters
the tube housing. If suspicious of the HT cable, then
undo the retaining ring nut, and slide the cuff out
of the way.Then inspect again for an unusual smell.
Make a comparison with the other cable end.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


117


Aim


The aim is to provide information related to the high-
tension (HT) cable. This includes repairing common
faults, and procedures for replacing the HT cable.
Information in this module also applies to module 7.1
page 104.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the high-tension
cable, and their symptoms. With the assistance of an
electrician or electronics technician, a number of cor-
rective actions can be carried out.


This includes:


● Repairs to eliminate high-tension arcing.
● Correcting bad cathode cable connections to the


X-ray tube filament.
● Removal and reinsertion of the cable ends,when the


X-ray tube is replaced.
● Replacement of the HT cable.


Contents


a. Safety precautions
b. High-tension failure of the HT cable
c. Damage to the cable electrical safety shield
d. Arcing in the X-ray tube receptacle
e. Burnt pins on the cathode cable end
f. Caution on removing HT cable ends
g. HT cable replacement
h. HT cable fault with CD mobiles
i. Preparation prior to inserting the HT cable end
j. Inserting the HT cable end
k. Need for re-calibration




● If a HT cable is suspect, test by replacing the cable.
i. This may be a spare cable from an old installa-


tion, or else a loan cable sent from the service
department.


ii. Observe carefully the procedures and precau-
tions in this module, before replacing a cable.


● See ‘Arcing in the X-ray tube receptacle’, part ‘d’.


c. Damage to the cable electrical safety shield


The HT cable is fitted with a wire mesh safety shield.
This is just below the outer insulation. If there is a
failure of the cable insulation, the shield conducts the
high-voltage spark to ground. The safety shield is sol-
dered to the metal flange of the cable end.Twisting of
the HT cable can cause the wire strands to break.


In some cases, the shield is found completely dis-
connected. This can be very dangerous. See ‘Caution
on removing high-tension cable ends’, part ‘f’.


● To inspect, undo the cable-end retaining ring-nut.
Slide back the cable support cuff. Check for broken
strands.


● In some cases, the shield connection is wrapped in
insulation tape. This form of construction is weak,
and is prone to have damage to the shield. Unwrap
the tape to inspect for broken strands. If ok, then
re-wrap using fresh tape.


● If there are broken strands, and especially if this is
extensive, a repair should be attempted. An electri-
cian or electronics technician should perform this
repair, after obtaining advice from the service
department.
i. A soldering iron is required. 75~100 watt is


optimum.This is to allow quick soldering to the
cable end without spreading excessive heat.


ii. You will need some fine multi-strand ‘hook up’
wire. (The type needed for general electronics
wiring). Or if possible, the braided shield from a
length of co-axial cable. If using hook-up wire,
remove the insulation from the wire.


iii. Gather the broken strands of the shield wire. If
necessary, remove a little of the cable outer
insulating sheath. Twist together to make four
bunches, spaced around the cable end.


iv. Solder to one end of the hook-up wire.Take the
hook-up wire a full turn clockwise around the
cable end, then solder to the cable end.


v. Repeat this with the other three bunches, alter-
nating the direction around the cable end. Eg,
anticlockwise, then clockwise, and finally
anticlockwise.


vi. Use insulation tape to cover the repaired shield
connection.


● Please note. In some cases it may be claimed that
the system is safe, providing the shield is connected
to ground at the transformer end. This is not
correct. Besides possible danger, this can upset the
performance of high-frequency X-ray generators,
and create interference in other equipment.


d. Arcing in the X-ray tube receptacle


This is a common cause of failure. Arcing can be
caused by a number of reasons. There may be poor
quality or dried-out insulating grease. The grease may
have been incorrectly applied. If the cable end is loose,
this will create air gaps, and eventual arcing. Later
systems use silicon rubber anti-corona insulating pads.
Unless care is taken installing these pads, arcing will
occur. Finally, a fault can occur inside the cable end
itself. In affect, a fault in the HT cable, but not exter-
nally apparent until the cable end is removed.


● See ‘Caution on removing HT cable ends’, and
‘Preparation prior to inserting the cable end’.


● With the cable end withdrawn, look for possible
carbon tracks on the cable end, or in the
receptacle.


● Where there is grease in the receptacle, wipe the
grease with a fresh paper tissue. If arcing occurs in
the grease, this will show up as carbon deposits on
the paper. Old grease may have a yellow colour, but
this does not indicate arcing.


● Examine the cable end carefully for signs of swelling
or cracking. This would indicate arcing. In this case
a replacement HT cable is required.


● Wipe out all grease from the receptacle and the
cable end. With a torch examine the receptacle
carefully for signs of arcing.


● If silicon rubber anti-corona pads are fitted, these
may remain attached to the cable end. More often
they will remain in the receptacle.
i. Pads are often used without grease. However,


wipe the inside of the receptacle and the cable-
end with a fresh paper tissue. If it appears dirty,
this is a sign of arcing.


ii. Examine the pads for possible hairline black
marks, which indicate arcing.


iii. The pads should be replaced after being dis-
turbed.


iv. In case a replacement pad is not immediately
available, then they may be returned to service.
Take care not to touch them directly with the
fingers. (Use a paper tissue.) Have the pads
replaced at the first opportunity.


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e. Burnt pins on the cathode cable end


The cathode filament current may be between 4.0~
5.5amps. If the pins on the cable end do not make
good contact inside the receptacle, they will become
burnt. This produces added resistance to the filament
circuit, and reduced filament heating.


In the case where light or no exposures occur, this
may be due to poor contact of the cathode cable-end
pins.


Do not make the following test with a capacitor dis-
charge mobile. Please refer to ‘High tension precau-
tions’ in module 6.2 page 94.


Undo the ring nut sufficiently to withdraw the cable
end about 2~4mm. Then reinsert the cable end and
tighten the ring nut. If this action restores or improves
the X-ray output, then the cable-end pins are suspect.


The cable end should now be fully withdrawn and
examined.


● See ‘Caution on removing HT cable ends’, and
‘Preparation prior to inserting the cable end’.


● Examine the cable-end pins. Look for a pin that
shows burn marks, or pitting.


● Clean the pin with fine emery cloth or sand paper.
● If the cable-end pins are burnt, then the pin sockets


of the housing receptacle will also need cleaning.
One method is to use a wire coat hanger, with one
end filed flat. This can be used to scrape the sides
of the socket into which the cable-end pins fit.


● Most HT cable-end pins are solid brass, split in two
halves.These tend to close together, and make a less
secure fit in the receptacle. The pins may be care-
fully spread apart, so the air gap in the middle is
parallel.


● Caution; these pins are brittle. Do not try to spread
them apart using a screwdriver. The best tool is a
utility knife with a retractable blade. This blade is
just slightly thicker than the required gap. Push
the blade into the gap very carefully, so the gap
becomes almost, or just, parallel.


● Help. A pin is broken. All is not lost. However, you
will need to exchange the anode and cathode cables.
(At the HT transformer as well as the X-ray tube)


● Before attempting to reinsert the cable end, ensure
it is thoroughly cleaned.This is especially important
after handling the end, as small traces of perspira-
tion or fingerprints etc may be left behind. See
‘Inserting the HT cable end’.


f. Caution on removing HT cable ends


● If in a capacitor discharge mobile, please refer to
‘High tension precautions’ in module 6.2 page 94.


● When replacing a cable, remove the cable-end first
at the X-ray tube, and then at the high-tension
transformer. This especially applies if the safety
earth shield is damaged at the X-ray tube end.


● As the cable end is withdrawn, touch the endpins to
the screw-thread side of the housing receptacle.
This is to short out any residual high voltage in the
HT cable. This especially applies if high voltage was
generated, but with no mA.


● The cable end may be a very tight fit. Do not try
tugging on the HT cable to remove it. Instead, use
two screwdrivers, one on each side of the cable-end
flange, to lift, or ease, the cable end from the
receptacle.


g. HT cable replacement


● If the anode HT cable is replaced with a different
type or length, in most cases this makes little dif-
ference to the performance, especially if the differ-
ence in length is less than 10~15%.


● An exception may be with some medium frequency
inverter systems, which have an adjustment for dif-
ferent lengths of HT cables. Check with the service
department for this possibility.


● In the case of the cathode cable, a different length
or type can change the mA calibration. Providing
the anode cable is the same type and length as
the failed cathode cable, then exchange cables, so
the replacement is used for the anode side. This
will avoid the requirement for immediate mA
recalibration.


h. HT cable fault with capacitor
discharge mobiles


The CD mobile cathode-cable can develop a short
circuit between the internal control-grid wire, and the
filament wires. In most cases, the anode cable will be
in good condition, and can be exchanged for the
cathode cable. mA calibration is not critical, and will
not need to be adjusted. If exchanging cables, attach
an internal notice to indicate a change has been made.
This will avoid future frustration in case another
change is attempted.


Before attempting to remove or replace a CD mobile
cable, please refer to ‘High tension precautions’ in
module 6.2 page 94. Otherwise replacement is the
same as for a standard system.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


119




i. Preparation prior to inserting the HT
cable end


● Old grease on the cable end, and in the receptacle,
should be removed.


● Thoroughly clean the receptacle and cable end.
When cleaning the receptacle, use paper tissues
wrapped around a wood or plastic rod.


● If necessary, a hydrocarbon cleaning solvent may be
used. Be sure to remove all residues.When cleaning
a cable-end, avoid touching with your hand, this can
leave unwanted perspiration or skin oil. After clean-
ing, the cable end or receptacle should have a high
polished appearance.


● Examine the cable-end pins of the cathode cable.
If of the split pin version, check the pins are
not bent together, and the gap is parallel. See
‘Burnt pins on the cathode cable end’, for tips on
adjusting.


● Most HT cable ends have a rubber sealing-ring.This
is placed over the cable end, up against the flange.
Ensure this is fitted correctly before applying
grease.


● Fresh insulating grease is now required, or a silicon
anti-corona disk.
i. Grease is applied using a wooden or plastic


spatula. For example, a tongue depressor.Do not
apply or smooth the grease with a finger. First
wrap a paper tissue around the finger, to avoid
directly touching the grease.


ii. Apply the grease to about 70% of the length of
the cable-end, starting at the pin end.The depth
of grease at the pin end should be about 2~
3mm, tapering off at the 70% point. The appli-
cation of grease is not critical, as any irregular
area will flow around the sides of the cable end,
as it is inserted.


iii. A layer of about 1~2mm may also be applied to
the front of the pin end, between the pins.


● If a silicon rubber anti-corona disk is used.
i. The disk should be supplied in a sealed package.


Handle the disk with a pair of clean tweezers,
or else by a paper tissue.


ii. Place the disk in position on the cable end, with
the pins passing through the disk.


iii. A small layer of silicon grease may be placed
around the sides of the cable end. This is an
option. If in doubt, check with the service
department for advice.


j. Inserting the HT cable end


● The cable end has a ‘key’ at the flange end.This fits
into a ‘notch’ in the receptacle. Before inserting the
cable end, check the rotational position, so these
two areas will be aligned on insertion.


● On inserting the cable end, try to keep it aligned in
the centre of the receptacle. This ensures an even
distribution of the grease.


● As it becomes fully inserted, rotate the end a little
to align the cable-end pins into the receptacle
sockets.


● A very firm continuous pressure is often required.
This is due to pockets of air in front of the grease,
as well as the viscosity of the grease itself.


● Once the cable-end pins are properly inserted into
the receptacle sockets, it should now be possible to
attach the cable-end retaining ring-nut and cable
support cuff.


● Tighten the ring nut fully. Then check again every
few minutes until it can no longer be even partially
rotated.This should be checked again over the next
few days.


● Attach cable ties to support the HT cable in
position.


k. Need for recalibration


Note. Replacement of the cathode cable can alter the
mA calibration. While replacement with an identical
type and length may have very little affect on the cal-
ibration, this should still be checked.


In case the cathode cable is a different length or
type, this may have a large affect on the mA calibra-
tion, depending on the design of the generator. Before
attempting any calibration, check first with the service
department for the recommended procedure.


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MODULE 8.0


Bucky and Bucky table


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before testing any fuses, or removing a cover,
always switch the generator power off, and ensure
the isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


● Test procedures for fuses or wiring, are described in
module 5.0 page 65.


● When removing the cover from a vertical Bucky,
make sure the Bucky cannot move upwards when
the cover is removed. For example, attach a rope to
hold it in position, or remove the cover with the
Bucky set to maximum height.


● In most cases removal of the Bucky cover is a
simple operation. However, where possible refer to
an installation manual. This will indicate if there is
any special procedure for removing or installing the
cover.


● In the case of a Bucky table, removal of the table-
top may be required. The method used depends on
the table design.
i. Most tabletops may be removed once the screws


holding the ‘profile rails’ in position are removed.
Before attempting to remove these screws,
make sure the screw slots are not blocked with
dirt, and use a screwdriver that has a good fit
and is not blunt.


ii. In other cases, removal of the tabletop end-
stops will allow the tabletop to extend to over
one end. As the tabletop is moved past the end-
stop position, the tabletop will disengage from
the far-end bearings. Have a chair or other suit-
able object ready to support the tabletop.


iii. In some cases, power will need to be switched
on to release the table locks.


iv. To avoid unexpected problems, make sure at
least one person is available to assist.


v. On replacement of the tabletop, check and
manually reseat the locks to allow the tabletop
to pass over them.


vi. Ensure the end stops are securely replaced.
● Keep all screws, or other small parts in a container,


to avoid loss.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


121


Aim


The aim is to provide information and procedures
related to problems with the Bucky and Bucky table.
This is an addition to the maintenance procedures,
provided in module 3.0 page 53.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the Bucky and Bucky
table, together with their solutions. Adjustments and
repairs may be carried out. Some tests or repairs will
require the assistance of an electrician or electronics
technician.


Task 15.‘A film exhibits grid lines’, should be attempted
on completion of this module.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Grid lines sometimes appear on the film
c. Grid lines appear on all films
d. The film is dark in the centre, but fades out to either


side
e. No exposure on a selected Bucky
f. The cassette tray does not hold the cassette prop-


erly in the vertical Bucky
g. The Bucky lock does not operate
h. The table magnetic locks slip, or are unreliable
i. The table auto-centre does not operate, or is not


accurate
j. Noisy tabletop movement
k. Elevating Bucky-table problems




b. Grid lines sometimes appear on the film


There are several possibilities.


● The grid starts oscillating as soon as the X-ray
control is placed in preparation.
i. This form of operation does not synchronise the


exposure to the grid position. As a result, an
exposure can commence when the grid has
reached the end of travel, and is reversing
direction.


ii. Test by looking for grid movement when in
preparation, before an exposure. If this is the
cause of the problem, re-installation of the
Bucky wiring is required. Consult the service
department for advice.


● The Bucky has a slow moving grid. In this case, there
is insufficient grid movement when performing
short exposure times. A replacement Bucky of a
later design is required.


● Some Bucky’s have a rotating cam to operate the
grid.
i. The grid moves quickly at first, then slower until


the full ‘in and out’ cycle is completed. This is
repeated till the exposure is completed.


ii. The Bucky has an adjustment to ensure the
exposure commences at the point of maximum
speed. If incorrectly adjusted, then the exposure
could commence before that point, when the
grid is at minimum speed.


iii. This is indicated if grid lines occur on short
exposure times. If adjustment is required,
request the service department to adjust the
Bucky.


● In the case of mammography, many Bucky’s have a
speed adjustment.
i. Optimum adjustment is for the grid to reach


75% of its stroke during an average exposure.
If grid lines occur on short exposures, then
increase the speed. Or, if grid lines occur during
long exposures, then reduce the speed.


ii. This may be a screwdriver adjustment at the
back of the Bucky, or it may be an internal
adjustment. In that case, the service depart-
ment must make the adjustment.


● The grid movement may be hitting an obstruction,
and while moving far enough to permit an exposure,
then stops moving. Or, in some cases, the grid drive
may be sticking.This can be indicated if short expo-
sure times are ok, but long exposure times have grid
lines.
i. Close the collimator, and direct the X-ray tube


away from the Bucky.


ii. Select minimum kV, the lowest mA station, and
a long exposure time.


iii. Remove the cassette tray, so the grid may be
clearly observed.


iv. Have an assistant make an exposure, using the
Bucky under test. Observe the grid movement,
looking for signs of hesitation. Does it tend to
stop before reversing?


v. If a problem is indicated, then remove the
Bucky cover, or tabletop, and examine the
mechanism while it is moving. Look for film
markers causing an obstruction.


vi. Some motors can have damaged gears, with
missing teeth. In this case, repair kits may be
available.


vii. Apply a small amount of oil to moving surfaces.


c. Grid lines appear on all films


● The wrong Bucky was selected. Is the selection
switch correctly labelled?


● Listen for a Bucky sound during a test exposure.
Does the selected Bucky operate? Does it sound
normal?


● A common cause is a dislodged grid. For example,
the grid has fallen from the grid frame, or holder.
In this situation, although the frame moves, per-
mitting an exposure, the grid itself does not move.
To remount the grid in the frame, removal of the
Bucky cover, or tabletop, may be required.


d.The film is dark in the centre, but fades out
to either side


● The grid was removed, and then reinserted upside
down.


● Is the grid focal distance within the range you are
using?
i. Can the grid be removed? Look for a label that


provides the focal length of the grid.
ii. If it is difficult to remove the grid, try a test


exposure after changing the FFD. Make a direct
low kV and mAs exposure, without a patient.


● Is the vertical Bucky correctly aligned to the X-ray
tube?
i. For example, is the Bucky at an angle to the


x-ray beam?
ii. This can occur if the vertical Bucky is not cor-


rectly installed. The Bucky may be mounted
against a wall, which is not at an angle of ninety
degrees to the tube-stand.


● Image fade off to one side may be a problem due
to the X-ray tube or collimator. To check, make a
direct exposure to a cassette on the tabletop.


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i. A direct exposure at low kV will exhibit some
fade off towards the cathode side of the tube.
On large films, a larger fade-off can occur
towards the anode side of the film, due to the
anode heel-affect.


ii. To test at the kV values normally used, a suit-
able filter is necessary. For example, 1.0mm of
copper in front of the collimator. Or else 10cm
of water in a plastic container.


iii. Set a similar kV to that used when observing
the problem. Adjust the mAs to achieve a suit-
able density.


iv. If the fade off is still present, the collimator may
be out of alignment. For example, the collima-
tor is incorrectly centred to the X-ray tube, and
the light beam was adjusted to compensate.See
module 7.2 page 110.


v. There may be excessive metal deposits on the
X-ray tube glass. You will need to remove the
collimator to check. Contact the service depart-
ment for advice before attempting removal.
See module 7.1 page 104.


e. No exposure on a selected Bucky


In this situation, a test exposure using direct non-
Bucky radiography is successful.


● Close the collimator, and move the tube away from
the Bucky.


● Select minimum kV, a low mA station, and a
medium time setting.


● When trying to make a Bucky exposure;
i. Listen carefully at the Bucky for any sound.With


the cassette tray removed, see if the grid moves.
ii. If no sign of any grid movement, check the


Bucky cable for a possible loose connection or
broken wire. See module 5.0 page 65.


iii. Check for a possible blown fuse. To locate the
fuse, see module 5.0 page 65, or consult the
service department.


● When trying to make a Bucky exposure, the Bucky
starts to operate, but there is no exposure.
i. Check the Bucky cable for a possible loose or


broken connection. See module 5.0 page 65.
ii. Remove the Bucky cover, or the tabletop.
iii. Look for any object that could be blocking the


grid movement, such as a lost film marker. This
can happen with a wall Bucky, or a Bucky with
a fluoroscopy table.


iv. On attempting an exposure, does the grid drive
motor operate? Look for damaged fibre gears,
or a broken drive cord.


v. Does the grid manage a full ‘stroke’? As the grid
moves from the ‘rest’ to the ‘expose’ position,
a microswitch is operated. This microswitch
allows the exposure to commence. Check the
microswitch for correct operation. See module
5.0 page 65.


f.The cassette tray does not hold the cassette
properly in the vertical Bucky


● In some cassette tray designs, the amount of ‘grip’
is insufficient.To prevent the cassette slipping down,
the manufacturer supplies small wood blocks with
an attached magnet. In other designs, a metal
support is provided, which fits into a series of holes.


● The rubber grips attached to the tray jaws become
smooth, allowing the cassette to slip. The rubber
grips can be improved by cleaning with lighter fluid,
or a similar hydrocarbon.


● The jaws may not be closing fully. Check and adjust
the position of the clamping knob on the shaft.


g.The Bucky lock does not operate


● Look for a faulty switch, or broken connection,
either to the switch or the magnetic lock coil. The
lock coil may be open circuit. Test with a multi-
meter set to medium ‘ohms’ scale. See module 5.0
page 65.


● The lock coil may have too large an air gap. Adjust
it closer to the operating surface.


h.The table magnetic-locks slip, or are
unreliable


● Before testing any fuses, or removing a cover,
always switch the generator power off, and ensure
the isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


● Test procedures for fuses or wiring, are described in
module 5.0 page 65.


● No locks operate.
i. A fuse could be open circuit. Before replacing,


check the wiring to the lock coils or switches,
and look for possible damaged insulation.


ii. A foot switch is faulty, or has a bad cable
connection.


● A specific lock fails to operate.
i. If other locks are operating, it is unlikely to be


an open circuit fuse. However, still check, as the
lock may not be the same type, and has a
separate fuse.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


123




ii. There may be an open circuit lock coil, or
winding.


iii. To check the lock coil, first ensure all power is
switched off.Disconnect the lock from the table.
Use a multimeter set on a medium ohms scale to
check the resistance of the lock coil. This may
measure around 500 to 2000ohms depending on
design.If unsure,check against a similar lock coil
in the table,or contact the service department.


iv. Check the wiring for possible loose or broken
connections.


v. Check the control switch.
● The table lateral-movement lock is weak.


i. Check the number of locks installed for lateral
operation. Some tables were supplied with only
one lock. In this case, apart from cleaning the
front of the lock, little improvement can be made.


ii. Where there are two locks, one of the lock coils
may have failed.Watch the locks when they are
switched on and off. If only one lock moves, the
other lock might have an open circuit winding.
In some cases, you may find the suspect lock
cool to touch.


iii. Note. Locks may be positioned either at one
end, or at both ends of the table.


iv. To check the lock coil, first ensure all power is
switched off.Disconnect the lock from the table.
Use a multimeter set on a medium ohms scale
to check the resistance of the lock coil.This may
measure around 500 to 2000ohms depending
on design. If unsure, check against a similar
lock coil in the table, or contact the service
department.


v. Check the wiring for possible loose or broken
connections to the suspect lock coil.


● The locks make a rattling or buzzing noise. Check
the mounting of the locks. Is the lock parallel to the
operating surface? Is there a large air gap when not
switched on? Another possibility is dirt on the top,
or face, of the lock.


i.The table auto-centre does not operate,
or is not accurate


● To test the table lateral centre-position.
i. Place a cassette in the Bucky, with a marker


positioned on the centre of the cassette.
ii. Place another marker on the centre of the


tabletop.
iii. Move the tabletop to the lateral centre-position.
iv. Make a low kV and mAs exposure. Process the


film and check if both markers are in the same
position.


● Some tables have a mechanical centre stop. A
spring tensioned steel ball clicks into a slot when
the table is centred.
i. The spring can have a tension adjustment screw.


Tighten the screw to obtain a firm stopping
action.


ii. Are the screws holding the mechanical centre
stop loose?


iii. To adjust the stop position, undo the screws a
small amount, and push the centre stop to the
required position. Tighten the screws to prevent
movement.Make a test film to confirm the table
is centred.


● Other tables may switch on the electromagnetic
locks when in the centre position. This is usually
by a cam passing over a microswitch. (Later
designs may use electronic sensors, such as
optoelectronics.)
i. If the microswitch is positioned away from the


cam, unreliable operation can result. If posi-
tioned too close, then poor centring action
results. For example, the stopping position
becomes wide.


ii. Centre position is adjusted by moving the cam,
or else the microswitch.


● The centre microswitch, or the auto-centre selec-
tion switch can have faulty contacts. Ensure power
is turned off. Check with a multimeter set to low
ohms scale to test the switch.


● For other possibilities, contact the service depart-
ment for advice.


j. Noisy tabletop movement


A ‘clunking’ noise is heard as the tabletop is moved.


● This may be due to a faulty bearing, or it may be
caused by dirt in the bearing tracks, or on the rim
of the bearings. Spray the bearings and bearing
track with light aerosol oil, and wipe down with a
rag.


● Watch the bearings as the tabletop is moved. A
faulty bearing may have a cracked or missing rim.
In some cases, the bearing does not rotate, and the
table is stiff to move.


● Contact the service department for a replacement
bearing, plus advice for replacing the bearing.


k. Elevating Bucky-table problems


● The tabletop will rise up, but not move down.
i. Many tables have been damaged after being


brought down onto a chair or patient stool.Two
common safety devices are now used.


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ii. A pressure-pad is installed on the floor, posi-
tioned at both ends of the table. Pressure on
these pads activates a relay, which stops the
downward movement of the table. Is there an
object pushing on the pad, or has the pad
become damaged?


iii. A sensitive microswitch is installed in the middle
of the longitudinal bearing tracks. This may
require adjustment. Contact the service depart-
ment for advice.


● The table does not stop at the operating height.
i. A cam-operated microswitch is used to switch


off the motor once the operating height is
reached.


ii. The position of the cam or microswitch may
require adjustment.


● The motor does not operate.
i. On some tables, occasional failure of the motor


power fuse occurs. Before attempting to replace
the fuse, ensure all power is turned off.


ii. When replacing the fuse, use a delay or slow-
blow type. See module 5.0 page 65.


iii. For location of the fuse, refer to the parts or
installation manuals.


iv. If the fuse continues to fail, contact the service
department for advice.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


125




TASK 15


A film exhibits grid lines


After taking a chest X-ray, you notice prominent grid lines on the film.


Make a list of possible reasons for this problem.


Describe suitable tests to either confirm, or eliminate, possibilities from this list.


Carry out these tests. What were the results?


What action is needed to correct the problem?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E




MODULE 8.1


Tomography attachment


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before testing any fuses, or removing a cover,
always switch the generator power off, and ensure
the isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


● When investigating a possible bad connection, open
circuit fuse, or faulty switch, refer to the procedures
in module 5.0 page 65.


● Older tomography attachments have either limited,
or no safety interlocks. Do not operate the motor
without the fulcrum pole.


b. Failure to operate


This may be due to incorrect set-up, operation of a
safety interlock, or an open circuit fuse to the motor.
Where sections of the attachment are connected via
plugs and sockets, these need to be checked.


● Incorrect set-up may cause operation of a safety
interlock. This helps guard against operator error.
When all else fails, then read the operation manual.


● Current tomography attachments can have a
number of safety interlocks, depending on the
design, and integration with the tube stand.


● Older systems depend more on correct set-up, such
as ensuring the rotation and longitudinal tube-
stand locks, and Bucky lock, is off.This requires care
by the operator before using the system.


● Typical interlocks for a tomography attachment can
include:
i. The fulcrum pole interlock. If the fulcrum pole


is not attached, the tomography system does
not ‘know’ the stop or start positions. If ener-
gized, the motor would drive the tube-stand to
the end of the tube-stand track. The interlock
usually consists of a microswitch. This is oper-
ated when the fulcrum pole is attached to the
tube-stand cross-arm. The actuating lever for
this microswitch may be damaged, or out of
adjustment. Listen for a small ‘click’ as the
fulcrum pole is placed in position.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


127


Aim


The aim is to provide information and procedures
related to problems with a tomography system. This
may be a tomography attachment, fitted to a standard
tube-stand, or integrated with a Bucky table.This is an
addition to the maintenance procedures, provided in
module 3.1 page 55.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the tomography
attachment, including operator error, or problems with
a safety interlock. Adjustments and repairs may be
carried out.Some tests or repairs will require the assis-
tance of an electrician or electronics technician.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Failure to operate
c. The tomography image has poor definition
d. The required exposure time is difficult to estimate




ii. An exception to the above is where the motor
has an arm that engages with a floor, or ceiling,
slotted guide plate.This system can only operate
over the distance controlled by rotation of the
arm. However, later systems do have an interlock
to check if the fulcrum pole is fitted. This pre-
vents a wrong exposure.


iii. X-ray tube height. If not correct, then tomogra-
phy calibration is incorrect. This is measured by
a cam-operated microswitch, or in some cases
by an optoelectronic sensor and reflective strip.
Operation of the height sensor occurs only over
a narrow distance.Try moving the tube-stand up
or down a small amount.


iv. Tube-stand and Bucky locks are often automat-
ically turned off or on by selection of tomogra-
phy operation. However, in some systems this
is not the case, and failure to switch off the
longitudinal lock can prevent the motor from
moving the tube stand.


● The tomography motor has a high ‘inrush’ current
on start up. An open circuit fuse is not uncommon.
i. Before testing or replacing a fuse, ensure all


power is turned off. See module 5.0 page 65.
ii. Look for any cables that might be damaged,


causing a short circuit.
iii. The fuse could be positioned close to the motor


system, or else in the tomography control
cabinet. Use a delay, or slow-blow, fuse as a
replacement.


iv. If the fuse fails shortly after replacement,
contact the service department for advice.


● The fulcrum tower has a number of contacts con-
trolled by rotation of the fulcrum.These may be cam
operated switches, or else a metal-strip with a
sliding contact, or ‘commutator’. Selection of the
appropriate section controls the start-stop position
of the motor, and the tomographic angle.
i. There may be broken connections in the cable


plug and socket. Another possibility is a broken
microswitch, or commutator brush, inside the
fulcrum tower. Before investigating, ensure all
power is turned off.


ii. An exception is where the tomographic angle
and start-stop position is controlled by a series
of cams coupled directly to the drive motor. In
this case, the tower will only have a motor and
light for setting the fulcrum height.


c.The tomography image has poor definition


During a tomographic scan, the film in Bucky must
retain the correct alignment with the X-ray tube focal


spot.This requires a smooth movement when travelling
through the actual exposure area.


● To evaluate the actual performance, the tomo-
graphic resolution test piece described in appendix
B page 169, section is recommended. When oper-
ated at the correct height, a clear image of the
central paper clips should be obtained.
i. To avoid over exposing the film, use a low mA


station, and low kV. If the film is still too dark,
then insert a sheet of paper between one inten-
sifying screen and the film.


ii. Repeat this test for different combinations of
speeds and angles.


● If a good image is not obtained with the test piece,
then check the following.
i. Uncouple the fulcrum pole. Otherwise remain


in tomographic set-up mode.
ii. Check that the tube rotation lock is off. The


tube should be able to rotate smoothly, and
remain balanced as it is rotated.


iii. Check the Bucky movement. The Bucky lock
should be fully off, and the Bucky should move
smoothly in the table.


iv. Is the longitudinal lock released? With some
systems, it will be necessary to exit tomo-
graphic mode, and then check the lock releases
correctly.


v. Is the fulcrum tower securely mounted?
vi. Is the fulcrum pole in good condition? The


fulcrum pole should not bend or twist.
vii. With the fulcrum pole in position, but not in


tomographic mode,push the tube-stand across
the floor. Look for any sudden stiffness, or
jerking. Look for dirt in the guide rails.


viii. A wire cable is used to pull some systems. Is
the cable firm, and not slipping on the motor
drive pulley?


ix. The same applies to units with a belt drive. A
loose belt can stretch, and give an uneven start
to the movement.


x. Some motors have a drive wheel pressed
against the floor. Depending on the floor
surface, the wheel slips and drives unevenly. To
stop the wheel slipping, glue a strip of mate-
rial that has a rough surface, to the floor. For
example, the type that is fitted to the steps of
a staircase.


d.The required exposure time is difficult
to estimate


● A microprocessor controlled tomography unit, inte-
grated with the X-ray control, may directly set the


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


128


E




exposure time. Otherwise the operator must select
a minimum exposure time, called the ‘backup’ time.


● The backup time must be longer than the actual
exposure time, which is controlled by the combina-
tion of tomography speed and angle.The tomograph
operation manual should indicate the actual expo-
sure times. A minimum backup time of 5~10%
longer is recommended.


● If the operation manual indicates times for 60hz
operation only, a correction factor is needed for
50hz operation. Multiply the 60hz tomographic
times by the conversion factor of 1.20.


● If no information is available, contact the service
department. They may need to measure the actual
exposure times, and then make a suitable reference
chart.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


129




MODULE 9.0


Fluoroscopy table


including operator error, or problems with a safety
interlock.Adjustments and repairs may be carried out.
If assistance is required from the service department,
an accurate description of the problem can be
provided.


Note: Some tests or repairs will require the assis-
tance of an electrician or electronics technician.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. No fluoroscopy exposure, X-ray control checks
c. No fluoroscopy exposure, table interlock checks
d. No fluoroscopy exposure, table electrical checks
e. The X-ray control indicates fluoroscopy is operating,


but no image
f. No radiography exposure
g. Artefacts on the film
h. Manual collimation has unwanted beam limitation
i. X-ray beam alignment is incorrect
j. Table movements do not operate
k. Table locks do not operate


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


130


Aim


A fluoroscopy table can range from the most basic
version to a highly sophisticated remote control micro-
processor system. Many problems are caused when
‘standard’ operating procedures are changed. For
example, switches and selections may be set to a dif-
ferent position.


The fluoroscopy table has a large number of safety
interlocks. These can be activated by operator error.
Other possibilities are problems with the X-ray tube,
the X-ray control, and the TV imaging system.


The information and procedures provided in this
module are for basic tables fitted with an under-table
tube. Some suggestions will however be common to all
versions.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the fluoroscopy table,


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before testing any fuses, or removing a cover, always
switch the generator power off, and ensure the iso-
lation power switch for the room is also switched off.


● Test procedures for fuses, switches, or wiring; are
described in module 5.0 page 65.


● Any dismantling of the table to test connections,
switches, or broken wires; should be performed by
an electrician, or electronics technician.


● If removing a cover, or dismantling any section,
place the screws in a container to avoid loss.


b. No fluoroscopy exposure, X-ray
control checks


● Has a correct technique been selected?
● Check the fluoroscopy timer. Has it timed out?


● Does the X-ray control have automatic regulation of
fluoroscopy output? If so, turn this off, and try a
manual setting of mA and kV.


● Is there a fault indication at the control on trying
an exposure?
i. In some cases, if actual fluoroscopy mA is too


high, the exposure immediately stops. A fault
condition may only illuminate while attempting
an exposure, but disappear once the exposure
attempt is released. In other cases, it may be
necessary to switch ‘off’ then ‘on’ again to reset
the safety interlock.


ii. Reduce the fluoroscopic mA and kV setting,
close the table collimator, and try another fluo-
roscopy exposure.


iii. If at a lower mA setting, fluoroscopy is now ok,
then try slowly advancing the mA knob during a
test exposure. Watch the mA meter. Look for




instability, as this could indicate a gassy tube, or
perhaps a high-tension fault. An ‘over mA’ fault
may occur when mA reaches 6.0mA, but in
some cases be as low as 4.0mA, depending on
equipment design.


iv. Some controls have no manual selection of mA;
instead the value of mA is controlled by fluo-
roscopy kV. In this case, advance the kV control,
as in part (v). Observe the mA meter for exces-
sive mA or instability.


v. If excessive mA is not the cause of the problem,
then slowly advance the kV control.Again, watch
the mA meter, looking for instability. Should a
problem occur as kV is increased, this could indi-
cate gas in the X-ray tube, or an arc where the
high-tension cable-end enters the X-ray-tube
receptacle. See module 7.1 page 104, and
module 7.3 page 117.


c. No fluoroscopy exposure table,
interlock checks


The fluoroscopy table can have a number of interlocks
for radiation safety. Some of the possibilities discussed
depend on individual table design, and may not be
present in your table.


● Is the correct technique selected at the table?
i. For example, a remote controlled table may be


in tomographic mode, or a collimator key switch
may have been turned to manual operation.


ii. The table may have a separate fluoroscopic
timer. Has this timed out?


iii. Some designs have a fluoroscopy-preparation
switch. This must be pressed to place the table
in operation, after selecting fluoroscopy opera-
tion at the X-ray control. (The switch has a flu-
oroscopy symbol.) With this system, the table is
automatically deselected if the technique is
changed at the control, and must be reselected
each time prior to use.


● Are there any warning lights or fault codes displayed
on the table? Refer to the operating manual, or con-
tact the service department for further information.


● Is the image intensifier, or fluorescent screen cor-
rectly mounted, and not loose?
i. This especially applies if the image system is


removed from the table, to park the serial-
changer out of the way.


ii. The safety interlock is a small microswitch. The
microswitch actuator may have become bent,
or out of adjustment, when the image system
was repositioned, or not operated if the image
system clamps are loose.


● Is the serial-changer fully positioned in the operat-
ing position?
i. When the serial-changer is brought forward


from the parked position to the operating posi-
tion, a microswitch is operated, permitting flu-
oroscopy operation.


ii. Locate the position of this microswitch, and
check if it has operated correctly. It may be pos-
sible to hear a small ‘click’ as the serial-changer
is moved into position.


iii. Some designs uncouple the undertable tube
carriage to allow parking of the serial-changer.
As the serial-changer is brought forward, the
tube carriage should lock back in position.
Check to make sure this has happened. Again, a
safety interlock microswitch needs to be oper-
ated. This microswitch may need adjustment.


● Is there a cassette incorrectly positioned?
i. For example, in the ‘load/unload’ position.
ii. Manually operated serial-changers have a


microswitch, which prevents fluoroscopy unless
the cassette carriage is fully retracted. For
example, when the cassette carriage is brought
to the radiography position, fluoroscopy is
immediately switched off. Further movement
operates another microswitch, which sends the
preparation request to the X-ray control. Check
the operation of these microswitches.


● Is the Bucky parked at the foot-end of the table?
i. This can apply to tables where a radiation shield


covers the Bucky-slot when the Bucky is parked.
Check the safety microswitch operated by this
shield. It may be possible to hear a small ‘click’
as the shield is opened and closed.


● Some older tables were designed to enable the
undertable tube to be used with a wall Bucky.These
have a microswitch to ensure the tube is correctly
positioned for fluoroscopy.This rarely has a problem,
but should be checked.


d. No fluoroscopy exposure, table electrical
checks


Note. Test procedures for fuses, switches, or wiring; are
described in module 5.0 page 65.


● The footswitch is a common cause of failure. The
connecting cable can have broken connections,
either at the footswitch, or where it connects to the
table. In addition, the cable itself may have a broken
internal wire.
i. Before removing any covers, or make any meas-


urements, ensure all power is disconnected.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


131




ii. With a multimeter set to the low ohms position,
test the continuity of the cable and footswitch
contacts. This test should be made where the
cable enters the table.


iii. With the footswitch operated, a low resistance
reading of less than five ohms should be
obtained.


● The connecting cables from the serial-changer to
the table foot, or to the table serial-changer ‘tower’,
may have broken or loose connections. This espe-
cially applies if the cables are pulled or stretched
during operation.Broken internal wires in the cables
can also occur. If suspect, the individual wires can
be checked by measuring across both ends, in a
similar fashion to the footswitch. This procedure
must only be attempted by an electrician or elec-
tronics technician.


● Have there been any indications of rats? Some rats
enjoy biting wires. This especially applies to the
internal wiring of a table. Damage can appear
similar to cutting wires with a pair of scissors.


e.The X-ray control indicates fluoroscopy is
operating, but no image


On attempting fluoroscopy, the X-ray control indicates
a fluoroscopic exposure is operating,and the mA meter
indicates a normal value of mA.


● Has the TV been properly switched on and adjusted?
See module 9.1 page 135.


● Is the collimator closed?
i. Try operating the collimator controls to the half


open position.
ii. To ensure the collimator is in fact open, place a


cassette face down on the tabletop. Make a one
or two second fluoroscopy exposure,and process
the film.


iii. If the film is blank, there can be a problem with
the collimation control. Contact the service
department for advice.


iv. If the film is exposed, there is a problem with
the TV image system. See module 9.1 page 135.


● If operating under automatic regulation, change to
manual operation.Check that a suitable value of mA
and kV can be obtained. If mA is too low, there may
be a poor filament connection at the cathode cable
end into the X-ray receptacle. See module 7.3 page
117.


f. No radiography exposure


The safety interlocks and conditions that prevent
fluoroscopy will also prevent radiography. So pro-


viding fluoroscopy operates correctly, we can con-
sider the requirements of most interlocks satisfied.
However, there are some additional requirements for
radiography.


● Has the cassette has already been exposed? Try
another cassette.


● Has a cassette of the correct size for the required
format been inserted?
i. Try a different size cassette or format selection.
ii. If a different size cassette allows operation,


there is either a problem with the internal
recognition of the cassette size, or else the cas-
sette is not compatible with the table. For
example, trying to use an imperial dimension
cassette, in a table designed for metric sized
cassettes.


iii. Contact the service department for advice.
● Does the cassette move forward into the expose


position? (This assumes a motor drive cassette
carriage.)
i. Try ejecting and reinserting the cassette. If the


cassette does not eject, it may have been incor-
rectly inserted, and fallen out of position. This
can cause the carriage to become jammed.


ii. In case of a cassette jam, try lifting the cassette
using a long wooden or plastic ruler. This may
then allow the cassette to be driven out. Other-
wise it will be necessary to gain access by either
removing the serial-changer cover, or removing
the image intensifier. Make sure all power is
switched off before removing the cover.


● As the cassette moves forward into the expose
position, does the X-ray control go into preparation
mode, and then indicate ‘ready for exposure’?
i. Check for normal operation of the X-ray control


by a test exposure on the over-table tube.
ii. A hand operated cassette carriage operates a


microswitch when it moves towards the expose
position. This microswitch produces the prepa-
ration request for the X-ray control. There may
be two microswitches close together.As the car-
riage moves forward, listen carefully for a ‘click’
from each microswitch.A small adjustment may
be required to obtain correct actuation.


ii. Listen to the X-ray tube. Can you hear anode
rotation on the preparation request? If not,
check the stator cable for possible damage. For
example, it may have been caught up in the
undertable mechanism, or have a broken inter-
nal wire where it enters the serial-changer
longitudinal carriage. Ask an electrician or elec-
tronics technician for assistance.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


132




iv. There may be a problem with the large focus.
Try radiography on the fine focus. If preparation
is now OK, there could be a poor filament con-
nection with the cathode cable-end, in the X-ray
tube receptacle. In this case affecting the large
focus only. See module 7.3 page 117.


● The cassette has moved into the ‘expose’ position.
The X-ray control indicates ‘ready for exposure’
however, an exposure cannot be made.
i. Check for normal operation of the X-ray control


by a test exposure on the over-table tube.
ii. Some table designs prevent an exposure if the


motorized cassette carriage has stopped out-
side the correct expose position. Try either a
‘full format’ exposure, or else a ‘split’ format
exposure. If the change of format allows an
exposure, the carriage drive requires adjust-
ment. Contact the service department for
advice.


iii. The serial-changer has additional ‘close to film’
shutters that are operated when selecting split
formats. If these shutters are not in their
correct position, this can cause prevent an expo-
sure. This problem can occur with motor driven
shutters after a cassette jam occurs, or due to
lack of maintenance. Track lubrication is
required.


iv. With a manually operated cassette carriage, a
microswitch is operated when the carriage
reaches the ‘stop’ position. On some tables this
assembly can become loose and require adjust-
ment. Before attempting any disassembly,
contact the service department for advice.


v. See also ‘No fluoroscopy exposure, table electri-
cal checks’ regarding the possibility of broken
wires and rat damage etc.


g. Artefacts on the film


Film artefacts are due to several possibilities.


● The cassettes were incorrectly stored in the room,
and have been subject to scattered radiation.
Remember, one minute of fluoroscopy at 2.0mA
and 110kV is equal to four 30mAs exposures at
110kV.


● Poor calibration of the automatic collimation can
mean the X-ray field is much wider than the size
required for fluoroscopy.This can allow radiation to
penetrate the lead shield, designed to protect the
film while the cassette is waiting in its ‘garage’ or
parked position. This can cause intermittent bar
patterns on the film, depending on the type of


examination, fluoroscopy kV levels, and exposure
duration.
i. To test, attach a 35 ¥ 35cm directly beneath


the serial-changer. Apply a few seconds of fluo-
roscopy, then process the film


ii. The fluoroscopy pattern on the film should be
about 5~10% less than the stated diameter of
the image intensifier.


iii. A problem was experienced similar to the above
with some earlier designs of remote controlled
tables. In this case, it was possible to obtain flu-
oroscopy with the collimator key switch in the
manual position. The problems disappeared
after a design change, so that fluoroscopy
was only permitted under automatic beam
limitation.


iv. Some models of fluoroscopy tables, although
collimation was correct, still required additional
lead shielding. For example, the problem was
due to scatter. Discuss this possibility with the
service department.


● Radio-opaque contrast solutions find their way into
unusual places. Barium deposits are easy to see.
Media used for an IVP is less easy to see. If in doubt
clean all surfaces, including under the serial
changer. Look also under the tabletop, and on top
of the undertable tube collimator.


● Another cause can be wiring cables moved out of
position under the tabletop.A frequent cause is due
to the Bucky not parked fully at the table end.


h. Manual collimation has unwanted
beam limitation


In many examinations, such as a barium swallow, the
radiologist will desire to cone in horizontally to opti-
mize the image.When the film is developed, it is found
the top and bottom areas of the film are not exposed.
This affect is due to the collimator field size required
for fluoroscopy. For example, the X-ray field must not
exceed the diameter of the image intensifier field of
view.


Many later designs of tables have an added facility,
called ‘semi automatic collimation’. In this mode the
lateral collimation remains in the position set during
fluoroscopy, while the vertical collimation opens to the
film size during radiography.


It is sometimes possible to convert an older table,
depending on make and model, to also have semiau-
tomatic collimation. Discuss this with your service
department.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


133




i. X-ray beam alignment is incorrect


● Remove the bottom table cover.
● Check if the collimator is loose on the X-ray tube.
● The X-ray beam is shifted to one side of the image.


Lateral shift of the image.
i. In most cases, the tube may have shifted in the


trunnion mounting rings.
ii. Release the trunnion ring clamp, rotate the tube


position only a small amount and test again.
iii. The most critical position is with the spot filmer


at maximum height from the tabletop.
iv. Check with the table horizontal and vertical. If


necessary, a small adjustment between the two
positions may be needed.


● The X-ray beam has shifted vertically.
i. In many cases the tube and trunnion assembly


is mounted to the table via a ‘spigot’. A bump
or vibration of the table can cause this to rotate
slightly.


ii. Locate the clamping screws for the spigot, undo
them just a small amount. Then rotate the
assembly so the beam is realigned. Tighten the
screws, and re-check the alignment.


iii. Small changes in alignment are easily seen with
the spot filmer at maximum height from the
tabletop.


iv. Check with the table horizontal and vertical. If
necessary, a compromise adjustment for the two
positions may be required.


● If not able to adjust the X-ray tube position, or if
not sure of the procedure to suit your table, contact
the service department for advice.


j.Table movements do not operate


● Has an emergency stop switch been activated? The
warning lamp may have failed.Some switch designs,
once pushed in, require the knob to be rotated to
release. Remote controlled tables can have two
switches, one at the control desk, and the other at
the table body. Check both switches.


● Is the vertical compression lock activated? As a
safety precaution this can disable tabletop move-
ments. In some alternate designs, the compression
lock is automatically released when moving the
tabletop.


● Has a patient protection device been operated? In
some tables this is a light beam. Collisions with a
patient trolley can cause this to be misaligned, or
else there is dirt on the optical system. Look also
for table drapes in the wrong position, which can
block the light beam.


● The tabletop will only move in one direction. This
usually means a limit switch has been operated. A
common cause is a faulty microswitch. See also
‘No fluoroscopy exposure, table electrical checks’
in case of broken wires, or rat damage.


● Is there an open circuit fuse? Depending on table
design, this may only affect one motor, or else a
group of motors. Always ensure power is turned off
before checking or attempting a replacement. See
module 5.0 page 65. If unsure, contact the service
department for the fuse location, and to verify the
correct rating and type.


● The table will not tilt vertically.
i. If the table will not tilt in either direction, there


may be an open circuit fuse. Always ensure
power is turned off, before checking or attempt-
ing to replace a fuse. See module 5.0 page 65.


ii. The table may have reached its maximum angle
in one direction, and be unable to return.
(Perhaps it is in Trendelenburg position) This
could be caused by operation of the anti-crash
safety interlock.This may be a bar, or metal flap
at the table end.This can be damaged and stick
in the operated position. Some systems use a
pressure mat on the floor. Look for an object
trapped between the table base and the mat.


k.Table locks do not operate


● Has the compression lock been activated? Depend-
ing on the table design, this will release the serial-
changer longitudinal and lateral locks.


● Is there a problem with the wiring? See ‘No fluo-
roscopy exposure, table electrical checks’ for possi-
ble broken wires and rat damage.


● The lock may have too large an air gap. With the
power switched off, adjust the lock so this gap is at
a minimum.


● A lock coil, or winding, may be open circuit.
i. An electrician, or electronics technician, should


test the lock coil.
ii. Before testing, first ensure the lock activation


switch is off.Then ensure all power is turned off.
iii. Disconnect one of the lock coil connections.
iv. With a multimeter set to medium ohms posi-


tion, test the lock coil for continuity.
v. Depending on design, the lock coil should


measure well below 20,000ohms. If unsure of
the typical value to expect, contact the service
department.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


134




MODULE 9.1


Fluoroscopy TV


a. General precautions


Please take the following precautions.


● Before testing any fuses, or removing a cover,
always switch the generator power off, and ensure
the isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


● Do not attempt any internal adjustment of a TV
monitor. Ask an electronics technician to assist if
internal adjustment of a TV monitor is required.
Dangerous voltages can exist for some time after
the monitor is switched off.


● The TV monitor may not use a standard power
voltage. Damage to the monitor will occur, if con-
nected to the wrong voltage.


● Test procedures for fuses, switches, or wiring; are
described in module 5.0 page 65.


● If removing a cover, or dismantling any section,
place the screws in a container to avoid loss.


● Current TV cameras now use a ‘charge coupled
device’ (CCD) instead of a camera tube. CCD
cameras have very good stability and reliability.
Adjustments to a CCD camera are complex, and
should only be attempted by a qualified technician.


● If in doubt of any adjustment described in this
module, contact the service department before
proceeding.


b. No image on the TV monitor


This most common help request to the service depart-
ment can have a large variety of causes. Many are due
to operator error. Whenever a request is made to the
service department, accurate reporting of the problem
will save time.


● Has the TV been properly turned on and adjusted?
i. Check the position of the brightness and con-


trast controls. Adjust the brightness control and
check if the picture tube lights up.


ii. Some monitors have two video inputs. Check
that the selection switch is in the right position.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


135


Aim


The aim is to provide information and adjustment pro-
cedures, related to problems with a TV imaging system.


The basic TV imaging system consists of the image
intensifier (II), the TV camera and monitor, with pos-
sibly a videocassette recorder (VCR). Systems with
greater complexity, such as DSA and electronic radi-
ography, are not included.


Older TV cameras use camera tubes such as
‘Vidicon’, ‘Chalnicon’, or similar device. Some adjust-
ments for these cameras are included in this module.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
aware of common problems with the TV imaging
system. This includes adjustments to the monitor, and
tests to locate the cause of poor image quality. The
VCR is included in these objectives.


Contents


a. General precautions
b. No image on the TV monitor
c. The image is not sharp
d. The picture has no detail in bright areas
e. Is it possible to connect a VCR
f. The VCR recording is the wrong shape on another


monitor
g. Is the image intensifier faulty
h. The image rotates as the fluoroscopy table is tilted




iii. Is a VCR fitted? This may not be switched on.
Or, the video connecting cables have been
wrongly connected. This occurs if the VCR was
used at another location, and then returned.


iv. If a VCR is fitted, this may be incorrectly set up.
Check the input settings. To make a positive
check, disconnect the VCR, and connect the
video cable from the TV camera directly into the
monitor.


● Is the image intensifier receiving a correct fluoro-
scopic exposure? For tests of the collimator, table
interlocks, foot switch and generator, please see
module 9.0 page 130.


● Check the video cable from the TV camera to the
monitor.This cable is sometimes pulled partway out
of its connector, disconnecting the centre wire, or
else causing the connecting pin to pull out.
i. A quick test is to disconnect the video cable. In


most cases, this will cause a change in the
monitor brightness level.


ii. The above test can also indicate if a video signal
is coming from the TV camera. For example, has
the camera been switched on?


● For further tests, see ‘Is the image intensifier
faulty?’


c.The image is not sharp


Besides the possibility of poor ‘system focus’, this can
also be caused by problems with the video cable, or a
faulty picture tube.


System focus includes electronic focus of the image
intensifier and TV camera, and optical focus of the TV
camera. (A CCD camera does not have an electronic
focus adjustment.)


Focus adjustments are sometimes attempted
without checking for other reasons first.They are
also attempted without a focus test tool, which
makes it difficult to find the optimum position.
Unfortunately, the focus adjustment is often the
first adjustment that is ‘fiddled’ with.


Many image intensifiers have multiple adjustments;
these must be carried out in the right sequence. For
these reasons, always consult the service department
first, before attempting any focus adjustments.


● Is the picture tube, or monitor, faulty?
i. The simplest test, if available, is to try another


monitor in the same position.


ii. Adjust the brightness control for a medium
setting. Examine the picture tube closely. The
scanning lines, or raster, should be clearly visible.
In some monitor designs, a focus control may
be available either from the front panel, or the
rear of the monitor.


iii. Does the monitor focus become blurred at
medium brightness levels, but appears ok at a
minimal brightness setting? This indicates a
worn picture tube. Replacement is required.


iv. Does the monitor take a long time to ‘warm up’?
For example, at first the available brightness is
low, and brighter areas of an image merge
together. This is an indication of low electron
emission, from the picture tube cathode. Picture
tube replacement is required.


● Is the 75ohm video-cable termination switch set
correctly?
i. This is a common error. It is often found that if


this switch is turned ‘off’, or unterminated; the
picture appears brighter and has more contrast.
However, in many cases this will cause a loss of
fine detail. The correct position is ‘on’, or termi-
nated; except when there are two or more mon-
itors. In this case, monitors in the middle should
have the termination switch turned off,while the
last, or end, monitor has the termination switch
turned on. (The final monitor will have only one
video cable connection.)


ii. Has a ‘T’connector been used to connect another
monitor or VCR? This is incorrect, as proper ter-
mination of the video cable cannot be obtained,
together with possible loss of fine detail.


● The video, or coaxial, cable has a woven metal shield
under the first layer of insulation. This is connected
to ground by the video connector. Is the shield
pulled out from the connector? This can also give
rise to interference patterns on the monitor, as well
as a loss of picture sharpness.


● Is the TV camera electronic focus correct?
i. This does not apply to CCD cameras, and only


to some cameras that have an accessible focus
control. This adjustment is normally very stable.


ii. Contact the service department to locate the
position of the focus adjustment.


iii. Tape a line-pair gauge directly under the serial
changer, as close as possible to the image inten-
sifier. If the gauge is not available, then use the
‘focus aid’ described in appendix B page 169.


iv. Set a minimum fluoroscopic kV and mA level,
just sufficient to obtain a good image.


v. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, adjust the focus control
for best results. This should be better than 12


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


136




LP/mm for a 9≤ image intensifier. (A typical
result might be 14LP/mm with a CCD camera,
and 16LP/mm with a vidicon camera.)


● Is the TV camera optical focus correct?
i. Optical focus is normally very stable, however


sometimes the image intensifier moves a slight
amount in the housing, or the camera tube and
deflection assembly moves a small amount in
the TV camera head.


ii. Older cameras may have a screwdriver operated
focus control at the rear of the camera head.
(This is sometimes ‘fiddled’ with.) In other cases
it is necessary to remove a cover plate to obtain
access to the lens.


ii. If directly adjusting the lens, first make a mark
on the adjustment ring so the lens can be
returned, if needed, to its previous position. In
most cases, it is necessary to undo a ‘locking’
screw before an adjustment is possible. Some
lenses also have an adjustable ‘iris’ Take care
not to accidentally adjust this instead of the
focus.


iv. Tape a line-pair gauge directly under the serial
changer, as close as possible to the image inten-
sifier. If the gauge is not available, then use the
focus aid described in appendix B, page 169.


v. Set a minimum fluoroscopic kV and mA level,
just sufficient to obtain a good image.


vi. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, adjust the lens focus for
best results. Or adjust the focus control at the
rear of the camera head with a screwdriver.


vii. This should be better than 12LP/mm for a 9≤
image intensifier. (A typical result might be 14
LP/mm with a CCD camera, and 16LP/mm with
a vidicon camera.)


● Is the image intensifier focus correct?
i. Current image intensifiers have very stable focus


adjustments. Older systems may occasionally
require adjustment.


ii. If you have a multi-field, or dual-field image
intensifier, check the resolution first on all fields.
If all fields indicate poor resolution, this will
indicate the problem is elsewhere, or else a com-
ponent failure in the intensifier power supply.


iii. Older designs have a single external focus
adjustment. This is a screwdriver adjustment,
positioned towards the top of the image inten-
sifier. Do not attempt adjustment of the image
intensifier focus, if there is more than one
adjustment. In this case, contact the service
department for advice.


iv. Tape a line-pair gauge directly under the serial
changer, as close as possible to the image inten-


sifier. If the gauge is not available, then use the
focus aid described in appendix B page 169.


v. Set a minimum fluoroscopic kV and mA level,
just sufficient to obtain a good image.


vi. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, adjust the image intensi-
fier for best focus.


vii. The combined TV and II focus should be better
than 12LP/mm for a 9≤ image intensifier. (A
typical result might be 14LP/mm with a CCD
camera, and 16LP/mm with a ‘vidicon’ camera.)


d.The picture has no detail in bright areas


● Is the automatic fluoroscopy system set at too high
a level?
i. Change over to manual operation, select a lower


kV or mA and observe if this corrects the
problem.


ii. If there is now a good image, remain on manual
operation, and contact the service department
to have the automatic fluoroscopy system
adjusted.


● Is the TV monitor correctly adjusted? If the monitor
contrast is set too high, in some monitors this will
cause bright parts of the image to merge together,
or to appear ‘flat’. In other cases, an overbright
image will appear smeared, or wiped, horizontally
across the picture tube.


● Does the monitor take a long time to ‘warm up’?
For example, at first the available brightness is low,
and brighter areas of an image merge together.This
is an indication of low electron emission. Picture
tube replacement is required.


● TV cameras that use a camera tube instead of a
CCD have a ‘beam current adjustment’.
i. If beam current is low, bright areas of the image


lack contrast and merge together. If beam
current is too low, the image will just appear
white,with no detail. In this case, the image may
become clear for a very short time, immediately
after fluoroscopy is switched off.


ii. If beam current is too high, this will result in
poor image quality and reduced focus.


iii. Beam current is a common adjustment for older
TV cameras. Contact the service department to
locate the position of this adjustment, and any
required precautions before adjusting. Ask an
electronics technician to make this adjustment.


e. Is it possible to connect a VCR?


● The videocassette recorder (VCR) must operate to
the same scanning format as your imaging system.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


137




In most cases, the X-ray TV system will use the same
standard as domestic TV, allowing a domestic VCR
to be used.
i. A 525 line, 60hz system requires a NTSC com-


patible VCR
ii. A 625 line, 50hz system requires a PAL com-


patible VCR.
● In case your imaging system operates at a higher


line rate, such as 1049 or 1249 lines, then con-
necting a VCR is not possible, unless there is an
alternate output from the TV camera, at the stan-
dard line rate.


● Playback of a recording will be the same aspect
ratio used by the X-ray TV camera and monitor.
The standard aspect ratio is 4 :3, however, some
systems, including CCD cameras, use a 1 :1 aspect
ratio. If a recording is played back on a monitor
adjusted for a 4 :3 aspect ratio, the image will be
stretched horizontally, and appear ‘egg shaped’


● The VCR must have direct video input and output
connections. A simple installation connects the
video lead from the TV camera to the video input
of the VCR, and the VCR video output to the
monitor. In most cases, this will require the VCR to
be always switched on during fluoroscopy.


f.The VCR recording is the wrong shape on
another monitor


This is a common complaint when the recording is
made from an X-ray TV using a 1 :1 aspect ratio,
instead of the domestic 4 :3 aspect ratio.


● To see if the system is adjusted for a 1 :1 aspect
ratio, adjust the monitor brightness so the scanning
lines, or raster, is clearly visible. A 4 :3 aspect ratio
will show scanning lines extended fully across the
screen, while a 1 :1 aspect ratio will show a small
blank area at both sides of the picture tube.


● Apart from systems deliberately set to a 1 :1 aspect
ratio for a CCD TV camera, it is possible the TV
camera and monitor is incorrectly adjusted.
i. For example, if the original size and shape of


the image from the camera was incorrectly
adjusted, and then the monitor was adjusted to
give the required size and shape.


ii. This is an incorrect set-up,as the monitor should
first be adjusted to the required aspect ratio
and size, then finally the TV camera adjusted to
suit the monitor.


iii. Fortunately, in most cases the TV camera and
monitor can be realigned for use with other
monitors. This possibility should be discussed
with your service department.


iv. Note. This adjustment is not available if a CCD
camera is used.


g. Is the image intensifier faulty?


There is no X-ray image on the monitor. The monitor
adjustments appear correct,and the X-ray control indi-
cates a normal fluoroscopic exposure.


● Is radiation entering the image intensifier?
i. Is the collimator closed? The collimator may


have a fault.
ii. Place a cassette on the table, underneath the


image intensifier.
iii. Make a 2~3 second fluoroscopy exposure, and


develop the film.
iv. The film should be very dark.
v. If the film is unexposed, the collimator could


have a fault. Contact the service department for
advice.


● Is the TV camera faulty?
i. Check the camera is switched on, and the video


cable is not disconnected or damaged.
ii. The following test should only be performed on


advice from the service department.
iii. Remove the TV camera from the image intensi-


fier. Switch on the camera power. Point the
camera around the room, but do not aim the
camera at any bright light. An ‘off focus’ image
should be obtained of objects in the room.


iv. Some systems, especially those with ‘last image
hold’, will require fluoroscopy to be ‘on’ during
the above test. First ensure the collimator is
closed, and the fluoroscopy kV is adjusted to its
lowest setting.


● There is a flickering background illumination, even
without fluoroscopy.
i. This is a possible electrical discharge or insta-


bility in the image intensifier.
ii. With a dual or multi-field intensifier, selecting


another field size can alter the appearance of
this illumination. This indicates a fault in the
image intensifier, or image intensifier power
supply. If the image intensifier loses focus on
selecting a different field size, the power supply
is faulty.


iii. The following test should only be performed on
advice, and instructions, from the service
department.


iv. Remove the TV camera. Cover the camera lens.
v. Switch the power back on.
vi. Close the fluoroscopy collimator. Do not make


a fluoroscopy exposure.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


138




vii. Turn off the room lights. Now look directly into
the image intensifier lens.


viii. If any ‘glow’ pattern is observed, the image
intensifier is faulty.


ix. Repeat this test for each image intensifier field
size.


● The image has a bright central area during fluo-
roscopy.
i. This is an indication of ‘gas’ inside the image


intensifier. This may occur if the image intensi-
fier has not been used for some time. In this
case, leave the system switched on overnight,
and test again next day.


ii. To test, place a piece of lead, of about one third
of the image intensifier diameter, up against the
serial changer. Position the lead test piece in the
middle of the image. This prevents radiation
entering the centre of the image intensifier.


iii. With fluoroscopy ‘on’, the area covered by the
lead should show very little illumination. If there
is gas, this will be seen as a bright area in the
centre, where radiation is blocked by the lead
test piece. The Image intensifier will need
replacement.


● Is the image intensifier ‘worn out’? This is a
common question with older systems, especially if
there is poor penetration with a ‘noisy’ or ‘snowy’
image.
i. The conversion gain of an image intensifier


drops with age as well as use. However in most
cases, adjusting the lens aperture on the TV
camera can compensate for reduced brightness.


ii. A measurement is made of the radiation value,
required to produce a standard video level, from
the TV camera.


iii. The radiation is set to the required value, and
the lens iris is adjusted to obtain the required
video level. If the required video level is not
obtained, then the image intensifier may need
replacement.


iv. Before replacing the image intensifier, the TV
camera should also be checked.


v. This applies if the TV camera uses a ‘Vidicon’
camera tube. The ‘target’ voltage may need
adjustment.


vi. The above test and adjustment should be
requested from your service department before
considering a replacement system.


h.The image rotates as the fluoroscopy table
is tilted


This affect is caused by an interaction with the earth’s
magnetic field. It depends not only on the local field
strength inside the hospital, but also the orientation
as the table is tilted.


Standard image intensifiers have a magnetic shield
in the housing to reduce this effect. However they are
not shielded at the entrance plane. (This is where the
X-ray radiation enters the II.)


Image intensifiers intended for high performance
digital image systems might be fitted with a ‘Mu-
Metal’ magnetic shield, to cover the entrance plane
into the II. While this virtually eliminates the rotation
problem, the added filtration reduces the conversion
efficiency of the image intensifier.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


139




MODULE 10.0


Automatic exposure control
(AEC)


a. AEC operation precautions


● Incorrect selection of a technique not covered by
AEC operation.
For example:
The wall Bucky may be fitted with a selection of
three separate measuring fields or chambers, while
the table Bucky has a central field only. Good design
of an AEC should prevent selection of an incorrect
field. Unfortunately, some AEC systems, in par-
ticular those fitted outside the X-ray control as an
accessory, may allow selection of an invalid field
position.


● Some AEC systems have a ‘film sensitivity’ control
in addition to the film density control. While this
gives greater flexibility, the film sensitivity control is
often never used. Instead it is left at a standard
setting.
i. The use of the film sensitivity selection control


can be forgotten. This includes the original
setting. If the setting position is accidentally
changed, then a sudden large change in film
density occurs. This results in an unnecessary
service call.


ii. In some cases, due to bad calibration, the film
sensitivity control may need to be reset when
changing from the table Bucky to the vertical
Bucky. This can easily result in operator error,
and should be corrected wherever possible.


● X-ray output for the exposure is too low. For
example, too low a kV, or insufficient mAs. In this
situation, the generator timer terminates the expo-
sure, and not the AEC. A light film results.
i. The AEC system, depending on design, may


prevent further exposures until a ‘reset’ button
is pressed. There may be only a small indicator
lamp to indicate this condition, which is some-
times overlooked.


ii. Other AEC systems may provide a short audible
signal. In some cases this is for only a few
seconds, and is easily ignored. As a result
another radiograph is made without adjusting


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


140


Aim


The aim is to provide a series of tests for an automatic
exposure control (AEC).These tests are aimed at deter-
mining whether there is a problem due to the AEC, or
caused by other reasons.


Objectives


A correctly installed and adjusted AEC can produce
excellent results. However, correct use of the system is
still required to obtain the desired performance. On
completion of this module, the student will be aware
of AEC operation requirements, and will be able
to perform basic tests for the AEC performance.
These tests will provide important information when
requesting advice, or else attendance by the service
department.


Contents


a. AEC operation precautions
b. AEC film density test
c. AEC incorrect operation
d. When a request is made for service




the exposure setting.A complaint is made about
‘occasional light films’


● X-ray output is too high. As a result the AEC cannot
terminate the exposure quickly enough.
i. The ‘minimum switch-off time’ is more of a


problem on older single or three-phase genera-
tors; especially those fitted with mechanical
exposure contactors. This can cause unreliable
results if AEC exposure times below 0.02~0.03
seconds are attempted.


ii. Modern high-frequency systems are able to
respond quickly to the AEC exposure-stop
signal, so this is not a problem. However it is still
good practise to keep exposure times above
0.005 seconds. This is due to the energy stored
in the HT cable, which will slightly extend the
actual exposure time.


iii. If AEC exposure times are close to the minimum
switch-off time, reduce kV or mA for the next
exposure.


● Selection of a less optimum chamber. For example,
use of a chamber centred behind the spine, instead
of the left or right chambers for a chest or lung
exposure.


● Combining two or more chambers.This depends on
the method of AEC operation. While the systems
appear similar, they can deliver different results.
i. In one system, the chambers are combined


together, and the average output of the cham-
bers controls the exposure.


ii. In the other system, each chamber has separate
control of the exposure. When chambers are
combined, only the chamber receiving the
higher level of radiation controls the exposure.
(This is called the ‘OR’ technique by one
manufacturer)


● Incorrect collimation. If collimating to a smaller
area, part of the measuring chamber is also coned
off. A dark exposure results.


● Bad patient positioning. In this case, radiation
passes through a relatively thin portion of the
anatomy, compared to the main item of interest. In
some cases, the measuring chamber may receive a
portion of direct radiation. In either case a light
exposure will result.


● The AEC chambers are sensitive to soft, or scat-
tered, radiation.
Although the grid removes most of this radiation,
the remainder still has an effect on the exposure.
In addition, with the chamber in front of the cas-
sette, this soft radiation is filtered from entering the
cassette.


i. The AEC is calibrated for a patient to be posi-
tioned against the Bucky. If there is an air gap,
this reduces the amount of soft radiation enter-
ing the chamber, and the film becomes darker.


ii. The above problem is much greater if there is
no grid in front of the AEC chamber.


iii. An extreme example is found on older fluoro-
scopic tables that have the chamber mounted
in front, instead of behind the grid. In this case,
an air gap of only about 6cm may double the
exposure time. The doctor should keep the spot
filmer close to the patient at all times, while
using the AEC.


● In case the cassettes, film, or intensifying screens
are changed, the AEC will need recalibration.


b. AEC film density test


The AEC calibration may require calibration, or there
may be a fault.


This test allows the performance to be verified, and
indicate if an individual chamber has a problem.


● A test phantom is required. This can be a plastic
bucket with water, or else a large flat-sided plastic
bottle. An empty plastic container used for bulk
detergent is ideal.


● Place a plastic bucket filled with water to a height
of 18cm on the tabletop,positioned over the middle
of the Bucky.


● Place a 24/30cm cassette in the Bucky. Set X-ray
tube height to 100cm.


● Select exposure factors of 90kV, 100~250mA, and
backup time of 0.5 sec. (Some X-ray controls allow
kV adjustment only, mA and backup time is auto-
matically set by the AEC)


● Select the AEC central chamber only. Set the
density control to the middle, or ‘0’ position.


● Make a radiographic exposure. Note the actual
exposure time, or alternately the mAs value. This
depends on the meter indications provided.


● In case a warning signal indicates an incorrect
exposure, reduce the level of water to about 10cm.
If the next exposure still indicates a problem, stop
testing that chamber. Contact the service depart-
ment for advice.


● Process the film. Film density should be in the
region of 1.4 to 1.6. If a densitometer is not avail-
able, compare the film density to a previously
exposed reference film. (The actual value of film
density often depends on individual doctor
preferences.)


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


141




● For under-table Bucky’s fitted with three fields,
repeat the above test for each chamber. Adjust
the phantom so it is positioned above the selected
chamber.


● A similar exposure time and film density should be
obtained with each chamber. In case there is a dif-
ference, expose another film, after adjusting the
density control by one step. If more than one step
is required to obtain a similar density, then calibra-
tion of individual chambers is out of tolerance.


● If any chambers fail this test, do not use that
chamber until the problem is corrected.Contact the
service department; advise them of the problem,
and the tests carried out


A similar test can be applied to the vertical Bucky. A
flat-sided plastic container with water is required.
If an empty bulk detergent container is not available,
then two empty fixer or processor bottles can be used,
placing them side by side. Rinse the bottles before
filling with water.


c. AEC incorrect operation


These tests are only provided as a general guide. This
is due to the great variety of AEC systems in use, most
of which require specialized instructions and test
equipment for calibration or service.


● The AEC exposures produce light films, and are not
consistent.
i. The AEC can be affected by humidity,or by light


leaking into a photomultiplier system. This is a
test for stability during a long exposure time.


ii. Set exposure factors for minimum mA and kV.
Set the backup exposure time to 5.0 seconds.
For those systems that provide adjustment of
kV only, set kV to minimum,and select fine focus.


iii. Set the density control to minimum density.
Select the centre chamber.


iv. Close the collimator, and aim the X-ray tube
away from the Bucky under test.


v. Leave all room lights fully ON.
vi. Perform a radiographic exposure. The AEC


should indicate the maximum exposure time
was reached, and the exposure was not termi-
nated by the AEC.


vii. Repeat this test for each chamber in the Bucky
or spot filmer under test. Caution; as these
are large test exposures, allow cooling time
between exposures.


viii. Does a chamber fail this test?
ix. Test again, this time with the room lights


turned off. If the AEC now gives a longer test


exposure, this is a system using photomultipli-
ers, and external light is leaking into the AEC
chamber or photomultiplier assembly.


x. Examine the front edge of the chamber assem-
bly carefully. Cassettes may have hit it, when
they were placed in the Bucky.This can damage
the chamber, allowing external light to enter.
Cover the damaged area with metal foil, and
test the chamber again.


xi. Many AEC systems use ionization chambers to
measure radiation. Older versions were sensi-
tive to humidity. Design changes overcame this
problem. Contact the manufacturers service
department, in case there is a design modifi-
cation to upgrade your unit.


xii. If any chambers fail this test, do not use that
chamber until the problem is corrected. Con-
tact the service department; advise them of
the problem, and the tests carried out.


● One or more chambers have stopped working.
i. Check the condition of the connecting cable.


This especially applies in fixed installations
where the cable passes through ducts etc. Some
varieties of rats appear to like chewing on small
wires.


ii. On a mobile system, check inside the connect-
ing plug for possible broken connections.


● The film density has changed. It is necessary
to adjust the density control several steps to
compensate.
i. Is a similar change of density setting required


for both the wall Bucky and the table Bucky?
This may be due to the processor instead of the
AEC. Check the processor for possible problems
with chemicals or temperature.


ii. Has the problem occurred after a new batch of
film? The new film may have a different sensi-
tivity. The AEC will require recalibration.


iii. Were the intensifying screens changed? The AEC
will require recalibration.


● For further assistance, contact the service depart-
ment. If an electronics technician is available, the
technician can carry out further tests after obtain-
ing advice from the service department. This would
be specific to the make and model of the AEC
requiring attention.


d.When a request is made for service


● After carrying out the maintenance tests for the
AEC, problem areas may be located.
i. Retain all test films, and document the condi-


tions of test. This includes mA station, kV, FFD,


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


142




depth of water phantom, and indicated expo-
sure time.


ii. Test films made with anatomical test objects
may be very interesting. However, testing with a
water phantom produces the most consistent
results, and allows direct comparison with pre-
vious tests.


● When an AEC system has been in use for a while, it
may be found that the density control has to be
adjusted for different examinations. While it is a
simple matter to have service recalibrate the system
to “0” density setting, the following information can
indicate if attention is also required to kV tracking,
or short time compensation.
i. The type of patient examination.


ii. The chamber in use, and the density setting in
use for that chamber.


iii. Does density setting have to be changed on
chamber selection?


iv. Does density have to be changed depending on
kV used?


v. The kV and mA values used. Or kV and focal spot
if mA is not selected manually.


vi. The indicated exposure time obtained after an
exposure.


● Be aware that some apparent AEC problems are due
instead to film processor drift. Before requesting
service for the AEC, ensure the processor perform-
ance has been checked.


PART III. FAULT DIAGNOSIS AND REPAIR MODULES


143






PART IV
Automatic


film processor






MODULE 11.0


Automatic film processor


Contents


a. General precautions
b. Preparation for maintenance
c. Daily maintenance
d. Weekly maintenance
e. Monthly maintenance
f. Quarterly maintenance
g. Annual inspection and service
h. Replacement parts schedule


Equipment required


■ An accurate thermometer (alcohol or electronic).
■ Hydrometer.
■ Sensitometer. (Or pre-exposed sensitometry film). *
■ Densitometer. (Or processed reference film for


comparison purposes). **
■ Chemical stirring rods. These may be stainless steel


or PVC. Important; the rods should be labelled
‘developer’ and ‘fixer’ to prevent cross contamina-
tion of chemicals.


■ Measuring cylinder. Graduated 100 ml glass or
plastic container.


■ Sodium hypochlorite bleach. (For monthly
maintenance).


■ Tank cleaning brushes, one each for developer and
fixer tanks.


■ Scouring pads. (Plastic or nylon type).
■ Clean disposable cloths.
■ Clean hand towels.
■ Plastic bucket.
■ Mop.


* A packet of pre-exposed sensitometry films may be
obtained from the film supplier.


** A previous processed sensitometry film may be used
as a reference.


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


147


Aim


The aim is to provide routine maintenance procedures
for the automatic film processor.This module presents
a series of regular maintenance schedules.When used
with sensitometry techniques, this module can be used
to implement a quality control programme.Repair pro-
cedures for the processor are provided in module 11.1
page 199.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


A processor maintenance schedule should be followed
regularly. Performing this maintenance will ensure
optimum quality of processed films, and allow detec-
tion of problems before they become serious. On com-
pletion of this module, the student will be familiar
with maintenance procedures for the automatic film
processor. These procedures should be used together
with the maintenance instructions in the operators’
manual. A routine maintenance check-sheet is pro-
vided in appendix ‘D’ page 186.


Note: This module is based on the procedures pre-
viously presented in the ‘Quality assurance workbook’.
As reference is made to sensitometry techniques, this
section from the WHO Quality assurance workbook is
included in appendix ‘A’ page 163.




a. General precautions


● Before removing any panels, ensure the processor
power is switched off. The processor power isolation
switch should also be turned off.


● All adjustable settings of the processor should be
recorded. This especially applies to microprocessor-
controlled systems. These have a large number of
settings, or options, and may develop an error. For
example, after a power failure, or due to incorrect
adjustment.


● The following items should be available for personal
protection.
i. Plastic apron.
ii. Coat to protect clothing from chemical splashes.
iii. Rubber gloves.
iv. Protective glasses and mask, to protect the face


from chemical splashes.
v. An emergency eye kit should be available in the


darkroom.
● Do not wear long loose clothing; this may become


caught in the rollers.
● Ensure that the darkroom is adequately ventilated.
● Clean up any spills or splashes.


b. Daily maintenance


● Before start up.
This assumes shutdown procedure was not perfor-
med, or the processor has been idle for some time.
i. Remove processor lid.
ii. Remove crossovers, and wash in warm water,


with a sponge or plastic cleaning pad. (Always
do developer first, then fixer, to avoid con-
tamination of developer.)


iii. Wash tank covers and splash guards.
iv. Wipe over all rack rollers that are above


solution levels.
v. Clean interior exposed surfaces.
vi. Check replenishment tanks/bottles levels.


Check for unusual colour or smell.
vii. Check replenishment hoses for possible leaks


or kinks.
viii. Replace the water drain standpipe, if


appropriate.
ix. Ensure the wash water drain valve is closed.


(Some processors may be fitted with an
automatic drain valve)


x. Turn on water, and check that wash tank is
filling. Time water flow if necessary.


xi. Note. Depending on make and model, water
flow will not commence until the unit is
powered up.


xii. Replace crossovers, and tank lids.


● On start up.
i. With the top cover removed, switch on the


processor.
ii. Note. Some processors have sensors, or


microswitches, to ensure the cover is correctly
fitted.With the lid off, you will need to activate
these switches manually.


iii. Listen for any unusual noise or vibration.
iv. Check film transport system. Ensure all rollers


are operating normally.
v. If not previously filled, check that wash water


is now filling correctly.
vi. Check replenishment system is working.
vii. Replace processor lid.
viii. Feed in one unprocessed 35 ¥ 43cm film as a


clean-up film.
Note. Do not use processed film, as these are
harder, and contain fixer.


ix. Inspect processed ‘clean up film’. Feed in a
second film if necessary.


x. Clean exterior surfaces, including feed tray and
receiving bin. Pay extra attention to the feed
tray.


xi. Wipe over all darkroom surfaces.
xii. When the processor has reached normal oper-


ating conditions, a routine sensitometry test
may be carried out. See appendix ‘A’, page 163.


● Normal working.
i. Follow manufacturers operating instructions.


(Read the manual.)
ii. Be aware of any changes in operation, noises,


leaks, or deterioration of processed films.
iii. Do not pull processed films out till they are clear


of the rollers.
iv. Always wait for the ‘ready’ signal or light before


feeding the next film.
v. When feeding films, insert the wide side as the


leading edge.The film should be lined up against
one side of the tray, not in the centre.


vi. Do not allow anyone to stand next to, or lean
on, the processor.


vii. Ensure the darkroom ventilation is correct, and
there is no build up of humidity or fumes. This
especially applies where a bench top processor
is used.


● On shut down.
i. Remove processor lid.
ii. Note. Some processors have sensors, or


microswitches, to ensure the cover is correctly
fitted. With the lid off, you will need to
activate these switches manually. Some pro-
cessors have several lid safety switches.Please
refer to the operating or service manual.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


148




iii. Observe transport system.
iv. Listen for any abnormal noise or vibration.
v. Observe level of solutions and wash water.
vi. Switch off.
vii. Look for any leaks.
vii. Remove and wash all crossovers, splashguards


and tank lids.
ix. Wipe over all rack rollers above solution level.


(Always do developer first, then fixer, to avoid
possible contamination of developer.)


x. Inspect and wash roller drive-cogs and drive
mechanism where appropriate.


xi. Replace tank lids. (Do not install crossovers.)
xii. Turn off wash water, if appropriate.
xiii. Remove water drain standpipe, if appropriate.
xiv. Wash off all chemical splashes on interior


exposed surfaces.
xv. Wipe any splashes from exterior surfaces.
xvi. Replace processor lid. Leave it slightly raised


at one end, to avoid build up of fumes and
condensation.


xvii. The darkroom door should be left open, with
the ventilation fan operating. (Depending on
power constraints.)


xviii. Place crossovers on top of processor, with
drain standpipe if appropriate, and cover with
a cloth; or store in a cupboard set aside for
that purpose.


xix. Observe levels of replenishment tanks. If
required prepare a fresh solution.


xx. Observe stocks of films, chemicals, or other
depleted supplies.Restock or order as required.


xxi. Record all restocking.
xxii. Report any problem or fault areas. See


module 11.1 page 151.
xxiii. Update the logbook


c.Weekly maintenance


● Follow manufacturers’ recommendations.
● Perform a sensitometry test. (For best control, this


should be performed as a daily routine.)
● Check solution temperatures, in particular devel-


oper temperatures. This is usually around 34~36
degrees Celsius
i. Note. Allow time for the temperature to fully


stabilize first.
ii. Compare with any readout on the processor


panel, and manufacturers’ recommendations.
iii. If outside the specified temperature limits,


compare to results previously recorded in the
logbook. Adjust if necessary.


iv. In case a drift of temperature is observed,
investigate further. Use the manufacturers


maintenance manual as a guide. See module
11.1 page 151.


● Check replenishment rates.
i. Remove processor lid
ii. Locate lid safety switches, if fitted. Place a


small weight, or else a small packing piece held
with tape, to keep these switches operated.


iii. Switch processor on.
iv. Divert the developer inlet to the tank, into a


100ml measuring-cylinder.
v. On some bench top processors, this may not be


possible. In which case divert the flow of used
developer from the tank, which would other-
wise go to the waste tank or the drain.
However, pass a least one film in first, to ensure
excess developer has commenced to flow.
Discard this initial measurement.


vi. Pass five 35 ¥ 43cm fresh films through the
processor. Do not use previously processed
films, as these are harder, and contain fixer.


vii. Divide the measuring cylinder contents by five,
to find the replenishment rate.


viii. Note. The above procedure is required for some
processors, which may not add individual
replenishment for each film inserted.This espe-
cially applies for microprocessor-controlled
units, which calculate several other factors
besides film size.


ix. Repeat the above for the fixer tank.
x. Record the results.
xi. Check with previous results for any significant


variation, or drift.
xii. Adjust if necessary.


● Remove and wash all deep rack rollers in warm
water
i. Particularly for the developer section, the rollers


may develop a layer of chemical crystals.A nylon
or plastic cleaning pad will assist in the removal
of these crystals, or ‘encrustation’.


ii. Inspect for correct function, wear or damage.
iii. Rinse and install.


● Check main drive shaft and chains or drive belt.
● Carry out any other maintenance recommended by


the manufacturer.
● Report any problem or fault areas. See module 11.1


page 151.
● Update the logbook


d. Monthly maintenance


● Follow manufacturers’ recommendations.
● Perform weekly maintenance.
● Inspect all racks and component parts during


cleaning.


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


149




● Clean filters.
● Drain all and clean all tanks.


i. Pay special attention to the wash water tank.
ii. The tanks may be filled with a dilute concen-


tration of 0.5% hypochlorite solution. An alter-
native is a system-cleaner chemical kit.This is a
two-part mix, plus a neutralizer, which is added
to the water when flushing out the cleaner.


iii. Let the solution sit in the system for no longer
than 30 minutes.


iv. Rinse the solution from the system,and dislodge
‘bio-growth’ or algae. Use a clean stiff brush or
other recommended tools to clean the surface.


v. Rinse the system thoroughly.
vi. Caution. Do not allow concentrated sodium


hypochlorite to come in contact with fixer or
developer. Dangerous fumes can result.


● Do not forget to add starter to the developer
tank.


● Manufacturers recommend replacement of all
chemicals on a monthly basis. This will especially
apply to developer, where oxidation continues even
when not in use. If recharging is not economic, then
inspect the condition of the solutions in the replen-
ishment tanks, and change as felt necessary.


● Carry out any other maintenance recommended by
the manufacturer, or felt necessary.


● Report any problem or fault areas. See module 11.1
page 151.


● Update the logbook.


e. Quarterly maintenance


● Follow manufacturers’ recommendations.
● Perform weekly and monthly maintenance.
● Discard remaining chemicals in replenishment tanks.
● Note. This especially applies to developer,which may


be oxidised. The developer will start to turn brown.


● Dispose of chemicals as required by local regula-
tions. Do not flush down the drain. Especially do not
discard so that seepage may end in a well, or in the
irrigation water.


● Wash out replenishment tanks, and flush hoses.
● Mix a fresh solution of developer and fixer.
● Note. Only mix sufficient developer to suit short


to medium term requirements. This will reduce
deterioration due to oxidation.


● Do not forget to add starter to the developer tank.
● Remove processor panels. Inspect carefully for any


leaks around pumps.
● Check overall condition of processor.
● Report any problem or fault areas. See module 11.1


page 151.
● Update the logbook.


f. Annual inspection and service


Even if you do not have a maintenance contract with
a service company, it is advisable to have the unit fully
inspected and serviced at least once each year. This
service should ensure that the processor is performing
to full specification. In addition, wear items such as
pump valves, especially for the fixer pump, can be
replaced. This service will also enable a new set of
reference sensitometry films to be obtained. Prior to
such service, it is recommended to have a fresh supply
of chemicals available. If film has been stored in
suspect conditions, a fresh pack of film should also be
on hand, to allow accurate calibration.


g. Replacement parts schedule


Manufacturers usually recommend replacement of
items subject to wear or deterioration. This should be
carried out at regular intervals. A typical example of
these items is provided in table 11–a.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


150


Table 11–a. A typical replacement parts schedule


Replace Each month Three months Six months Each year


Chemicals, developer and fixer. •


Replace fixer rack roller-springs. •


Replace entry, developer, wash •
and drying rack roller springs.


Replace developer rollers. •


Replace ‘poppet’ valves in •
replenishment pumps.


Developer filters. •


‘E’ rings. •




MODULE 11.1


Automatic film processor


sitometry is regularly performed during maintenance,
then deviations from the recorded characteristic curve
will aid diagnosis of film problems. The sensitometry
section from the WHO Quality assurance workbook is
included in appendix ‘A’ page 210.


Contents


a. Electrical precautions
b. Plumbing precautions
c. Suggestions for processor service or repair
d. The processed film appears dirty
e. Pressure marks on the film
f. Film is scratched or jammed
g. Film appears under developed
h. Uneven developing across the film
i. Film has high base fog and excessive contrast
j. Films appear poorly fixed
k. Films are discoloured. May appear ‘sticky’
l. Insufficient or uneven drying
m. Bands across the film, perpendicular to the film


transport direction
n. Film ‘fogging’
o. Static electricity marks


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


151


Aim


Many problems with the automatic film processor are
avoided by routine maintenance. Unfortunately, routine
maintenance may not be performed properly, or not at
all. This module provides a list of common problems
that may occur, and their solutions. Routine mainte-
nance procedures for the processor are provided in
module 11.0 page 147.
(Note: Reference module page numbers refer to the
title page.)


Objectives


On completion of this module, the student will be
familiar with film processor problems,and what to look
for when correcting these problems. In the event of a
problem, look also in the operation manual, for the
manufacturers advice.


(Task 16. ‘Films appear too dark’, and task 17 ‘Films
exhibit symptoms of low fixer’, should be attempted
on completion of this module).


Note: Detailed instructions for sensitometry are pro-
vided in the ‘WHO Quality assurance workbook’. If sen-


a. Electrical precautions


● Before removing any panels, or performing any
internal repair, ensure the processor power is
switched off. The processor power isolation switch
should also be turned off.


● An electrician or electronics technician should
perform any electrical tests or adjustments.


● If testing or replacing a fuse, see module 5.0 page
65.


● To make adjustments, it may be is necessary to
remove a module or printed circuit board (PCB),and
reconnect it with an extension board. This should
only be attempted on advice from the service
department.
i. Take care that power is switched off, before


proceeding.


ii. Before removing a module or PCB, touch the
processor frame. This is to discharge any static
electricity.


iii. Take note of plugs or sockets that may need to
be removed or reconnected. Do not rely on
memory. Make a diagram of the connections.
If connections or wires are not marked, attach
a temporary label.


iv. When a PCB is fitted to an extender card, take
care not to bump or dislodge it once power is
restored. Damage can result.


b. Plumbing precautions


Many plumbing problems in a processor may be
attended to, providing due care is taken. This can
include:




● Attention to plumbing or piping leaks.
● Replacement of replenishment-pump valves.
● Replacement of replenishment or recirculation


pumps.


Before attempting any repairs where the internal
piping or plumbing may be disconnected, take the
following precautions.


● Ensure the relevant processor tank has been
drained of any solution.


● Flush the system to remove any residual solution.
● Ensure the power is turned off, also at the power


isolation switch.
● Turn off the water supply to the processor.
● Make a diagram of piping connections before


removing. Attach labels for identification.
● Take care when disconnecting piping, not to lose


small ‘O’ rings. These can be hidden inside the
connection, and fall out later.


● When piping is disconnected, residual flushing
water will drain out. Be prepared, and place cloth,
or a towel, under the pipe before disconnecting.


● Have a bucket, or container, available for any
unexpected problem.


● Wear suitable protection clothing and gloves. See
module 11.0 page 147.


c. Suggestions for processor service or repair


● When diagnosing a problem, refer also to the oper-
ators or service manual for the processor. If in
doubt of the cause of a problem, request advice
from the manufacturers service division.


● Hint. When trying to locate a part in the processor,
refer to the diagrams in the parts manual.


● When replacement of a part is required, include any
auxiliary components that may be required. For
example, if replacing a faulty recirculation pump,
include replacement ‘O’ rings for the piping
connections.


● Place any small screws or parts in a container, to
avoid loss.


● All adjustable settings of the processor should be
recorded. This especially applies to microprocessor-
controlled systems. These have a large number of
settings, or options, and may develop an error. For
example, after a power failure, or due to incorrect
adjustment.


d.The processed film appears dirty


● The processing tank rollers are dirty.
i. Carry out the recommended weekly maintenance.


● Dirt or algae contamination of the wash water.
i. Replace wash water.
ii. Ensure wash water trough is clean.
iii. Examine the water supply filter, and either ‘back


flush’, or exchange the filter element.
iv. Check the water flow rate.
v. Check operation of the automatic drain valve.


(This is not fitted to all processors)
● Dirt or contamination of the processor solutions.


i. Carry out a complete cleaning procedure. See
module 11.0 page 147.


ii. Replace processor solutions. Make up a com-
plete fresh batch. Ensure filtered water is used.
Do not forget to add starter.


iii. Developer and fixer recirculation filters may be
fitted on some processors. These should be
cleaned weekly as part of routine maintenance.


iv. Some processors have a separate developer filter,
not installed in the tank. Depending on proces-
sor make or model, this filter should be changed
each year. If suspect, change immediately.


● A cleaning-film procedure has not been carried out.
i. This should be carried out each morning.
ii. Use a full size unprocessed film.


● The feed tray is dirty.


e. Pressure marks on the film


● Clean the film rollers.
● Pay special attention to developer rollers.
● Replace any rollers that do not have a smooth


surface, after cleaning.
● A pair of developer or fixer rollers may have


developed a flat, or uneven, area.
i. Test by slowly rolling along a flat surface. Feel


for any ‘bumps’ as the roller is rotated.
ii. Place a light behind the roller. Move the roller


along a flat surface. Look for any gaps as the
roller is rotated.


f. Film scratched or jammed


● With the top cover removed, feed a test film
through the processor.
i. Listen carefully for any unusual noise.
ii. Does the film jerk, or not move smoothly in any


area?
iii. Does the film exit partly rotated?


● Racks incorrectly installed.
i. Check the position and seating of the racks. Pay


careful attention to guide marks or grooves.
ii. Check that racks are not distorted, or bent out


of shape.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


152




● Loose or damaged roller pressure springs.
i. These are coiled springs shaped in the form of


a loop.They pull the rollers together, and provide
the correct pressure on the film.


ii. If springs are damaged, or have uneven tension,
then the rollers can feed the film at an angle.


iii. Compare the suspect spring to other springs.
Replace with a new pair, one on each side of the
rollers.


● Film crossover guides not properly installed or
faulty.
i. Examine the area around the guides for any


sharp edges, or scratched sections.
ii. Check the rollers. Ensure free movement of the


rollers.
iii. Check crossover alignment. Ask the service


department for advice, before making any
adjustment.


iv. Check crossover guides are correctly seated, no
distortion or cracks.


● Damaged gears.
i. A previous jammed film may result in broken or


damaged gear teeth. This can cause erratic or
stopped rotation of the rollers.


ii. A gear is not sitting in the correct position on
the shaft. Check for a missing retaining clip.
(Circlip).This fits in a groove of the shaft, to keep
the gear in position. Some gears have a plastic
retaining clip as part of the gear moulding. If
broken, the gear must be replaced.


● Incorrectly set drive shaft.
● Timing belt or chain incorrectly installed or broken.
● Sharp or damaged edges in the film entrance table.
● Incorrectly adjusted film entrance table.
● On systems with a micro-switch for film size


sensing, the actuation lever may be damaged.
● Films are fed too close together.


i. Does a warning light operate, until ready for the
next film?


ii. Does a chime sound when the processor is ready
for the next film?


g. Film appears under developed


● Operator error.
i. Wrong X-ray exposure setting.
ii. Incorrect cassette. Detail instead of normal


screens.
iii. Excessive starter was added after service.


● Insufficient developer replenishment. Check the
replenishment flow rate.
i. Replenishment pump not working.
ii. A leaky valve in the replenishment pump.


iii. The replenishment feed line is blocked. (Or
twisted and ‘kinked’)


iv. Faulty film size detection.
● The developer supply is oxidized or depleted.


i. Replace the developer supply, if more than one
month old.


ii. Test specific gravity. Use the temperature
correction chart, Fig C–1 page 177.


● Incorrect developer temperature.
i. Compare the temperature to the previous


recorded value, when the processor was last
serviced.


ii. Monitor developer temperature during the day.
Look for excessive temperature drift.


● Film transport speed has increased.
i. Check for incorrect settings in the processor


computer.
ii. Measure film transport time.
iii. Note. If transport speed is incorrect, this will


also affect fixing and drying.


h. Uneven developing across the film


● Recirculation pump not working.
● Partially blocked developer filter. Clean as part of


weekly maintenance.
● Damaged or blocked recirculation pipe lines.


i. Film has high base fog and excessive
contrast


● Operator error
i. Starter was not added after service. (Or


insufficient starter.)
ii. Add starter.


● Incorrect developer temperature.
i. Compare the temperature to the previous


recorded value, when the processor was last
serviced. Reset if required.


ii. Monitor developer temperature during the day.
Look for excessive temperature drift.


● Developer over concentrated.
i. Check supply specific gravity. Use the tempera-


ture correction chart, Fig C–1 page 177.
ii. Check replenishment rate.
iii. Add starter.


● Film transport speed has decreased.
i. Operator error. The speed adjustment was left


on low speed, after processing single emulsion
films.


ii. Check for incorrect settings in the processor
computer.


iii. Measure the film transport time.


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


153




iv. Motor speed may be reduced due to incorrectly
fitted racks.


v. Or motor speed may be reduced due to stiff
bearings. Lubricate the bearings. (The bearings
may be noisy).


j. Films appear poorly fixed


● Insufficient fixer replenishment.
i. Check the replenishment flow rate.
ii. Adjust the flow rate or pump operation time.
iii. Replenishment pump not working. Some


processors have two fixer replenishment pumps
working in parallel. One may be faulty.


iv. Faulty ‘Poppet’ valves on the replenishment
pump. Replace.


v. Replenishment feed line blocked. (Or twisted
and ‘kinked’)


vi. Faulty film size detection.
● Fixer supply incorrectly mixed.Check specific gravity.
● Fixer is contaminated, replace with a fresh solution.
● Fixer temperature too low. This may apply where


the processor has separate heaters for fixer and
developer.


● Poor ‘squeegee’ action of rollers as film exits the
developer tank. This leaves excessive developer on
the film, preventing proper contact with the fixer.
i. Clean the rollers.
ii. Examine the roller compression springs; ensure


correct fit and tension.
ii. Some processors have a ‘mini wash area’, with


the crossover rollers, where the film is trans-
ported between tanks. Ensure water level is
correct, and is circulated.


k. Films are discoloured. May appear ‘sticky’


● Fixer temperature too low. This may occur if
the processor has separate heaters for fixer and
developer.


● Fixer is depleted. See ‘Films appear poorly fixed’
● Wash water temperature too low.
● Film transport speed has increased.


i. Check for incorrect settings in the processor
computer.


ii. Measure the film transport time.
iii. Note. If transport speed is incorrect, this will


also affect developing and drying.


l. Insufficient or uneven drying


● Incorrect temperature setting. Temperature may
need to be increased if humidity level is high.


● The drying heater is faulty.
i. If more than one element, an element may be


burnt out.
ii. Faulty operation of the over-temperature safety


thermostat.
iii. Power fuse to the heater is open circuit.


● The drying fans are faulty. Possible failure of one fan
only.


● The drying thermostat is faulty.
● Fixer may be depleted, or at too low a temperature.
● Wash water temperature low.


m. Bands across the film, perpendicular to the
film transport direction


● Dirty rollers
i. Clean the rollers.The rollers may develop a layer


of chemical crystals. A nylon or plastic cleaning
pad will assist in the removal of these ‘crystals’,
or encrustation.


ii. Replace any rollers that do not have a smooth
surface after cleaning.


iii. Check for damage or flat areas on the rollers.
iv. Test by slowly rolling along a flat surface. Feel


for any bumps as the roller is rotated.
v. Position a light behind the roller. Move the roller


along a flat surface. Look for any gaps as the
roller is rotated.


● Rollers do not rotate smoothly.They stop and start.
i. The drive belt or chain may be loose. Adjust


according to the maintenance manual.
ii. Incorrect positioning of rack or rollers.
iii. A bearing may require cleaning, or lubrication.
iv. Damage to a gear tooth.


● Film is slipping in the rollers.
i. Examine roller compression springs; ensure


correct fit and tension.
ii. Look for missing springs.


The following film problems may not be due to the
processor.


n. Film fogging


● Darkroom safe light is faulty.
i. Test by leaving film on bench for a short time,


then processing. Next, place film directly into
processor, but keep safe light off.


ii. Aim the light upwards, away from the work-
bench or processor film table.


iii. Has the globe been replaced with a wrong type?
iv. Has the film been changed to orthochromatic


film? Contact the film supplier for advice. Obtain
correct filters for the safe light.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


154




● Damaged cassette, allowing light to enter.
i. Test by inserting a film in the suspect cassette,


with the safelight switched off. Then place the
cassette in different positions, in normal room
lighting.


ii. Process the film.
● All films appear fogged.


i. The film has been stored under excessive tem-
perature, or humidity conditions.


ii. The film has passed its expiration date.
● Film has intermittent fogging.Artefacts can also be


observed.
i. Scatter radiation is entering the cassette


storage area.
ii. Possible fault with radiation shield. Test by


placing a test cassette for a while in the suspect
area.


● Film exhibits fogging towards one edge only. All
films of the same size have a similar problem.
i. The film storage bin has been opened under full


lighting conditions.


ii. Possible light leak into the film storage bin.
Check for proper closing and operation of the
film bin.


iii. Improper light shielding of films, due to torn
packaging etc.


o. Static electricity marks


● These appear as ‘branched’, or ‘dotted’ areas on the
film.
i. This is due to a static discharge, as the film is


handled.
ii. A common cause is dry, or low humidity


conditions. Some floor coverings, and type of
shoes, can also cause this problem.


iii. Before handling the film, discharge yourself by
touching the metal tray of the processor.


iv. Use anti-static cleaners for the cassette
intensifier screens.


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


155




TASK 16


Films appear too dark


You have just returned from holidays. On using your normal exposure techniques, the films appear too dark. Your
assistant informs you she has also been having a problem, to obtain the correct exposures.


You suspect a problem with the processor. However, list possible reasons, not caused by the processor, which might
cause dark films.


Make a list of possible processor problems, which could cause a dark film. Indicate on this list the order in which
you would check these items.


Carry out suitable tests. Describe these tests and their results.


What action is needed to correct the problem?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


156




TASK 17


Films exhibit symptoms of
low fixer


After carrying out initial tests, you replaced the fixer, and adjusted the fixer pump. However, as several days go by
the problem repeats itself.
You come to the decision that the fixer pump is faulty and requires attention.


What were the original symptoms?


Describe the tests carried out, and action taken to correct the problem.


The problem has now repeated itself. You have contacted the processor agents, and discussed the problem. They
recommend you replace the pump valves, suspected leaking.You now have the replacement valves and are about
to affect a replacement.
Describe some important precautions before attempted disassembly


Reassembly has been successful. At the beginning you made some adjustments in an attempt to correct this
problem. Now with the processor powered up, and charged with fresh chemicals, what adjustment should again
be checked?


Tutor’s comments


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory


Signed Date


Tutor


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


157




MODULE 11.2


The film ID printer


a. Operation of a film printer


The basic film printer consists of a lamp, which deliv-
ers a brief burst of light through the paper ID strip
onto the film. In its simplest form, a capacitor is
charged to a preset voltage. On closing the printer lid,
a microswitch connects the capacitor to the lamp,
producing a brief flash of light. A potentiometer con-
trols the voltage level on the capacitor, which in turn
controls the lamp output. Additions may include pre-
heating the lamp filament, or providing a flash timer.
Later versions replaced the lamp with a xenon flash
tube, similar to those employed in a camera. Due to
the simplicity of the design, very little can go wrong.
However, some problems may still occur.


b. Precautions for replacing the lamp


Before opening the cover ensure the printer is discon-
nected from the power point. Take care not to touch
any of the internal wiring, as there may be significant
voltage stored in a capacitor.


The replacement lamp should have a similar power
rating. Depending on the actual mode of operation,
changing to a higher rated lamp could produce a lower
flash intensity.


c. Failure to print


Before investigating, ensure the printer is unplugged
from the power point.


● Is the globe faulty? Try a replacement globe.
● Can you hear a small ‘click’ as the lid is closed?


If not the expose switch may need adjustment.
Otherwise the switch may be faulty.


● Does the power cord have a broken connection?
Check both at the plug end and where the cord
enters the printer. Repairs to the power cord or plug
should be performed by an electrician.


● Is the power point faulty? Check the printer in a
known good outlet.


● Has the print density control developed a bad
connection? Try adjusting to a different position.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


158


Aim


Film ID printers range from basic versions where the
film is first removed from the cassette,and then placed
in the printer, to motorized versions; which print the
film through a ‘window’ in the cassette. The sugges-
tions made here are for the basic version only.


Objectives


After completion of this module, simple repairs to a
basic film printer may be achieved.Assistance from an
electrician is recommended.


Contents


a. Operation of a film printer
b. Precautions for replacing the lamp
c. Failure to print
d. The printing is too light




d.The printing is too light


● Did this occur after changing the globe? Check to
ensure the correct type was fitted.


● Has the type of paper used for the patient ID been
changed to a different version?


● If the first printing attempt is light, but an attempt
at printing shortly after produces better results,


then a pre-heat resistor or adjustment may be
faulty. Have an electrician check for this possibility.
Do not attempt this by yourself; there may be a high
voltage charge on a capacitor.


PART IV. AUTOMATIC FILM PROCESSOR


159






PART V
Appendices




E




APPENDIX A


Sensitometry


● The resultant image densities are determined using
a densitometer. The results are recorded, graphed,
and the graphs evaluated.


● The first graph produced is known as a character-
istic curve.


● To draw a characteristic curve, plot test film densi-
ties against test film density step numbers. Step
one must be the lightest density.


● From this characteristic curve, several other graphs
may be plotted, each giving additional information.


● This combined information will give a comprehen-
sive picture of processor performance.


The test film
The image on the test film must be a standard series
of clearly defined densities, ranging from barely visible
to black.


● These densities are usually over a range of 21 steps.
● A smaller number of steps may be used.
● Number the steps from 1. (Lightest step)


Producing the test film
There are several ways of preparing the test film. Four
examples are provided here.


METHOD 1


The best and most reliable method is to use a sensit-
ometer, which produces a standard range of densities.


Using the sensitometer
● Use a dedicated box of film, of the type commonly


used in your department.
● Use the sensitometer in the darkroom where the


processor is to be monitored.
● Select the light colour relevant to your films colour


sensitivity, (blue or green)
● Under safelight conditions, insert a sheet of film


into the sensitometer until it reaches the backstop.
● Press the cover down until the indicating signal,


(audio or light), has stopped.
● Raise the cover and remove the film.
● Process the film in the processor to be monitored.


APPENDIX A. SENSITOMETRY


163


Note. This section on sensitometry is an extract from
the WHO Quality assurance workbook,by Peter J Lloyd.


Sensitometry is the study and measurement of the
relationship between exposures, films, screens, and
processing.


Principal use


● Our interest lies more in its use in checking film
processor performance, in particular automatic
processors.


● By standardizing exposure, film and screen types,
conditions under which films are exposed, handled
and stored, leaves only one variable, that of film
processing.


● Any variation in film image must then be due to film
processing.


● (See ‘module four, manual processing’, page 78, in
WHO Quality assurance workbook for an elemen-
tary form of evaluating film processing.)


● Sensitometry is a more comprehensive form of
monitoring processing performance.


When to do processor control
sensitometry


● First thing every morning. This especially applies if
used for mammography films.


● After the processor has reached the correct oper-
ating temperature.


● After feeding cleanup films through.
● After cleaning or servicing the processor.
● Before processing any patient radiographs.


Outline of procedure
● A standard step-wedge image must be produced.
● This image consists of a range of clearly defined


images.
● Production of this image must be consistent.


Methods for its production are described following.
● The film is processed in the film processor to be


monitored.




● The film should always be placed in the same posi-
tion on the film tray, with the step-image parallel to
the rollers.


METHOD 2


Make an X-ray image of an aluminium step-wedge
under standard conditions.


Making the step wedge image
● Place an 18 ¥ 24cm cassette, loaded with your


standard film, face up on the X-ray table.
● Place the step wedge on the face of the cassette.
● Using a 100cm FFD (SID), centre and collimate to


the step wedge.
● To make more than one image on the same film,


strips of lead rubber may be used to divide the
cassette.


● Set an exposure that will produce a full range of
step wedge densities, and make an exposure. You
may need to experiment first in order to determine
the correct exposure for your particular step wedge/
film/screen combination.


● Process the film, under safelight conditions, in the
processor to be monitored.


● The film should always be placed in the same posi-
tion on the feed tray, with the step-image parallel
to the rollers.


● Standard conditions must be used each time a step
wedge image is made.


METHOD 3


Producing a standard range of densities, using X-ray,
without the step wedge


Making the image
● Place an 18 ¥ 24cm cassette, loaded with your


standard film, face up on the X-ray table.
● Divide the face of the cassette into 11 strips.
● Cover all but the end strip with lead rubber.
● Set a 100cm FFD (SID), centre and collimate to the


uncovered area. (Strip ‘1’).
● Expose using a low exposure (Enough to produce a


barely visible image).
● Move the lead rubber so that strips ‘1’ and ‘2’ are


uncovered.
● Using the same exposure, expose both strips. (Strip


‘1’ has now been exposed twice).
● Move the lead rubber so that strips ‘1’, ‘2’, and ‘3’


are uncovered and expose all three strips, using the
same exposure. (Strip ‘1’ has now been exposed
three times, and strip ‘2’ twice).


● Repeat this process until all strips have been exposed.
● Process the film, under safelight conditions, in the


processor to be monitored.
● Feed the film into the processor in the same way as


that described in method 2.
● The film may be cut down the middle lengthways,


when removed from the cassette, in order to create
a second strip.The unused strip should be placed in
a light tight box for further use.


METHOD 4


● Purchase pre-exposed sensitometry film produced
by a film manufacturer.


Terminology To understand the process of sensito-
metry, it is necessary to have an understanding of
some basic terminology.


Sensitometer A consistent light source, which pro-
duces a standard range of densities, when exposed
on film.


Densitometer A consistent light source, combined
with a light measuring sensor, used for accurately
measuring film density.


Film density The degree of film blackening. You will
see from the characteristic curve graph, and your
own experience, that density increases as exposure
increases.


Contrast The difference between two or more den-
sities on a film. The straight line portion and shape
of the characteristic curve gives us information
about contrast. A high contrast film curve will lie
toward the left, whilst a lower contrast film curve
will lie more towards the right. (See Fig 5–3).


Gradient The contrast of a film at a given density.
When a straight line is drawn tangent to the char-
acteristic curve at a given density, this line forms
the slope which is the gradient of that density.


Average gradient A line drawn between the 0.25 and
2.00 density levels on the characteristic curve.


Toe gradient A line drawn between the 0.25 and 1.00
density levels on the characteristic curve.


Mid gradient A line drawn between the 1.00 and
2.00 density levels on the characteristic curve.


Upper gradient A line drawn between the 2.00 and
3.00 density levels on the characteristic curve.


Base plus fog The density of processed film, without
the effects of light or radiation; the density at which
the characteristic curve begins.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


164


E




Exposure Intensity of radiation ¥ time (mAs).


Speed Indicated by the location of the curve along
the step (exposure) axis. A faster film curve will lie
more toward the left, whilst a slower film will lie
more toward the right. To calculate film speed, use
a density level of 1.0. (This is considered to be the
average of the useful density range of 0.25 to 2.0).


Exposure latitude The range of exposure factors,
within which the resultant radiograph is considered
to be acceptable. A film that is said to have ‘wide
latitude’ has the ability to accept large changes in
exposure, without excessive density changes.


Carrying out the sensitometric test


Frequency of test
● Daily


Equipment required
● Sensitometer, to produce image by Method 1


described previously, or
● Step wedge, to produce image by Method 2


described previously, or
● Lead rubber sheet and cassette, to produce image


by Method 3 described previously.
● Unexposed film or manufacturers pre-exposed


sensitometry film.
● Densitometer.
● Specialised graph paper supplied by a film manu-


facturer, or
● Simple small grid, graph paper, available from sta-


tionary shops, drawn up in the same way.
● Any scale graph paper may be used, but it is


common to use a ratio, X axis to Y axis of 0.15 :1.0.
The important thing is that you do not vary the ratio
once your quality control programme is under way.


Method
● Allow the processor to stabilize.
● Process the test film in the processor to be checked.
● Tests must be carried out at the same time each


day under the same conditions.
● Developer temperature must be taken at the time


of test.
● Using the densitometer, read the density of each


step on the test film image.
● Record the densities against their step numbers.
● Plot a graph of step numbers on the horizontal axis


against densities on the vertical axis and join up the
dots. (See Fig A–1).


Using the densitometer
● Switch on the densitometer and allow the unit to


stabilize.
● Set the densitometer reading to zero.
● On ‘bench top’ units and ‘clamshell’ types, this is


performed by making a test reading without film.
● Place the centre of the density to be read directly


over the light aperture and under the reading arm.
● Lower the reading arm to the film, press the ‘read’


switch and hold for a few seconds, until the readout
stabilizes.


● Lift the arm
● Record the reading against the step number.
● Repeat for all density steps on the image.
● In case a hand held unit is used, place the densit-


ometer against the film viewer, and then adjust the
readout to zero. Important, do not shift the posi-
tion on the film viewer during subsequent readings.


Plotting the characteristic curve
● The graph paper must have ‘Density’ on the Y (ver-


tical) axis, and ‘Step Number’ on the X (horizontal)
axis.


● Plot density of step 1 (the lightest density) at the
appropriate level on the Y-axis, and directly above
Step 1 on the X-axis.


● Repeat for all other step densities.
● Join up all the plots to form a free flowing curve.


(See fig A–2).
● Draw in the toe, mid and average gradients as


described previously.


APPENDIX A. SENSITOMETRY


165


Fig A–1. Typical characteristic graph, showing
relationship of density to step number




Evaluation
● Compare your characteristic curve with the control


characteristic curve that was plotted when the
chemistry was first mixed and the processor set up.


● If these curves vary markedly there is reason to
believe that the processor is not functioning
correctly.


● Calculate the ‘Speed’, ‘Contrast’, ‘Base plus Fog (D-
Min)’, ‘Temperature’ and ‘D-Max’ and enter on the
appropriate graphs. (See Fig A–2 and Fig A–3)


Speed
● Select the step number that has a density within a


range of 1.0 to 1.3 on the step wedge image. This
step number becomes the speed step.


● Record the step number on the speed chart in the
space provided (Speed step No. ●●). Do this only on
day one, after the chemistry has been freshly mixed.


● Plot the density reading on the zero line under day
one. Do this only on day one after the chemistry has
been freshly mixed.


● Measure and plot the density of the speed steps
daily. (See Fig A–2, Fig A–3, and Appendix C page
177.)


● Observe how much the speed plot varies from the
zero line.


● An acceptable variation is plus or minus 0.15.
● Variations above this may need corrective action.


Contrast
● Select densities of the steps, two steps above, and


two steps below, the speed step.


● Record these steps on the contrast chart, in
the space provided (Step Below ●● and Step Above
●●)


● Subtract the smaller from the greater of these two
densities. This difference is the contrast of your
standard reference.


● Record this standard reference against the zero line
on the Contrast Chart. Do this only on day one, after
the chemistry has been freshly mixed.


● Repeat this process daily, plotting the contrast
indicator under appropriate dates. (See Fig A–2,
Fig A–3, and Appendix C page 177.)


● Observe how much the contrast indicator varies
from the zero line.


● An acceptable variation is plus or minus 0.15.


Base plus fog (D-Min)
● Using the densitometer, measure the density of the


film that has received no exposure.
● Record this reading against the zero line on the


Base plus Fog Chart. Do this only on day one, after
the chemistry has been freshly mixed.


● Repeat this procedure daily, plotting the base plus
fog density under appropriate dates. (See Fig A–2,
Fig A–3, and Appendix C page 177.)


● Observe how much the base plus fog indicator
varies from the zero line.


● Ideally it should not go above 0.02. Action should
be considered if it exceeds 0.023.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


166


E


Fig A–2. Example of a characteristic curve




Temperature
● Take the temperature of the developer
● Record against the zero line of the Temperature


Chart. Do this only on day one, after the chemistry
has been freshly mixed.


● Repeat this procedure daily, plotting Temperature
under appropriate dates, (See Fig A–2, Fig A–3, and
Appendix C page 177.)


● Observe how much the temperature varies.
● Action should be taken if the temperature varies


more than a few degrees.


D-Max
● Using the densitometer, measure the maximum


density step on the step wedge image.
● Record against the zero line of the D-Max Chart. Do


this only on day one, after the chemistry has been
freshly mixed. (See Fig A–2, Fig A–3, and Appendix
C page 177.)


● Repeat this daily, recording the D-Max on the chart
under appropriate dates.


● Noticeable variations give advanced warnings of
chemistry problems.


APPENDIX A. SENSITOMETRY


167


Quality Control Processing Chart


Fig A–3. Sensitometry charts for recording speed, contrast, base + fog, temperature and
D-Max data




limits, especially if the change is sudden or continues
to increase or decrease, then the processor is said to
be ‘out of control’ and immediate action should be
taken.


Action to be taken if the processor is out
of control
● Immediately stop using the processor
● Inform other users
● Start problem solving process
● File a report


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


168


E


How to use the sensitometry graphs
All processors will show some variation in results from
day to day. However, action should be taken if the vari-
ations are sudden or continue to increase or decrease
over a period of time and pass beyond the acceptable
limits. If the change is sudden, then all possible influ-
encing factors should be checked, or a mistake may
have been made. The test should be repeated.


In control
When results are within acceptable limits the proces-
sor is said to be ‘in control’ and no action is required.


Out of control
If one or more of the charts (speed, contrast or fog)
is showing results that are outside the acceptable


Table A–1. Example of the possible interpretation of sensitometric charts, and recommended
action


Chart changes Possible cause Action


• Speed and contrast increase First stage of over development 1 Adjust temp’
• D-min acceptable 1 Developer temp’ high 2 Adjust replenishment
• —————– 2 Excessive replenishment 3 Change developer
• Speed and contrast up 3 Developer too concentrated 4 Developing time too long, add
• D-min increases 4 Check processing time starter


• Sudden increase in speed, Excessive over development. Add starter to developer.
D-min & D-max after service. Starter omitted or insufficient


starter in developer.


• Speed decreases Under development 1 Check and adjust temp’
• Loss of image contrast 1 Developer temp’ low 2 Check and adjust replenishment
• D-min normal 2 Developer exhausted 3 Check and refill replenisher tank


—————– 3 Insufficient replenishment 4 Replace replenisher
• Image density low over whole 4 Replenisher used up 5 Check processing time


image. Speed and contrast low. 5 Developer too dilute
• D-min also low 6 Developing time too short


• Sudden decrease in speed and Excessive amount of starter in Replace developer, add correct
D-max after service developer amount of starter


• Small decrease in D-min


• Increase in speed 1 Aerial oxidation Replace developer after washing
• Shoulder decreases 2 Contaminated developer out tank
• Loss of contrast Add correct amount of starter
• Increase in fog




APPENDIX B


Recommended tools and
test equipment


● Protective glasses. (For processor maintenance)
● Processor tank cleaning brushes.
● Compartmented carry case.


b. Service aids


● Rolls of PVC insulating tape. (Several colours.)
● Packet of assorted plastic cable ties.
● Silicon grease. (Dow Corning ‘DC-4’).
● Small container of light household oil.
● Spray can of multipurpose lubricant spray. (RP-7,


WD-40, CRC-2.26 etc).
● Suitable solvent for cleaning sticking plaster etc.


from equipment. (For example, eucalyptus oil,
methylated spirits. etc).


● Clean disposable cloths.
● Scouring pads, plastic or nylon type.
● Sodium hypochlorite bleach.


c.Test equipment


● A basic multimeter.
i. A simple ‘analogue’ meter, capable of measur-


ing up to 500V AC and DC, plus resistance, is
sufficient.


ii. If selecting a digital display meter, avoid
‘auto-range’ versions. Instead select one that
has individual switch selections of the required
measurement range.


iii. When not in use, remove the battery from the
meter.


● Accurate thermometer.Alcohol or electronic.To suit
processor requirements.


● Hydrometer, to suit processor requirements.
● Measuring cylinder. Graduated 100ml glass or


plastic container
● Densitometer. Or, a previous processed sensitome-


try film. This may be used as a density reference.
● Sensitometer, or a packet of pre-exposed reference


film.
● Film screen contact test tool. (See page 134 of the


‘WHO Quality assurance workbook’.)


APPENDIX B. RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT


169


Suitable tools and test equipment are required when
carrying out routine maintenance, or repairs to X-ray
equipment. These should be suitable for the required
work, as unsuitable tools may cause damage or injury.


The tools and test equipment indicated in this
appendix will provide a basic tool kit. Some items of
test equipment can be constructed, and are described
in ‘Making simple test tools’.


Contents


a. Basic tools for service and maintenance.
b. Service aids.
c. Test equipment.
d. Making simple test tools.


i. Aluminium stepwedge.
ii. Resolution test piece for fluoroscopy TV.
iii. X-ray alignment template.
iv. X-ray spinning top.
v. Tomography resolution test.


a. Basic tools for service and maintenance


● Set of Phillips screwdrivers, Nos 1, 2, & 3.
● Set of flat blade screwdrivers, blade widths from


3mm to 10mm.
● Set of mini or ‘Jewellers’ screwdrivers. (Economy


pack.)
● Set of metric Allan keys.
● Set of imperial Allan keys.
● Retractable blade, utility knife.
● Tape measure. (Minimum length of 3.0 metres)
● Ruler.
● Spirit level.
● Torch.
● An angled inspection mirror. (Dental style.)
● Combination pliers.
● Long nose pliers.
● Tweezers.
● Medium size side cutting pliers.
● Medium (6–8 inch) adjustable wrench.
● Set of metric spanners, up to 15mm size.
● Hammer.




● Optional step-wedge, 21 steps, for simulation of a
sensitometer. (See pages 133 and 134 of the ‘WHO
Quality assurance workbook’.)


● *Standard aluminium step-wedge.
● *X-Ray alignment template
● *Tomography phantom.
● *Resolution test piece, for fluoroscopy TV.
● *X-ray spinning top, for use with single-phase or


portable X-ray generators.


* See ‘Making simple test tools’.


d. Making simple test tools


Aluminium step-wedge
A step-wedge is one of the most useful tools for
measuring relative radiation output from an X-ray gen-
erator. This tool may be used to measure radiation
consistency between selected mA stations of an X-ray
control, or make a comparison between other X-ray
controls in a department.


The step-wedge is sensitive to both changes of kV
and mAs. In use, a series of test exposures are made
for each ma station, using the same kV and mAs. If
one of the mA stations shows a lighter or darker strip,
then make another test of that mA station; together
with a small change of either kV or mAs. The calibra-
tion error is the amount of kV or mAs required to
achieve identical results.


Making a step-wedge
If a commercial step-wedge is not available, one may
be made from several strips of 2.0mm thick aluminium
glued together.


● Obtain a 2100mm length of 25mm by 2.0mm alu-
minium strip from the local building hardware store.


● Cut to lengths of 30, 50, 70, 90, 110, 130, 150, 170,
170, and 170mm. When glued together as shown,
they will form a 20mm high stepwedge. See Fig
B–1


● The glue used may be ‘contact’ adhesive or epoxy
resin. (Recommended) If using epoxy, then roughen
the surface of the aluminium strips before gluing
together.


● As an aid to assembly,obtain a small cardboard box.
(A shoebox is suggested.) Place the strips against
an inside corner during assembly, to form a neat
stack.


● An optional five 170mm strips may be glued
together to form a separate 10mm filter. This is
placed under the stepwedge when required. This
allows the stepwedge to be used at higher kV or
mAs settings.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


170


Fig B–1. Formation of a step-wedge from 2.0
mm aluminium strips glued together


Fig B–2. Simulation of two test exposures obtained with a stepwedge


The illustration in fig B–2 illustrates two simulated
test exposures.The film is cut into individual strips with
a pair of scissors.The strips are then placed alongside
each other, and moved beside each other, until the
density steps are matched. If a densitometer is avail-
able, then a direct comparison can be made of each
step. This avoids cutting the film into strips.


Using the step-wedge
General considerations
● Besides showing a change in generator output, the


stepwedge density will be changed by the proces-
sor calibration. Before testing a generator, check
the processor, and make sure its performance is
inside the required limits.




● For consistent results, use the same cassette for all
tests, and the same type of film.


● Do not use the Bucky; instead place the cassette on
the tabletop.


● Use a standard 100cm focal spot to film distance.
(FFD)


● Several exposures may be made on the one piece of
film. Place two pieces of lead rubber on top of the
cassette, positioned against each side of the step-
wedge. As the stepwedge is repositioned, the lead
rubber is also moved, to shield the film from
unwanted radiation.


● If testing at high kV levels, additional filtration may
be needed. This can be an extra 10mm of alu-
minium placed under the stepwedge, or else 1~
2mm of copper placed in front of the collimator.


● If the test exposure is over exposed, and extra fil-
tration is not wanted, then insert a sheet of dark
paper between the film, and one of the intensifying
screens of the cassette.


● Depending on generator design, exposure times
shorter than 0.02 seconds may not be accurate.
This can apply to older single or three-phase
generators. Current high-frequency systems have
greater accuracy, however, the HT cable still has a
small effect on very short exposure times.This is due
to energy stored in the HT cable capacitance. For
this reason, some designs have a minimum mAs
limit of 0.5mAs.


● The capacitor discharge (CD) mobile has a non-
linear output. For example, the kV will drop by
10kV during a 10mAs exposure. However, it is still
possible to make a test of radiation consistency
using the stepwedge. Also, if the same FFD, kV, and
mAs values are used, then relative outputs between
CD mobiles can be compared.


Step-wedge calibration
This could be called ‘Getting to know your stepwedge’.


At first, the optimum exposure factors for a partic-
ular stepwedge will require some experimentation.Two
factors are involved, kV and mAs.


● Select a value of mAs that will not require too short
an exposure time, when used with the highest mA
position for your X-ray generator.


● Select a nominal value of about 65~70kV and make
a test exposure.


● If the exposure is too light, then increase the expo-
sure time, or the kV. If too dark, and the exposure
times are short, then reduce kV.


● The test exposure should show a range of density
values towards the centre of the stepwedge. Record
the FFD, mAs, and kV values for later use.


● When an optimum exposure has been obtained,
repeat this test with small increases of kV. Record
the increase of kV to change the density by one
step.


● Increase the value of mAs in small steps until you
again obtain a density change of one step. Record
this as the percent increase of mAs.


● If extra filtration (Such as the added 10mm of
aluminium) is available, then make another series
of test exposures. This time, change kV only, until
a density match is obtained. Record this value for
later use.


Typical stepwedge techniques
There are two important tests the stepwedge can
perform. These are radiation reproducibility and X-ray
output linearity. These tests are described in module
1.1 page 19.


Resolution test for fluoroscopy
The overall resolution of an imaging system is quoted
in ‘Line pairs/mm’.This test requires the use of a highly
accurate line-pair gauge.


Two versions are shown. Fig B–3 has individual
groups, of line-pairs. These are arranged in ten steps,
0.5LP/mm to 5.0LP/mm. Fig B–4 has lines converging
to a point. Calibration marks are provided to indicate
the equivalent line-pair resolution.


Many other versions are available. The type of
pattern and material used depends on the specific test
required. Common types are similar to fig B–3, or B–4.
The line-pair pattern is made from 0.1mm lead for
normal use.


APPENDIX B. RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT


171


Fig B–3. A typical line pair gauge, 0.5 to
5.0LP/mm




Making a convergence style focus aid
If a commercial line-pair gauge is not available, a con-
vergence style focus aid can be constructed, using
sewing needles. See Fig B–5.


Material required
● Seven thin sewing needles, about 60~70mm in


length.
● Five small pins.
● Photocopy of Fig B–5
● A piece of 3mm thick medium density fibreboard


(MDF), or a piece of thin acrylic plastic, cut to the
size of Fig B–5.


● Adhesive. Epoxy-resin is preferred.
● Pair of tweezers.


Construction
● Using adhesive, attach a photocopy of Fig B–5 to


piece of 3.0mm MDF, or thin acrylic, cut to the size
of Fig B–5. Use this diagram for positioning the
needles.


● Place a thin film of epoxy resin over the top the
diagram. This is to help hold the needles in place
during positioning.


● Using Fig B–5 as a template, place the needles on
top of the outlines shown in the drawing. Start first
from the two outside positions, working from each
side towards the centre. A pair of tweezers will help
in positioning. The ‘rotation’ position of the needle
eye is not important.


● (The eye end of the needles should have a gap
between each needle of about 2mm)


● Position small sewing pins to one side as indicated.
These are to indicate the resolution reference position.


● Once all needles and pins are in position, wait for
the epoxy resin to harden. Now mix another lot of
epoxy resin, and cover the pins and needles, so they
remain firmly attached.


Using the line pair gauge
● Tape the gauge onto the centre of the input face of


the image intensifier. If access is difficult, then tape
the gauge to underneath the serial changer.


● To avoid interaction with grid lines, attach the
gauge (Fig B–3) so it is rotated approximately
25~45 degrees. (On some CCD TV cameras, this also
avoids interaction between pixels.)


● Raise the serial changer to maximum height above
the tabletop.


● If the system has automatic kV control, this
should be turned off. Set manual fluoroscopy kV to
50~55kV.


● With fluoroscopy ‘on’, adjust kV or mA to obtain
a normal brightness and contrast image on the
monitor.


● Carefully observe the line-pair patterns.The limiting
definition is the line-pair group that is reasonably
visible, while the next group is completely blurred
out.


● If using the focus aid (Fig B–5), observe the dis-
tance from the apex before blurring occurs, which
indicates focus quality.


● Note. This test is relative only. A direct comparison
in terms of line-pairs is possible, only if previously
compared with a commercial line-pair gauge.


● Record the line-pair resolution, or ‘V’ pattern dis-
tance obtained, and compare with any earlier tests.


● When a multi field image intensifier is installed,
repeat this test for all other field sizes.


● The combined TV and II focus should be better
than 12LP/mm for a 9≤ image intensifier. (A typical


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


172


E
Fig B–5. A focus aid, made with sewing
needles


Fig B–4. Convergence style line pair gauge,
0.5 to 5.0LP/mm




result might be 14LP/mm with a CCD camera, and
16LP/mm with a ‘vidicon’ camera.)


X-ray alignment template
The template is designed to provide evaluation of
the X-ray collimator light beam accuracy. In use the
template is placed on top of the cassette, and the
collimator light beam is positioned to the template
markers. After making an X-ray exposure, the markers,
shown on the film, indicate the radiation position.


Making a template
Material
● A piece of 3mm thick medium density fibreboard


(MDF), cut to the required size. Stiff cardboard may
also be used.


● Packet of large paper clips
● A length of single strand wire, about 1mm diame-


ter, and 1.5 metres long
● Adhesive. (Epoxy resin is recommended)
● Small angle cutting pliers
● Pair of tweezers
● Drawing instruments


Drawing the template
Refer to the diagram of Fig B–6. This indicates the
template design before placing markers on the
template.


● Draw a rectangle, with sides 24 by 30cm. This is
indicated by the dashed line in the diagram.


● Draw a horizontal and vertical line in the centre of
the rectangle.


● Draw a short line every 1cm along the horizontal
and vertical lines, starting from the centre.


● Using the 1cm marks as a guide,now draw three rec-
tangles. 10 by 10cm, 16 by 16cm, and 20 by 26cm.


● The circle indicates a nominal placement point for
an orientation marker.


● Now trim the MDF, or cardboard, to the edge of the
24 by 30cm rectangle. (Shown as a dashed line in
the diagram.)


Making the markers
The markers are made from short pieces of wire.
Prepare the required markers before attempting to
glue them in position.


● The markers need to be about 3.0cm in length to
mark the position of the rectangles, and about
1.0~1.5cm to mark the 1cm divisions.


● Straighten a paper clip to the shape required for the
corners, cutting off the remainder with the pliers.


● The length off wire will need to be straightened.
Fasten one end to a fixed object, and the other end


APPENDIX B. RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT


173


Fig B–6. The template outline, before placing
the markers


Fig B–7. The markers in position on the tem-
plate (The outline of Fig B–6 is not shown.)


to the pliers handle. Pull firmly; stretching the wire
will cause it to become straight.


● Prepare two long pieces of wire, 240mm and
300mm in length.


● Use the remainder for the short 1.0~1.5cm markers.


Placing the markers
● Refer to the diagram B–7. This indicates the


markers in position, and the outline of the template
as it could appear on a test film.




● Mix a suitable quantity of epoxy resin. Use this to
fasten the markers in position to the previously
drawn outlines. (A pair of tweezers will aid in
positioning)


● After all the short markers are in position, the long
pieces of wire are placed on top, and attached with
epoxy resin.


● Finally, attach a small coin,or other suitable marker,
to indicate position of the template on the test
films.


Using the template
● Place the template in the centre of a 24/30cm


cassette.
● Collimate the light beam to the outer 20 by 26cm


rectangle.
● Make an exposure, using a low mAs and kV output.
● Evaluate the accuracy of the collimator from the


resultant film.


The spinning-top
The spinning-top is a tool for determining the expo-
sure time of single phase, or portable X-ray generators.
With these controls, power is applied in the form of
high voltage pulses, every half cycle, or once every
cycle, of the input power frequency.This produces indi-
vidual pulses of X-rays. The spinning top is a means of
spreading these pulses over an area of film, enabling
individual pulses to be counted as a function of expo-
sure time.The spinning-top cannot be used with three-
phase, high frequency, or CD mobiles. Commercial
spinning tops are available, but may be expensive.
They are now supplanted by electronic detectors that
require an oscilloscope, or as part of a radiation meas-
urement device.


Fig B–8 illustrates a spinning-top, which may be
constructed locally. You may attempt this yourself, or
have it made at a local engineering shop. Alternately,
please refer to page 134 of the ‘WHO Quality assur-
ance workbook’ for additional information.


Material
● An 80mm diameter mild steel disc, 2.0 or 3.0mm


thick.
● A 50mm diameter mild steel disc, 5.0mm thick.
● A 10mm ‘cap head’ or ‘hex head’ bolt, with an


overall length of 35~40mm. Note, this screw or bolt
should be mild steel, NOT high tensile.This would be
very difficult to drill.


● Two 10mm nuts.
● A 3.0mm countersunk metal thread, 35mm long.
● Two 3.0mm nuts.


Tools
● Drill. (Preferably a drill-stand and vice)
● Drill bits of 2.0mm, 3.0mm and 10mm
● Countersink bit
● Bench vice
● Flat file
● Spanner
● Centre punch
● Hammer
● Pencil
● Rule


Construction
● See Fig B–8.
● Very carefully determine the centre of the 80mm


disc. Mark the centre with the centre punch. This
will prevent the bit moving off-centre when drilling.


● Drill a 3.0mm pilot hole in the centre of the disc.
Then drill the required 10.0mm hole.


● Drill a 2.0mm hole about 7.5mm from the edge of
the 80mm disc.


● Mark the centre of the 50mm disc with the centre
punch, and drill a 3.0mm hole. Use the countersink
bit to provide a chamfer for the countersunk screw.


● Prepare the 3.0mm countersunk screw by filing the
end to a sharp point.


● Insert the screw into the plate. Check that the head
does not protrude below the plate. If necessary,
apply the countersink bit again.


● Fix the screw firmly in position, using the second
nut as a ‘locknut’.


● Carefully mark the centre of the 10mm bolt, using
the centre punch.


● Drill a 3.0mm hole through the centre of the bolt,
to depth of about 10mm.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


174


E Fig B–8. Spinning-top construction details




● Make a trial fitting of the 3mm metal thread into
the bolt. If it is a tight fit, then carefully file a small
amount from around the sides of the metal thread.


● Continue drilling the 3mm hole into the bolt, check-
ing to ensure the hole does not become too deep.


● Install a 10mm nut to the bolt, then the disc, then
the other nut. Fasten firmly.


● Place the large disc and bolt down over the 3.0mm
‘spindle’ and check that it rotates freely.


● Your spinning-top is now ready for use.


Using the spinning-top
● Place the top on one corner of a 24/30 cassette,


and cover the rest with lead rubber.
● Set the X-ray tube at its normal operating height.
● Select a low to medium mA station, and low kV.
● Select the exposure time for testing. Take care to


record this setting.
● Note. The top can normally record exposure times


of 0.01 to 0.3 seconds. Longer times can lead to
overlap of the dots.


● Give the top a firm spin, and place the generator
into preparation.


● Watch the top rotation. As it slows down to a low
speed, make your exposure.


● Place the top on the next position of the cassette,
and shield the rest of the cassette with lead rubber.


● Select another test exposure time, and once more
make an exposure.


● The top described in fig B–8, can perform a total
of six tests on one 24/30 film


● Develop the film, and analyse the results.


● Table B–1 indicates the number of dots, and the
equivalent exposure times. (The 60Hz times have
been ‘rounded off’)


Test result problems
● The dots overlap around the full circumference.


i. The exposure was made with the top spinning
too quickly.


● The dots merge together.
i. The spin speed is too slow.
ii. X-ray output is too high. Try a lower kV or mA


setting.
● If the test is required at high mA or kV, then place


a sheet of paper between the film and the intensi-
fying screens in the cassette, or use non screened
film.


● A ‘half dot’ indicates a problem with the exposure
contactor.
i. If this occurs at the start of the exposure, espe-


cially with exposure times of 0.03 or 0.05, this
could be due to incorrect contactor phase
adjustment, or slow pull-in of the contactor.


ii. If it occurs at the end of the exposure, and is
an extra half dot, this is due to the contactor
sticking or slow release. Most X-ray controls
have an adjustment for both the contactor pull-
in and release times.


APPENDIX B. RECOMMENDED TOOLS AND TEST EQUIPMENT


175


Fig B–9. A typical test result


Table B–1. Spinning-top dots and exposure
times


Dots 60Hz 50Hz 60Hz 50Hz
self self full wave full wave


rectified rectified rectified rectified


1 0.008* 0.01* 0.008 0.01


2 0.033 0.04 0.017 0.02


3 0.05 0.06 0.025 0.03


4 0.067 0.08 0.033 0.04


5 0.083 0.1 0.042 0.05


6 0.1 0.12 0.05 0.06


7 0.12 0.14 0.58 0.07


8 0.133 0.16 0.067 0.08


9 0.15 0.18 0.075 0.09


10 0.167 0.2 0.083 0.1


* A single dot with self-rectified generators may
be considered similar to the full wave rectified
generator time.


Test results
● The number of dots obtained depends on the time


selection, and the type of rectification.
● Fig B–9 shows 8 dots. This would indicate an expo-


sure time of 0.08sec for a 50Hz full wave rectified
generator.




Tomography resolution test tool
This tool is designed for two requirements.


1. To test tomography performance. The centre test
objects ‘A’ should show a clear image under all
modes of tomography operation.


2. Test the tomography height calibration.When set at
60mm the centre test ‘A’ should be clear, with the
lower ‘B’ and upper ‘C’ test objects equally blurred.


Material
You will need the following.


—Two pieces of 5mm thick acrylic plastic; cut to 100
by 90mm.


—Or, 6.0mm medium density fibreboard (MDF). The
platform legs then become 90 by 54mm.


—Two pieces of 5mm acrylic; cut to 90 by 55mm.
—Seven small paper clips.
—A small coin.
—Epoxy resin.


Note: While it is important that the platform is sup-
ported parallel to the tabletop, the dimensions sup-
plied are as a guide only. For example, depending on
materials available, you may wish to construct this test
to a different size, or to a different height above the
tabletop.


Construction
● Refer to the drawing, Fig B–10.
● Use epoxy resin to attach the two 90 by 55mm legs


to the 90 by 100mm platform. (This should result
in a 60mm height of the platform top.)


● Prepare the paper clips by spreading the sides apart
slightly, to leave a small air gap between the sides.


● On the top centre of the platform, glue three paper
clips in the pattern shown as ‘A’. Allow time for the
epoxy to harden.


● Mix another small quantity of epoxy. Glue two paper
clips underneath the platform to form the pattern
‘B’ Allow time for the epoxy to harden.


● Finally, with a fresh epoxy mix, attach the second
platform over the top of the first platform (and the
clips). Glue two paper clips and a small coin to the
top of the second platform, to form the pattern ‘C’


● There should now be three different pattern groups
of paper clips, each separated in height by 5mm.
(Or 6.0mm if using 6.0mm MDF)


Operation
● Place the tool in position on the tabletop.
● Set the fulcrum height to 6.0cm. Set the tomogra-


phy angle to maximum.


● Ensure the X-ray tube is set to the correct FFD.
(Normally 100cm)


● Manually check the tomograph operation, ensuring
the required tube-stand locks are set either ‘on’ or
‘off’ as required.


● Select a low mA position, and a low kV setting.
● Make a test exposure.


i. If the film is too dark, reduce the kV, or, if pos-
sible, select a lower mA station.


ii. If the test results are still overexposed, then
place a piece of paper between one side of
the film, and the intensifying screens of the
cassette.


iii. If necessary, adjust the fulcrum height so the
patterns ‘B’ and ‘C’ show equal blurring, and the
centre pattern ‘A’ is clear.


● Repeat this test at different tomography operation
speeds, and in all modes.


Evaluating the results
● Horizontal shaking or jerking will cause poor reso-


lution of the paper clip perpendicular to the direc-
tion of travel.


● Lateral shaking will cause poor definition of the
centre paper clip.


● If a particular operation mode provides a poor
result, provide a notice warning against use of that
mode until the problem is corrected. See module
8.1 page 127.


● If the fulcrum height requires recalibration, contact
the service department for advice.


● Record the results in the logbook. Retain the films
as part of the service test records.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


176


E
Fig B–10. Tomographic resolution test tool




APPENDIX C


Graphs, check sheets, and
record sheets


APPENDIX C. GRAPHS, CHECK SHEETS, AND RECORD SHEETS


177


S. G.


Temperature C
Fig C–1. Specific gravity / temperature graph




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


178


E


Fig C–2. Characteristic curve chart




APPENDIX C. GRAPHS, CHECK SHEETS, AND RECORD SHEETS


179


Qual ity Control Processing Chart


Fig C–3. Quality control processing chart




X-ray equipment records


Room function Room No


X-ray generator


Manufacturer Model No


Serial No Supplier


Date installed Warranty expires?


Maximum kVp Maximum mA


Generator type: Single phase Three phase Mobile


Inverter/high frequency Portable AEC included?


Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


180


E


Operation Installation Service Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams


X-ray tube


Manufacturer Model No


Serial No Supplier


Date installed Warranty expires?


Maximum kVp KW rating


Focus size: Broad focus Fine focus


High or low speed operation?


Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


Operation Installation Rating charts




X-ray tube suspension
Manufacturer Model No
Serial No Supplier
Date installed Warranty expires?
Mounting Floor/Ceiling Tomography attachment?
Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


APPENDIX C. GRAPHS, CHECK SHEETS, AND RECORD SHEETS


181


Collimator
Manufacturer Model No
Serial No Supplier
Date installed Warranty expires?
Rotating/fixed Light switch, Clockwork/Electronic
Globe type/part No Spare globe supplied?
Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


Table
Manufacturer Model No
Serial No Supplier
Date installed Warranty expires?
Table movements. Fixed Longitudinal Lateral
Elevating Tilting Integral with tube stand
Potter-Bucky, YES/NO Oscillating or fixed grid
Grid ratio Lines Focal range
Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


Operation Installation Service Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams


Operation Installation Parts list


Operation Installation Service Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams




Upright Potter-Bucky


Manufacturer Model No


Serial No Supplier


Date installed Warranty expires?


Grid ratio Lines Focal range Fixed/oscillating


Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


182


E


Operation Installation Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams


Fluoroscopy table


Manufacturer Model No


Serial No Supplier


Date installed Warranty expires?


Table angulation: 90/15 90/30 90/60 90/90


Fluorescent screen? Image intensifier? TV?


Potter-Bucky, YES/NO Oscillating or fixed grid


Grid ratio Lines Focal range


Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


Stationary grids


Manufacturer Supplier Model Serial No Grid Grid Date
ratio Lines Supplied


Operation Installation Service Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams




Film processor


Manufacturer Model No


Serial No Supplier


Date installed Warranty expires?


Processor type: Bench top? Floor mounted?


Daylight loading? Processing time


Manuals supplied. (Include publication number)


APPENDIX C. GRAPHS, CHECK SHEETS, AND RECORD SHEETS


183


Operation Installation Service Circuits/connection Parts list
diagrams




Request for service


Equipment requiring service. Date


Make Model Serial No


Location. Reported by


Service required: Routine maintenance Calibration Repair


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


184


E


In case of an equipment fault or problem, provide a full description of the symptoms.


Describe any tests or adjustments carried out, and the results obtained.


Service request made by Department
Phone No Date Request order No
Service Company Representative
Address


Phone No Fax No
Service Company job No Attendance date
Are any parts or additional service required?


Completion date




Equipment maintenance and
repair log


Room or equipment No


APPENDIX C. GRAPHS, CHECK SHEETS, AND RECORD SHEETS


185


Date Requirement Action Performed Reference
by No




APPENDIX D


Routine maintenance checklist
X-ray generator: Fixed installation


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


186


E


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Power ‘OFF’ Knobs and switches


Function labels


Meter ‘Zero’


Cleanliness.


Power ‘ON’ Indicator lamps.


Digital readouts.


Mains voltage
compensation


X-ray tube Maximum anode load (Broad Focus)
overload (Fine Focus)
protection


Maximum kV


Minimum kV


MA Calibration By mA meter


By mAs meter


By other technique.


Filament pre-heat test.


Radiation With added
consistency preparation time.


With minimum
preparation time.


Radiation linearity At 60~70kV


At 90~100kV


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last routine
maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring further attention.




X-ray generator: Mobile unit


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


187


Unit/Serial No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required.


NA = Does not apply


Power ‘OFF’ Knobs and switches.


Function labels.


Meter ‘Zero’


Cleanliness.


Loose panels or screws.


Vertical suspension
wire rope.


Bearings.


Lubrication.


Manual locks.


Mobile brakes.


HT cables.


Electrical cables.


Plugs, sockets.


Battery water.


Power ‘ON’ Indicator lamps.


Digital readouts.


Mains voltage
compensation.


Electromagnetic locks.


Battery charge indication.


Power assist drive


Anti-crash bumper.


X-ray tube Overload protection. (Broad Focus)


(Fine Focus)


Oil leaks.


Bearing noise.




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


188


E


Collimator Collimator timer.


Collimator scale /
knob alignment.


X-ray to light beam
alignment.


As above, but +/-
90 deg’ rotation.


MA Calibration By mA meter.


By mAs meter.


By other technique. (Refer installation/service manual)


Filament pre-heat test.


Radiation With added preparation
consistency time.


With minimum
preparation time.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




X-ray generator: Capacitor discharge mobile


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


189


Unit/Serial No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required.


NA = Does not apply


Power ‘OFF’ Knobs and switches


Function labels.


Meter ‘Zero’.


Cleanliness.


Loose panels or screws.


Vertical suspension
wire rope.


Bearings.


Lubrication.


Manual locks.


Mobile brakes.


HT cables and cable
ends.


Electrical cables.


Plugs, sockets.


Battery water.


Power ‘ON’ Indicator lamps.


Digital readouts.


Mains voltage (Only some units)
adjustment.


60kV charge.


kV ‘Top-up’.


90kV charge.


Reset, 90kV to 60kV.


Electromagnetic locks.


Battery charge
indication.


Power assist drive


‘Anti-crash’ bumper.




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


190


E


X-ray tube Oil leaks.
Bearing noise.


Collimator Collimator timer.


Collimator scale
alignment.


X-ray to light beam
alignment.


As above, but +/-
90 deg’ rotation.


Collimator ‘Dark
Current’ shutter.


mAs Calibration By kV fall.


By other technique. (Refer installation/service manual)


Radiation Using step-wedge.
consistency


Using water phantom.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring further
attention.




X-ray generator: Portable


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


191


Unit/Serial No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required.


NA = Does not apply


Power ‘OFF’ Knobs and switches.


Function labels.


Meter ‘Zero’


Cleanliness.


Loose panels or screws.


Height adjustment
system.


Bearings.


Lubrication.


Manual locks.


Electrical cables.


Power ‘ON’ Indicator lamps.


Line voltage adj.


X-ray tube head Oil leaks.


Collimator Collimator timer.


Scale accuracy.


X-ray to light
beam alignment.


As above, but +/-
90 deg’ rotation.


MA Calibration By mA meter.


By other technique. (Refer installation/service manual)


Radiation Using step-wedge.
consistency


Using water phantom.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since
last routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




X-ray tube stand


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


192


E


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Mechanical and Suspension wire rope.
electrical inspection.


Vertical movement


Floor ceiling tube
bearings.


stand version Vertical guide rails.


Clean floor track &
check bearings.


Lubrication.


Ceiling rail bearings.


Mechanical and Manual locks.
electrical inspection.


Electromagnetic locks.


All versions of tube Lateral centre; table
stands. Bucky.


Lateral centre; wall
Bucky.


Electrical cables.


HT cables.


Command Arm Trunnion ring rotation
lock.


Indicator lamps and
switches.


Bucky centre light.


Function labels.


Focal spot to Bucky
distance.


Angulation indicator.


Cleanliness.


Other areas for
attention.


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




X-ray tube


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


193


Room No Inspection date Performed by
Tube model No Serial No Tube position, UT OT


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required.


NA = Does not apply


X-ray tube. Rotation in trunnion
rings.


Loose attachments.


Electrical cables.


HT cable earth shield
at cable end.


Loose HT cable ends.


HT cables not stretched
as tube rotated.


Oil leaks.


Bearing noise.


X-ray tube ‘ageing’ Carried out?


Any instability?


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




Over-table collimator


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


194


E


Room No Inspection date Performed by
Collimator globe type No


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


General Electrical cables.
maintenance


Lamp timer.


Light beam intensity.


Spare globe in stock?


Collimator blades
do not slip when
adj’ knob released.


Alignment Crosshair centre.
tests


Bucky centre light.


Collimator field size
scale & knob alignment.


Alignment of light
field to X-ray beam.


As above, collimator
rotated 90 degrees.


As above, collimator
rotated minus 90
degrees.


Other areas for
attention.


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




The Bucky table and vertical Bucky


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


195


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Bucky Table Tabletop movement.


Magnetic locks.


Switches and indicator
lamps.


Lateral centre stop.


Profile rail screws.


Lubrication.


Clean & polish.


Table Bucky Bucky movement.


Bucky lock.


Electrical cables.


Cable support arm.


Lubricate track.


Lost markers?


Tray handle not loose.


Tray cleanliness


Grid oscillation.


Vertical Bucky Lost markers? (Remove
front cover to check).


Electrical cable.


Tray handle not loose.


Tray cleanliness.


Grid oscillation.


Vertical lock.


Clean & lubricate
vertical track.


Rotation or tilt lock.


Other areas for


attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention




Tomography attachment


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


196


E


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Mechanical and Loose or missing
electrical inspection screws.


Connecting cables,
plugs and sockets.


Tube-stand rotation
lock ‘off’.


Bucky lock ‘off’.


Bucky movement.


Coupling arm
bearings & pivot points.


Coupling arm clamp.


Fulcrum height
adjustment.


Compression band


Cleanliness.


Operation test. No slipping.
Tube stand travel


Stop position ok.


No jerking.


Performance test Layer height
calibration.


Image sharpness.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention




Fluoroscopy table


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


197


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Mechanical and Loose panels or fittings.
electrical inspection.


Suspension cables
or chains.


Electrical cables.


Spot filmer movement
from ‘Park’ to ‘Operate’


Image intensifier (Demountable units)
balance.


Image intensifier (Demountable units)
mounting clamp.


Spot filmer radiation
shield.


Lost film markers?


Undertable Bucky. (See 5.1 Bucky Table & Wall Bucky)


Footrest.


Operation test, Locks.
table body.


Switches and indicator
lamps.


Function labels.


Tabletop movement.


Tabletop centre stop.


Table tilt vertical.


Table tilt
Trendelenburg.


Electrical cables not
pulled when table tilts
or spot filmer moves.


Power assistance.


Anti-crash device.


Compression lock
safety release.


Spot filmer vertical
balance.


As above, table vertical




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


198


E


Operation Compression cone
test, spot movement
filmer.


Manual ‘close to film’
shutters. (Basic tables).


Manual cassette
movement. (Basic
tables).


Manual cassette flm
format. (Basic tables).


Motorized cassette.


‘In’ ‘Out’ movement.


Motorized cassette
film format.


X-ray beam Table horizontal. (Test
alignment in ‘four spot’ mode).


As above, table vertical.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check.


Faults or problems requiring further
attention.




Fluoroscopy TV systems


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


199


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Mechanical and II balance when
electrical inspection, dismounted.
Image Intensifier Vertical movement.


Ceiling suspension travel.


Electrical cables.


Knobs and switches


Function labels.


Mechanical and Electrical cables.
electrical inspection, Coaxial cable and
TV system connectors.


Is 75ohm switch in
correct position?


Monitor fastened to
monitor trolley.


Image sharpness Record the value of resolution obtained.


For large field.


For medium field.


For small field.


Automatic Auto kV or mA,
brightness control. with 3.0cm water.


Auto kV or mA,
with 18.0cm water.


Camera control only
with 5.0cm water.


Camera control only.
kV towards 100kV with
5.0cm water.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention




Automatic exposure control


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Drift test, for long Centre chamber
exposure times.


Left chamber


Right chamber


Table Bucky, film Set ~90kV and 18cm Record film Record AEC exposure
density. water. Density. time.


Centre chamber


Left chamber


Right chamber


Record exposure factors.


kV mA Backup time Cassette used


Table Bucky, kV Set ~60kV and 10cm Record film Record AEC exposure
tracking. water. Density. time.


Centre chamber


Left chamber


Right chamber


Record exposure factors used.


kV mA Backup time Cassette used


Table Bucky, short Low mA
time compensation. exposure


High mA
exposure


Record exposure factors used.


kV Low mA High mA AEC exposure time for high mA




APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


201


Wall Bucky, film Set ~90kV and Record film Record AEC exposure
density ~18cm of water Density. time.


Centre chamber


Left chamber


Right chamber


Record exposure factors used.


kV mA Backup time Cassette used Water Phantom


Fluoroscopy Table. Set ~90kV and Record film Record AEC exposure
Spot Filmer AEC 18cm water. Density. time.


Centre chamber


Dual chambers


Other areas
for attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention.




The X-ray room


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E


Room No Inspection date Performed by


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Accessories. Foam wedges


Sandbags


Patient markers


Callipers


Radiation Lead rubber gowns
protection.


Lead rubber aprons
/ patient protection


‘Radiation’ door (Should operate on prep’ as well as expose)
warning light.


Radiation leakage
in operator area.


The room. Lighting.


Ventilation.


Air conditioning.


Sufficient shelves
or storage area.


Patient cubicles.


Tidiness


Cleanliness


General condition (Is this a pleasant area for a patient?)
of wall paint, floor
covering etc.


Other areas for
attention


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention




Automatic film processor


APPENDIX D. ROUTINE MAINTENANCE CHECKLIST


203


Processor No Inspection date Performed by
Developer type Developer temperature Cycle time
Developer replenishment rate Fixer replenishment rate
Water temperature


✓ = Pass
Area ✗ = Fail Attention required


NA = Does not apply


Chemistry Developer temp’


Water temp’


Developer replenish’ rate


Fixer replenishment rate.


Water flow


Chemistry supply Developer specific gravity
tank


Fixer specific gravity


Chemistry appearance


Cleaning Feed tray


Cross over rollers


Deep racks


Foreign matter (algae)


Filters replaced Water (each month)


Developer (6~12 months)


Rack sections, Looseness & geometry
drive systems.


Shaft retainers, gear wear.


Helical gear looseness


Drive motor chain tension


Abnormal noise


Replenishment P/E film detection system
system


Replenisher solenoid valve
function


Replenisher pump function


Circulation pump function




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Dryer Temperature


System check


Plumbing Chemical supply hose leaks


Water supply


General Microswitch (lid in place)
items


Panel fit, light leaks.


Audible warning signal


Problems not corrected since last
routine maintenance check


Faults or problems requiring
further attention




APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


205


APPENDIX E


X-ray equipment operation
Introduction to X-ray equipment operation


PART 1 THE PRODUCTION OF
X-RAYS


Contents


a. The X-ray tube
b. Bremsstrahlung radiation
c. Characteristic radiation
d. X-ray properties
e. Filters
f. Specification of minimum filtration
g. The inverse square law


a.The X-ray tube


The X-ray tube consists of an anode and cathode
inside an evacuated glass envelope. The cathode is a
filament, which when made very hot, emits electrons.
When a high voltage supply is placed between the
cathode and anode, the electrons from the cathode
strike the anode, releasing X-rays. See Fig E–1. There
are two main types of X-ray radiation generated:
Bremsstrahlung (braking radiation) and characteristic
radiation.


Aim


The aim is to provide an overall view of current X-ray
equipment design and operation. This information is
intended to enhance the maintenance and repairs
sections of this workbook, by providing a detailed
examination of equipment operation requirements. In
addition, to provide some of the technical knowledge
required by an electrician, or electronics technician,
assisting in repairing the equipment.


Object


When carrying out routine maintenance, and in
particular, diagnosing incorrect equipment operation,
a good knowledge of how equipment operates is
required.


The material in this appendix is intended both as a
revision of equipment operation, and to provide spe-
cific information of equipment internal operation.This
includes operational sequence of events, and the inter-
nal tests and checks carried out by the equipment.This
is also an introduction to X-ray systems for an electri-
cian or electronics technician, who may be asked to
assist in the event of a problem. The first three parts
have been provided as the background for this
introduction.


Contents


Part 1. Production of X-rays 205
Part 2. The X-ray tube 208
Part 3. High voltage generation 213
Part 4. The X-ray generator control unit 218
Part 5. The high-tension cable 232
Part 6. X-ray collimator 233
Part 7. X-ray tube suspension 235
Part 8. The grid and Potter Bucky 236
Part 9. Tomography 239
Part 10. The fluoroscopy table 240
Part 11. The automatic film processor 243


Fig E–1. The X-ray tube




b. Bremsstrahlung radiation


When an electron passes close to the nucleus of an
anode atom, it is deflected, and its speed or energy
reduced. At the same time, an X-ray photon is pro-
duced, which has an energy level equal to that lost by
the electron. See Fig E–2. Peak X-ray energy, expressed
in ‘electron-volts’ or ‘keV’, occurs only when an elec-
tron strikes the nucleus, giving up all its energy imme-
diately. The electron will continue to pass through the
anode atoms, and produce further X-ray photons.
However, about 99.5% of the electron energy is lost in
generating heat.


d. X-ray properties


X-ray beam quality and quantity depends on three
main factors.


—The kV applied between anode and cathode
—Filtration to remove low energy X-rays.
—The amount of electron emission from the cathode,


which affects quantity only.
—The film focus distance (FFD). Radiation is reduced


by the inverse square law.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E


Fig E–2. Bremsstrahlung radiation


c. Characteristic radiation


This occurs when an incoming electron collides with
an electron in the inner ‘K’ shell.To replace the missing
electron, an electron moves from the ‘L’ shell to the K


Fig E–3. Characteristic radiation


k


k


k k


shell, giving up its energy as an X-ray photon. This has
a predominant energy of 59keV. See Fig E–3.


There are other transitions, notably from the ‘M’
shell to the ‘K’ shell (67.2keV) and ‘N’ shell to the ‘K’
shell (69keV). The above energy levels are specific for
tungsten, and are known as ‘Characteristic radiation’.


Note. To eject an electron from the K shell, the
incoming electron requires energy greater than 70kV,
which is the binding energy of the K shell electron to
the nucleus of a tungsten atom. Below 70kV, radiation
is entirely due to Bremsstrahlung. At 80kV, character-
istic radiation is about 10%, and at 150kV is about
28% of the total usable X-ray beam.


Fig E–4. Illustration of relative kV output, for three values of kV




e. Filters


X-ray photons below ~40keV have little penetrating
power in standard diagnostic X-ray procedures, and
only contribute to unwanted radiation of the patient.
To remove these lower energy X-rays, added filters are
placed in the X-ray beam.The filter material is normally
made of pure aluminium. For special applications
filters made of different materials may be used. These
are called ‘K Edge’ filters. An example of this is an
X-ray tube used in mammography, which may have a
molybdenum filter.


Where it is desired to make most use of low keV
radiation, some collimators have a removable filter.This
has a safety switch, so that if the filter is removed,
X-ray generation is not permitted above a specified
kV level.


f. Specification of minimum filtration


Most countries specify a minimum filtration that will
be used for diagnostic X-ray. The total filtration is the
combination of the X-ray tube glass, the mirror in a
collimator, plus the added filter in the X-ray beam. To
ensure the minimum required filtration is obtained,
tables are provided for measurement purposes.


Typical half value layers are provided in table
E–1. The actual specification may differ in some
countries.


How to measure the half-value layer
● At a specified kV, a radiation meter measures the


radiation from the X-ray tube. Added aluminium
filtration is placed in the beam. The amount of
aluminium to reduce the beam by 50% is called the
half-value layer.


● Referring to table E–1,at 100kV, this should require
at least 2.7mm of aluminium.


● If the specified value of aluminium reduces radia-
tion by more than 50%, total filtration is insuffi-
cient, so more permanent aluminium must be
placed in the X-ray beam.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


207


Table E–1. Minimum half value layer, at
different kV levels


X-ray tube voltage Minimum permissible first
(kV) HALF-VALUE LAYER (mm Al)


50 1.5


60 1.8


70 2.1


80 2.3


90 2.5


100 2.7


110 3.0


120 3.2


130 3.5


140 3.8


150 4.1


Fig E–5. Illustration of the inverse square law


g.The inverse square law


The quantity of X-rays available for a given area
depends on the distance from the X-ray tube. For a
given distance, the X-ray beam may cover an area of
10 ¥ 10cm. If we double the distance the same beam
will now cover an area of 20 ¥ 20cm, in other words,
four times the previous area. However, the radiation
available for each 10 ¥ 10cm section is now only one
quarter its previous value. See Fig E–5.




PART 2 THE X-RAY TUBE


Contents


a. The stationary anode X-ray tube
b. The rotating anode X-ray tube
c. The X-ray tube housing
d. The X-ray tube focal spot
e. Anode angle
f. Maximum anode heat input
g. Anode rotation speeds
h. Effect of rotation speed on output
i. Anode heat and cooling time
j. The X-ray tube filament
k. Filament focus
l. Grid controlled X-ray tube


a.The stationary anode X-ray tube


This is usually found in portable X-ray generators, or in
dental units. The anode is a small insert of tungsten,
inside a large copper support. The copper is to help
adsorb the heat produced.As a general rule focal spots
are larger than for the rotating anode type, as the heat
produced is in a very small area.


b.The rotating anode X-ray tube


By rotating the anode, the heat produced is spread
around a wide area. This allows time for heat to be
absorbed into the body of the anode.As a result, much
smaller focal spots may be used, together with an
increase in output.


Rotation is achieved by attaching a copper cylinder
to the anode. This forms the ‘rotor’ of an induction


motor. Special ball bearings are required, designed to
withstand the heat from the anode. A stator winding
is placed over the anode end of the X-ray tube, to form
the energising section of the motor. See Fig E–7.


c.The X-ray tube housing


The housing is lead lined, so that radiation only exits
via the port in front of the focal spot. This port is
usually a truncated plastic cone, extending from the
surface of the housing close to the X-ray tube glass.
This reduces the absorption of X-rays due to the oil.
Oil provides the required high voltage insulation, and
serves to conduct the heat from the anode and stator
winding to the outside surface. A bellows is provided
to allow the oil to expand as it becomes hot.A thermal
safety switch is fitted to ensure protection against
excessive housing heat. In some cases, this may be a
micro switch, operated when the bellows expands
beyond its operating limit. See Fig E–9.


d.The X-ray tube focal spot


By focussing a vertical beam of electrons, onto the
anode, which has a specific angle, an effective small
area of X-rays results.This is known as the ‘focal spot’,
and the method of generation as the ‘line focus
principle’.


As indicated in Fig E–10, this effective focal spot
becomes enlarged as the useful beam is projected
towards the cathode end of the X-ray tube. While the
spot will become smaller towards the anode side, a
point is reached where X-ray generation rapidly
becomes less. This is known as the ‘heel effect’. See
Fig E–11.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


208


E
Fig E–7. Anode and motor for a rotating anode X-ray tube




e. Anode angle


The wider the anode angle, the greater will be the film
coverage at a specific distance. However, to maintain
the same focal spot size, the length ‘L’ of the electron
beam must be reduced. This results in a smaller area
to dissipate the immediate heat, so the maximum
output of the tube has to be reduced. See Fig E–10.


A common angle for an over-table tube is 128. An
under-table tube in a fluoroscopy table may have an
angle of 168.With a 128 angle, radiation may cover a
35 ¥ 35cm film at a FFD of 100cm, while a 168 angle


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


209


Fig E–9. The X-ray tube and housing


Fig E–10. Formation of the focal spot


Fig E–11. Relative radiation output for two
anode angles




would cover the same film at a distance of 65cm.
Fig E–11 indicates the relative radiation output for
two common anode angles. The rapid fall off to the
anode side is due to heel affect.


f. Maximum anode heat input


The maximum heat input for the X-ray tube anode is
determined by:


● The anode material.
● Anode rotation speed.
● Anode diameter.
● Focal spot size.
● The kV waveform. (Single-phase, or three-phase)


An X-ray tube anode load capacity is rated as the
number of kilowatts for an exposure time of 0.1
second. This is calculated from the rating chart for a
specified mode of operation.For example, In Fig E–11a,
the product of mA and kV at 0.1 second is 38kW.


g. Anode rotation speeds


There are two anode rotation speeds in use, low speed
and high speed.These depend on the power main supply
frequency. High speed was originally obtained from
static frequency-triplers, which generate the third har-
monic of the mains frequency.Later high-speed systems
use solid-state inverters, so high speed is now usually at
the higher 10800 frequency,even with a 50Hz supply.


With the simple form of induction motor used to
rotate the anode, there will always be some slip, so the
anode does not reach the full possible speed. The
nominal speed that may be reached is indicated in
brackets in table E–2.


h. Effect of rotation speed on output


High-speed operation is of maximum benefit for short
exposure times. (The generator should also sufficient
output, to take advantage of high-speed anode rota-
tion.) In Fig E–12b two load lines are indicated, one
for high-speed, and one for low-speed operation.While
this example is for 100Kv operation, a similar result is
obtained for other load factors.


i. Anode heat and cooling time


A stationary anode X-ray tube can have the copper
section of the anode extended outside the glass
container, and into the oil. This allows direct con-
duction of anode heat. This is not possible for a
rotating anode, and heat is dissipated by direct
radiation from the anode disk. Depending on anode
diameter and thickness, this can take a long time
time.


A typical cooling chart is provided in Fig E–13, and
the formulas for calculation of the heat unit provided
in table E–3.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Fig E–12a. A typical anode-rating chart


Table E–2. Common anode speeds.The
speed shown in brackets is the actual
obtained speed, versus the theoretical
maximum speed


Frequency Low (Low High (High
speed speed) speed speed)


50Hz 3000 (~2850) 9000 (~8700)


60Hz 3600 (~3450) 10800 (~10500)




j.The X-ray tube filament


To emit electrons, the filament must be brought to a
white heat temperature.As the temperature increases,
a point is reached where, despite further increases in
temperature, only a small increase in emission results.
In this area tungsten evaporation also increases,
greatly reducing the filament life. This determines


the maximum usable emission from the filament.
Fig E–14 indicates the non-linear characteristic of the
filament.


When the kV is increased, electron emission from
the filament to the anode also increases. This is com-
monly known as the ‘Space charge’ effect. As an
example, Fig–14 shows the change of mA that can
take place as kV is increased. In this example, with a


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


211


Fig E–12b. High-speed operation allows an increased anode load


Fig E–13. A typical chart to indicate the rise in anode heat versus the cooling time


Table E–3. Formulas used for anode heat-unit calculation


kV waveform Per exposure Continuous


Single phase, full wave operation. HU = kV ¥ mA ¥ s HU/s = kV ¥ mA


Three phase, full wave operation. HU = kV ¥ mA ¥ s ¥ 1.35 HU/s = kV ¥ mA ¥ 1.35


Medium or high frequency inverter. HU = kV ¥ mA ¥ s ¥ 1.35 HU/s = kV ¥ mA ¥ 1.35




filament current of 5.0A, at 40kV the emission is
160mA, and increases to 325mA at 80kV.To keep mA
constant, as kV is changed, the generator control
must change the filament current.This is called ‘space
charge compensation’.


k. Filament focus


To enable a tight beam of electrons to the anode, the
filament is placed inside a ‘focus cup’. The focus cup
is connected directly to the common centre point of
the cathode.


Normally the two filaments are placed side by side,
and angled, so to strike the same anode position.Some
designs instead have the filaments placed end. This
allows formation of two separate tracks on the anode.
These tracks can have separate angles to suit the
required application. There is, however, a problem with
two separate tracks, as exact alignment of the colli-
mator to both tracks is not possible.


l. Grid controlled X-ray tube


In this design, the focus cup is brought out to a
separate connection. By applying a strong negative
voltage between the focus cup and the filament,
electron emission is suppressed.


With this change of connection, the cathode cup is
now referred to as a ‘grid’. Grid control allows control
of the X-ray exposure, while high voltage is continu-
ously applied between anode and cathode. In opera-
tion, the grid is kept negative with respect to the
filament, until an exposure is required. During an expo-
sure, the negative voltage is removed, permitting
emission from the filament.To terminate the exposure
the grid is again made negative in respect to the
filament.


Grid control may be used where rapid precise expo-
sures are required, such as in special procedure rooms.
However the most common use of grid control is in
capacitor discharge mobiles.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


212


E


Fig E–14. A typical filament emission chart


Fig E–15. Two versions of filament design for
the cathode




PART 3 HIGH VOLTAGE
GENERATION


Contents


a. Single-phase, self rectified
b. Single-phase, full-wave rectified
c. Three-phase generators
d. Three-phase ‘Six Pulse’ generator
e. Three-phase ‘Twelve Pulse’ generator
f. The ‘Constant potential’ generator
g. High-frequency generators
h. The capacitor discharge (CD) mobile


The high-tension winding is ‘centre tapped’, so that
both anode and cathode have equal voltage applied
above ground potential.


Single phase self rectified systems are normally
found in small portable X-ray generators, or may be
used in dental units. Efficiency is low, and long expo-
sure times will be required.


b. Single-phase, full-wave rectified


Full wave rectification results in both half cycles of the
ac voltage used for X-ray production. There is no
danger of back-fire, as no negative voltage is applied
to the anode. Much higher output is now available. Full
wave rectification is used on systems ranging from
portable, dental, mobile, and up to heavy duty fixed
installations. While self rectified generators may have
a maximum output of 10~15mA, full wave rectified
units have been produced with up to 800mA output.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


213


Fig E–17. Single-phase self-rectified
generator


a. Single-phase, self rectified


The X-ray tube can also be considered as a rectifier, in
that electrons emitted from the cathode filament
travel to the positive anode. If the anode is negative
in respect to the cathode, no electron flow occurs.


However, in case the anode is very hot, electron
emission can also occur from the anode, in which case
electron flow can exist from the anode to the cathode.
This is called ‘back-fire’, and would damage the fila-
ment.To prevent this, an external diode and resistor is
fitted to the primary of the HT transformer.The effect
is to greatly reduce the available high voltage on the
negative half cycle. This is called ‘inverse suppression’.


Fig E–18. Single-phase full-wave generator


The high-tension winding is centre tapped, with the
centre position connected to ground. This ensures
anode and cathode voltages are equally balanced
above ground potential.


As the current in the transformer winding is AC, an
additional rectifier is required for the mA meter (nor-
mally mounted on the control front panel). Exposure
times are in multiples of the power main supply fre-
quency. For a 50Hz supply, exposure time calculation
is simple. See table E–4.


With a 60Hz supply, each pulse is 8.3 milliseconds
wide. So some generators may indicate exposure times
below 0.1 second as a number of pulses, rather than
a set time.




c.Three-phase generators


By operating with three-phase power supply, several
advantages occur:


● The peak power demand per phase is reduced, with
the input power equally shared between all three
phases.


● Rather than pulsed high voltage, the X-ray tube now
has continuous voltage supplied, so radiation for a
given kV and mA is considerably greater.This results
in shorter exposure times for a given setting, while
the radiation absorbed by the patient is also
reduced.


● Shorter exposure times, down to 0.003 seconds, are
available. Exposure time calculation for 60HZ is
more accurate.


● The X-ray tube has higher anode load capacity for
short exposure times, although for long exposure
times this will be less.


● Three phase generators have typical outputs of
500mA up to ~1200mA.


d.Three-phase ‘Six Pulse’ generator


This system uses an identical style of winding for both
the anode and cathode side. The windings may be
configured ‘star’ or ‘delta’. The system obtains its
name due to the six joined together pulses that are
generated each cycle. The ‘ripple factor’ for six-pulse
is ~13%.


In the example shown below, the secondary wind-
ings are both delta configuration.The two isolated sets
of windings and rectifier systems allow independent
voltage supply to both anode and cathode. By con-
necting the common centre point to ground, both
anode and cathode are equally balanced above
ground.


See Fig E–19.


e.Three-phase ‘Twelve Pulse’ generator


With the twelve-pulse generator, one winding is con-
figured delta, and the other star. The voltage peaks
between these two windings have a 30 degree phase-
shift, so that a peak of the rectified output from the
delta winding will coincide with a trough from the star
rectified output. This result in twelve joined together
pulses for each cycle.


The overall ripple-factor is considerably improved, to
a possible 3.5%. This improved ripple factor allows
higher effective radiation output for a set kV, com-
pared to six-pulse generators. With special exposure
contactor systems, exposure times down to 0.001
seconds have been achieved. Conventional exposure
contactors however, have the same exposure time
limitations of the six-pulse systems.


See Fig E–20.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


214


E


Table E–4. Indication of exposure time for a single-phase, 50 Hz generator


50Hz supply 10 milliseconds 0.01 second 0.05 second 0.2 second
for each ‘pulse’ exposure = 1 pulse. exposure = 5 pulses exposure = 20 pulses


Fig E–19. Three-phase, six-pulse generator




f.The ‘Constant potential’ generator


With this generator, there is NO ripple factor, and the
voltage applied to the X-ray tube is pure DC.To achieve
this, the output of a conventional six-pulse generator
is smoothed by high voltage capacitors. The high
voltage is then passed through a pair of high voltage
tetrode valves.These serve to control the exposure, and
regulate the actual high voltage supplied to the X-ray
tube.


To achieve good regulation, the high voltage
obtained from the generator is set about 50kV higher
than actually required. During the exposure, the
tetrodes control the voltage at the required level to
the X-ray tube. Constant-voltage generators were
used for special procedure rooms,and CT scanners.The
construction and maintenance of these systems is
expensive. They have been largely replaced by high-
frequency inverter systems. However, they are still in
use for providing a very accurate X-ray calibration
standard.


g. High-frequency generators


These are sometimes known as ‘medium frequency’
generators, depending on the maximum frequency of
the inverter.


Generally, if maximum frequency is below ~20kHz,
the generator is called ‘medium frequency’. Current
high-frequency generators can operate up to 100kHz,
although most systems will operate below 50kHz.


Inside the high-frequency generator, the AC mains
power is rectified, and smoothed by a large value
capacitor, to become a DC voltage supply.The ‘inverter’
converts the DC voltage back into a high-frequency AC


voltage.This in turn is fed into the primary winding, of
the high-tension transformer.


High-frequency generators have many advantages
over conventional generators, operating at 50 or 60Hz
power main frequency.


● The high-tension transformer now uses ferrite
instead of an iron core, with an increase in
efficiency.


● The required inductance of the transformer winding
is reduced, resulting in a big drop of copper resis-
tive loss, again improving efficiency.


● Transformer manufacturing costs are reduced.
● High-voltage output is tightly regulated, so normal


changes in power main voltages have no affect on
the exposure.


● The high-voltage waveform is similar to between an
ideal six-pulse to twelve-pulse generator for a
medium-frequency system. A high-frequency gener-
ator waveform has less ripple, in many cases less
than 2%. However, final ripple depends on other
design considerations.


● High-voltage production is highly consistent, with
little variation in residual kV ripple. (Unlike three
phase systems, this can suffer distortion of the kV
waveform.)


● Used in a mobile system, the inverter may operate
directly from storage batteries, or else from large
capacitors charged via the power point. In both
these cases, kV waveform remains similar to large
fixed installations.


● While earlier medium frequency systems had high
development costs, present high-frequency sys-
tems are more cost effective than conventional
generators.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


215


Fig E–20. Three-phase twelve-pulse generator




● On initial power up, a resistor limits the charging
current of the capacitors. This is necessary, as
otherwise with the capacitors discharged; it would
be equivalent to placing a short circuit on the
output of the rectifiers.


● After the capacitors are charged, another contac-
tor shorts out the resistors.The system is now ready
for operation.


● The energy stored in the capacitors supplies the
high peak current required by the inverter.


● The inverter illustrated is an SCR ‘bridge’ inverter.
The output of this inverter is coupled via a resonant
circuit to the primary of the HT transformer,


● The capacitor ‘C’, and the inductance ‘L’, together
with the inductance of the transformer winding
form a series resonant tuned circuit. The resonant
circuit has two functions.
—As the pulse rate of the inverter increases towards


resonance, the energy each pulse produces in the
HT transformer secondary also increases. This
allows a very wide range of control.


—The resonant circuit has a ‘flywheel affect’, so
that on the reverse half cycle, the back EMF atte-
mpts to reverse the current in the pair of SCRs
that produced the initial pulse. This causes that
pair to switch off. (The other pair will produce the
next pulse, but this time in the opposite direction)


● The high-tension transformer is operated similar to
a single-phase generator, with two exceptions.
—For medium-frequency generators, added capac-


itors to provide waveform smoothing. For many
high-frequency generators however, the inherent
capacitance of the HT cables provides the
required smoothing, without added capacitors.


—A built in resistive voltage divider provides meas-
urement of the high voltage during the exposure.
This measurement is compared to a reference
voltage equivalent to that for the required kV.
If there is any difference, the inverter control
circuit changes the pulse rate to correct the
error. This is called ‘closed loop’ or ‘feedback’
regulation.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Fig E–21a. Diagram to illustrate the principle of a high-frequency generator


Fig E–21b. Two versions of high voltage generation, used with a high-frequency system




h.The capacitor discharge (CD) mobile


The capacitor-discharge or ‘CD’ generator obtains high
voltage for an exposure directly from a pair of capac-
itors. These are charged to the required kV before
making an exposure. As the kV for an exposure is
applied to the X-ray tube prior to an exposure, a ‘grid
controlled’ X-ray tube is fitted. A negative voltage
applied between the ‘grid’, or focus-cup, and the fila-
ment. This prevents an exposure until the negative
voltage is removed.


Although there is a slow capacitor charging time,
the capacitor can rapidly discharge through the X-ray
tube,with peak mA currents up to 500mA.Actual peak
mA depends on the X-ray tube used, not the capacitor
system. During an exposure, the charge on the capac-
itor drops by 1kV per mAs.


Operation
● The high voltage capacitors are charged prior to


preparation for an exposure. This may take up to a
minute depending on the kV setting required. A
resistor in series with the transformer primary limits
the charging current, allowing operation from a
standard power point.


● The CD mobile has two capacitors, connected in
series,with the common point connected to ground.
This ensures the high-voltage to anode and cathode
of the X-ray tube is equally balanced above ground
potential. The capacitors are usually each of two
microfarads capacity, and as they are connected in
series, make up a total value of one microfarad.


● The transformer secondary and rectifiers are con-
nected to the capacitors to form a ‘voltage doubler’.
On the positive half cycle D1 conducts, charging C1.
On the negative half cycle, conduction is via D2,
charging C2.The charge on C1 and C2 add together
to produce the total kV available for an exposure.
See Fig E–22.


● The resistors R1 and R2 provide a voltage meas-
urement for the charging circuit, and for the kV
meter.


● At the start of an exposure, the mAs timer operates
a high voltage relay. This removes the negative
voltage applied between grid and cathode. At end
of the exposure, the relay stops operating, and
the negative voltage is once more applied to the
grid.


● Once the capacitors are charged to the required kV,
the charge will slowly drop, partly due to the con-
duction of the kV measurement resistors, and partly
due to a small ‘dark current’ current of the X-ray


tube. (This term is used to describe conduction with
a cold cathode filament.) As a result, when the kV
drops a small amount, the charging circuit will
again operate,‘topping up’ the charge on the capac-
itors.Topping up is disabled during an exposure, and
recharging occurs only after the charge button is
again pressed.


● Due to dark-current, a very small emission of X-rays
will be produced once the capacitors are charged.
To prevent external radiation, the collimator is fitted
with a motor or solenoid operated lead shutter.This
shutter blocks all radiation, and is only opened just
prior to a radiographic exposure, or at start of
preparation for an exposure. Sometimes after
charging the capacitors, a reset to a lower kV may
be required. This is performed by a low mA expo-
sure. During this time, the collimator lead shutter
remains closed.


● The CD mobile on preparation will operate anode
rotation and filament boost as for a standard
generator. The filament however does not have
pre-heating, as this would increase leakage current
through the X-ray tube during standby.


● Control by time and mA selection is not practical,
as the starting mA depends on kV selected, and falls
during the exposure as kV drops. For this reason
direct measurement of mA to operate a mAs timer
is required.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


217


Fig E–22. The capacitor discharge generator




Relation between kV and mAs
As sown in Fig E–23, a 30mAs exposure will cause the
kV to reduce by 30kV.As the quantity of radiation from
an X-ray tube is controlled as much by kV as mAs, large
mAs exposures are not practical. For example, if the
above example were for 40mAs, the last 10mAs of the
exposure would be from 60 to 50kV, and have little
effect.


PART 4 THE X-RAY GENERATOR
CONTROL UNIT


Contents


a. X-ray control functions
b. High-voltage control and load compensation
c. mA control
d. X-ray radiographic timer
e. Automatic exposure control (AEC)
f. Fluoroscopy timers
g. Exposure contactors
h. X-ray tube anode rotation
i. X-ray tube load calculation
j. Operation sequence control
k. Fault detection and safety systems


a. X-ray control functions


The X-ray control provides the following
functions for radiography
● Radiographic kV selection.
● High-voltage load compensation. (For different mA


outputs)
● Mains-voltage regulation. (May not be required for


most high-frequency generators.)
● X-ray tube filament heating and space-charge com-


pensation for each X-ray tube focal spot, and mA
station selection.


● Selection of required mA output.
● Selection of X-ray tube focal spot. In some systems,


this is automatically linked to the required mA
position.


● Exposure timer. For single and three phase systems,
the timer must be synchronized to the mains power
supply.


● Exposure contactor, to connect the HT generator to
the preselected primary voltage.


● Anode rotation control (or starter). Some systems
allow for operator selection of low or high speed.


● X-ray tube safety calculation. Basic requirement is
anode load and maximum kV. Calculations may also
include maximum filament heating, stored heat
in the anode, and a safety factor for multiple
exposures.


● Technique selection of external equipment. Eg, table
Bucky, vertical Bucky, tomography, etc.


● Operation sequence timing and control. Eg, after
the preparation time delay, X-ray exposure request
is sent to the Bucky; signal returned from the Bucky
starts the exposure.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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Fig E–23. Relation between kV and mAs, CD
mobile




● Safety provision for operator error, radiation ‘ON’
warning light etc.


● System fault detection, both prior or during an X-
ray exposure.


The following additional functions are
provided for fluoroscopy
● Fluoroscopy kV selection
● Automatic fluoroscopy-kV control. (May be an


option)
● Fluoroscopy mA control. Depending on the design,


this may be not available for the operator. Instead
the level of mA may be controlled directly by the
fluoroscopy kV selection.


● Fluoroscopy exposure timer. Depending on system
design, this may either stop exposures, or just sound
an alarm; after a maximum accumulated time (nor-
mally five minutes) has expired.


The control may have these optional features
● Automatic exposure control, or ‘AEC’. Often known


as ‘photo timer’, and sometimes by the Siemens
title of ‘Iontomat’ or Philips title of ‘Amplimat’. The
AEC measures the quantity of radiation as it enters
a cassette.This measurement is used to control the
exposure time.


● Anatomical programmed radiography or ‘APR’. APR
is a system of preset exposures, depending on the
area of the body to be examined. Current systems,
with microprocessor controls, allow a high degree


of flexibility, and may be treated as a pre-
programmed exposure memory system.


b. High-voltage control and load compensation


Adjustment of high voltage for conventional systems is
by preselection of the primary voltage. This voltage is
sent to the primary of the high-tension transformer,
when an exposure is made.This preselection of primary
voltage must allow for voltage drop in the generator
transformer, as well as the power mains voltage falling
when under load. As we change the selection of mA,
this also changes the amount of voltage drop that will
occur.To compensate, as we increase the mA selection,
so we must also increase the primary voltage to keep
the previous kV selected correct.


Fig E–24 illustrates the relation between kV, mA,
and primary-voltage for a single-phase 400mA gener-
ator. Example: If 80kV at 200mA were required, the
voltage for this exposure would be preset at 114V.
However, if 400mA were required instead, then the
voltage would be increased to 134V.


● In the example shown in Fig E–25,a simple method is
shown to achieve load compensation.This method may
be used for a portable,or mobile,X-ray generator.


● A line voltage adjustment switch allows compensa-
tion for different input voltages. The switch is
adjusted until the voltmeter is on a calibration
mark. If the meter is not set to this mark, than kV
will not be correct.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


219


Fig E–24. Load compensation requirement as mA is changed. If 80kV is required, then primary
voltage should be 114V for 200mA, or 134V for 400mA




● The kV selection switch is set to the required
kV.


● On selection of the required mA position, a section
of the mA selector switch selects the required load
compensation voltage.


● This method may be also used for larger fixed instal-
lations. More complex compensation is then applied
to allow for mains supply impedance etc.


Another method is to indicate the preselected primary
voltage on a voltmeter directly calibrated in kV. These
systems often have two kV selection switches, one for
coarse settings of about 10kV, and the other for fine
settings of 1kV. (Although a large multi-step switch
may be used instead.)


On selection of a different mA station, the meter
will either increase or decrease its indicated kV,
depending on the change of mA. By resetting the kV
selection switches so the meter again reads the re-
quired kV, load compensation is achieved.


A similar method to the above is a scale calibrated
in kV, and a pointer moved by the kV selection knob.
On selection of each mA station, a different kV scale
is brought into view on the control panel. (The mA
selection switch also selects the required load com-
pensation, as shown in Fig E–25.)


Many X-ray controls, especially three phase versions,
have motorized ‘servo’ controlled selection of kV, and
automatic line voltage compensation. These often use
graphite rollers moving along a ‘step-less’ transformer
winding. (Eg, the roller passes along individual turns on
the outside of the transformer, making direct contact
with each turn as it moves.)


Servo systems measure the voltage as the rollers
pass along the transformer, and compare the voltage
obtained to a required value.This value is the required


kV to be generated, plus an additional voltage for load
compensation. For automatic line voltage regulation,
the obtained voltage is simply compared to a fixed
reference voltage. In both cases, when the required
voltage is obtained the servo motor is stopped. On
preparation or on making an exposure, these motors
are locked out to prevent movement when the mains
supply voltage drops.


High frequency generators control kV by comparing
directly the actual kV across the X-ray tube with a ref-
erence voltage set by the required kV. For example, if
the operator selected 80kV, the reference voltage may
be 8V. On start of the X-ray exposure, the voltage at
first on the X-ray tube will be 0kV. Very rapidly, it will
approach 80kV, at which point the measured voltage
from the generator will match the reference voltage
of 8V. However, as the required kV becomes close to
80kV, the inverter will reduce its output, so that as
80kV is actually reached, inverter output is regulated
to maintain 80kV precisely.


High-frequency generators are not affected by
mains supply voltage drop during an exposure, due to
the self-regulating closed-loop mode of operation.
However, some systems do require automatic mains
voltage regulation, as well as correct mA calibration,
to ensure kV generated at the start of the exposure is
correct, and does not ‘overshoot’.


Fluoroscopy control by comparison to radiographic
control is much simpler, as no load compensation is
required. On older systems this may be via a switch
selecting 10kV steps, or by a sliding contact on a
circular ‘step-less’ transformer (sometimes called a
‘variac’).


Some generators may employ electronic control of
kV, using the properties of the SCR radiographic con-


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


220


E


Fig E–25. High-voltage selection, and load compensation, for a portable X-ray generator




tactor. By this method the effective voltage to the
transformer primary is controlled by changing the
timing pulses to the SCR contactor. In effect this is a
high power version of a lamp dimmer.


With high-frequency systems, control is similar to
radiographic output; however in some systems the
resonant frequency of the inverter system may be
raised, to reduce audible noise.


Automatic fluoroscopic kV may be obtained by
having a motor drive or else by direct control of
the SCR or inverter as previously mentioned. The
control signal may come directly from a TV camera,
or else via a photomultiplier sampling the light
directed to the TV camera. Automatic fluoroscopic
kV control is used to optimise the light level into the
camera, as well as avoiding excessive radiation to the
patient.


c. mA control


The control of X-ray tube emission, expressed in mil-
liamperes or ‘mA’ requires consideration of several
factors. In particular, the level of filament heating to
obtain the required emission, and the affect of gener-
ated kV on actual emission.


The following requirements need to be considered.


● Filament current to obtain the required mA emis-
sion level.


● Modify the filament current as the set kV, before
an exposure, is selected. This is to ensure emission
is constant over the range of available kV, and
is called ‘space charge’ compensation. See Fig
E–27.


● Provide a level of ‘pre heating’ so the filament will
quickly reach the required temperature during radi-
ographic preparation.The filament may be preset to
half the radiographic current in stand-by mode, or
in some systems, adjusted to the point where emis-
sion would just occur. (~1.0mA) Additional boost
may be applied for quick heating during prepara-
tion. This is called ‘flash’ boost. However, some
systems only provide pre-heating for a fluoroscopy
tube, and rely on longer preparation time for the
over-table tube. See Fig E–28.


● The power supply for filament heating must be well
regulated, so that a drop in power mains voltage
does not affect heating level. Earlier systems used
a ‘Constant voltage’ or ‘Ferro resonant’ transformer
for this purpose. Later systems use electronic regu-
lation, which precisely measures and controls the
current through the filament. This is done by
monitoring either the current through the filament


transformer primary winding, (constant current),
or the voltage across the same winding, (constant
voltage).


● Provide protection so the filament is not over-
heated. On earlier generators, no protection was
provided. Later systems included protection in X-ray
tube overload calculation. Present microprocessor
controlled systems can have elaborate protection
circuits.


● The mA control has a safety system to prevent
an exposure, in case filament heating is incorrect.
For example, if the filament has become discon-
nected due to a faulty high-tension cable, or in
case the filament is broken. In this case, there
would be no load on the high-tension transformer,
and the generated kV could become dangerously
high.


● Compensation for drop in mA output during expo-
sure may be provided. As electrons are attracted
away from the filament, the filament temperature
falls a small amount. This effect is more noticed as
the filament reaches the non-linear section of its
operation. Many systems now provide feedback or
closed-loop compensation for this effect. By sam-
pling the mA generated during an exposure, com-
paring it to a reference level set for each mA
station, a correction factor is applied to filament
heating. Some microprocessor systems use this
technique to automatically re-calibrate the filament
control, by memorizing the final required value of
filament heating.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


221


Fig E–26. Comparison of filament heating
time.With and without pre-heat




The circuit in Fig E–28 has the following points of
interest.


● The switches S1 and S2 are coupled together.
● S1 selects the calibration resistor for filament


heating and the change over from fine-focus to
broad-focus.


● S2 selects the degree of correction voltage for
space-charge compensation. Although not shown,
the primary of this transformer is connected so
as to reduce filament heating above 70kV, and
increase filament heating below 70kV.Taps are pro-
vided to select the correct amount of compensa-
tion for each mA position.


● The resistor RP provides reduced current through
the filament transformers for pre-heating. On
preparation, the contact of relay RP shorts out
resistor RP, providing full radiographic heating.


● The relay and contact marked ‘OK’ is for filament
safety. This relay is a current operated version, and
if the filament is broken, or has a bad connection,
the relay does not operate.This prevents the control
entering the ‘ready for exposure’ mode.


● The two filament transformers, broad and fine
focus, are mounted inside the high-tension genera-
tor tank.


Filament control systems have had considerable devel-
opment since the basic method described in Fig E–28.
The heavy-duty resistors were replaced with transis-
tors, and the constant-voltage transformer is no longer
required.


● Further development saw the use of highly regu-
lated DC power supplies and a low frequency
‘square wave’ inverter powering the filament trans-


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


222


E


Fig E–27. These two graphs illustrate the need to modify filament heating, as kV is changed


Fig E–28. A basic filament control system




formers. Such systems monitor either the current
through the transformer primary or the voltage
across the primary winding. This is compared to a
reference voltage for each mA station, and in turn
regulates the DC voltage supply to the inverter.
Electronic generation of the space-charge com-
pensation allowed an optimum kV relation to be
generated.Calibration is usually carried out by small
preset potentiometers and in some cases by direct
output from a microprocessor. In this case the
control voltages are obtained via a digital to ana-
logue (D/A) converter.


● Current systems now tend to use high-frequency
inverters, where the operation mode of the inverter
itself is controlled to provide the required filament
heating.This eliminates the need for a regulated DC
supply to the inverter. Control is often via a micro-
processor, again using a D/A converter. Filament cal-
ibration may be performed manually, by entering
calibration settings at designated mA and kV posi-
tions. Some microprocessor controls also feature
automatic calibration when in a service mode. In
this mode the control automatically steps through
a series of test exposures, and stores in memory the
required data. This feature depends on the design
philosophy of the manufacturer.


d. X-ray radiographic timer


The X-ray timer has several functions
● Accurate timed exposures.
● Synchronize start and stop of exposure to mains


supply frequency, so the start of the exposure is
achieved at ‘zero crossing’ of the AC power wave-
form. (Not required for high-frequency systems.)


● For three-phase systems, provide timing signals so
each of the three phases will be connected at the
correct phase interval. (Not required for inverter
systems.)


● For single and three-phase systems,provide a ‘phase
memory’, this is required for exposures that are
uneven multiples of the power mains frequency. Eg,
as an example 0.03, 0.05, 0.07 seconds. (Other
systems may instead use two-stage power switch-
ing via a damping resistor, or else pre-magnetize
the transformer iron-core by a DC current prior to
exposure.)


● Supply the preset exposure time to the X-ray tube
load calculation.


● Provide time settings for a safety ‘backup’ timer.
This timer is normally a separate system, set to a
little longer time than the exposure timer. If the
generator is still producing high voltage after the


backup time, the safety system stops the exposure
by operating a safety contactor.


Timers with thyratron valves
● These are only on quite old systems, however, many


are still in use.
● The thyratron valve may look like an ordinary valve,


in that it has a cathode, control grids, and anode.
The electrical symbol is also similar, except for a
round dot indicating it is gas filled.


● The thyratron may be considered an electron relay,
as conduction does not commence until a negative
grid voltage is reduced below a specified level. In
which case full conduction occurs, and remains
conducting until the voltage between anode and
cathode is removed or reverses itself. Conduction
current is high, and enables the thyratron to directly
operate relay coils, and in some cases, large
contactors.


● In a thyratron timer, a capacitor is pre-charged to
a high negative voltage. The time selector switch,
via the exposure start relay, places a selected resis-
tor across this capacitor, which starts to discharge.
The time of discharge is controlled by the resistor
value. When the negative voltage drops to the
required value, the thyratron fires, and operates a
relay to end the exposure.


● Thyratron timers have at least one adjustment to
control calibration of exposure times. For example,
to adjust the timing-capacitor charge voltage.
There may be other adjustments, to adjust the
pull in or drop out times of the exposure contac-
tors. This ensures start and finish of an exposure
is at zero crossing of the primary voltage. (If not
correct, severe arcing of the contactor may
occur.)


‘Solid state’ analogue timers
● The thyratron timer is an early version of an ana-


logue timer. In the solid-state version, a capacitor
is charged at a pre-determined rate, until the
capacitor voltage reaches the level of a comparison
voltage.


● The rate of charge of the capacitor is determined
by the resistor value selected by the timer switch.
Once the capacitor is charged to the comparison
voltage, the timer removes the enable signal to the
exposure contactor. In this case, this contactor is
most often a ‘silicon controlled rectifier’ (SCR)
system, however it might be a mechanical contac-
tor in older systems.


● These timers usually have two adjustments. One
adjustment is for the reference voltage, which acts


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


223




a calibration for long times. Another adjustment,
not always fitted, is in series with the timer switch
resistors, and adjusts the short times.


Digital timers
● These use a highly accurate crystal oscillator, which


is divided down to provide timing clock pulses.
● The time selector switch loads a binary code into a


digital counter. On start of the exposure, clock
pulses subtract from the number in this counter.
When the counter reaches zero content, the expo-
sure time is finished.


● Although a digital timer does not require a time
correction adjustment, there are adjustments for
phase synchronization to the power mains supply.
(Not required for a high-frequency generator.)


● Digital timers often have a separate analogue timer
as a backup unit.


● Note. Some X-ray controls, although fitted with a
digital display for selected time, may not have a
digital timer, and instead use an analogue timer.


Microprocessor timers
● These are usually found with high frequency sys-


tems. There are no adjustments to calibrate the
exposure time.


● The selected time is entered via a keypad, rather
than a switch. The microprocessor downloads the
required time to a separate backup timer, which is
independent of the microprocessor timer once the
exposure starts.


● On many systems, the microprocessor does not start
the exposure countdown until the X-ray HT has
reached 75~80% of its required value. This allows
very accurate timing of exposures, down to 1.0 mil-
lisecond or less.


Milliamp second (mAs) timers
There are three versions of the mAs timer.


● Microprocessor controlled mAs timer
Some X-ray controls have the option of selecting the
exposure by kV, mA, and time. This is called ‘three
knob’ technique. Or the operator may prefer to use
a selection of just kV and mAs, called ‘two knob’
technique. Of this last method, the computer looks
at the X-ray tube data stored in memory,and selects
the optimum combination of mA and time selection
to provide the shortest exposure. Of course, this
does mean at times the X-ray tube may be working
close to its maximum ratings. To avoid this, some
controls have an added selection of ~80% load,
instead of maximum tube load.


● Digital mAs timer
The digital mAs timer directly operates from the mA
produced during the exposure. By passing the gen-
erated mA through a resistor, a proportional voltage
is produced. This voltage in turn controls a voltage
to frequency (V/F) converter, which may produce ten
pulses per mAs. When a required mAs is selected,
this value is loaded into a counter. The pulses from
the V/F converter subtract from this preset value,
till the counter reaches zero.This ends the exposure.
Digital mAs timers may also be supplied with micro-
processor controlled high-frequency generators, for
example, a mobile generator. Typically in this case
the microprocessor also selects a suitable mA out-
put to match the required kV and mAs.


● Analogue mAs timers
With a CD mobile, mA generated during an expo-
sure falls together with the kV. For this reason CD
mobiles are fitted with mAs timers, of which the
analogue version is the most common type.
With an analogue mAs timer, the mA generated
during an exposure produces a voltage across a ref-
erence resistor.This voltage in turn is used to charge
a timing capacitor in the same fashion as a stan-
dard analogue timer. The important difference is
that the voltage for timing control is now propor-
tional to the mA generated during the exposure,and
not a fixed voltage as in a standard timer.


e. Automatic exposure control (AEC)


Automatic exposure control or photo-timer is usually
an option on purchase of an X-ray system. The AEC
control is normally mounted inside the X-ray control
cabinet. Older systems may instead have an external
control unit.


In setting up for an exposure with AEC, the X-ray
control timer is set for about 25% to 50% longer
exposure time than expected. Some X-ray controls may
not require a preset exposure time, instead using a
principle called ‘falling load’. Falling-load allows the
generator to start at a high output, then as the expo-
sure continues, lower the mA generated by reducing
filament heating. This allows for extended exposure
times, but still within the X-ray tube rating. Compen-
sation is required, to keep kV at the correct level as
mA drops.


In operation, the AEC measures the quantity of
radiation entering the cassette. When this radiation
reaches a predetermined level, an ‘end of exposure’
signal is sent to the X-ray control timer, terminating
the exposure.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


224


E




APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


225


Ionization Sometimes known as ‘Iontomat’ (Siemens) or ‘Amplimat’ (Philips). These depend on the
minute current generated as gas molecules are ionized by X-ray radiation. Earlier types used
atmospheric air as the medium. Later types may use a special gas, such as xenon, to
improve sensitivity. Earlier ionization systems were sensitive to high humidity levels. Later
systems have a pre-amplifier sealed into the same container incorporating the ion chambers.
Adjusting the voltage gain of amplifiers, and the voltage reference for the exposure
integrator, controls sensitivity.


Solid state These depend on the detection material, which when energized by X-rays produces a small
electric current. Adjusting the voltage gain of amplifiers, and the voltage reference for the
exposure integrator controls sensitivity.


Photomultiplier The detection area is formed by a thin pocket of luminescent material, similar to that used
in a cassette, inside a sheet of translucent acrylic. Light is focussed from the edge of this
acrylic into a photomultiplier. The output signal from the photomultiplier is very high
compared to the other two methods, and is reasonably immune to humidity problems. The
photomultipliers add to the total size of the system, so it can only be installed in a Bucky
designed for a particular unit. Adjusting the voltage supply, and / or the last dynode voltage
controls the photomultiplier sensitivity. Final adjustment to this type of AEC is otherwise
similar to the other two systems.


Measurement of radiation for different sections of
the anatomy is required. This is provided by measure-
ment chambers in selected positions. These may be in
the centre, or offset to either side for chest exposures.
AEC exposure-controls allow for a selection of density,
normally in +/- 5% steps, and may also incorporate
sensitivity adjustment for different film/cassette
combinations.


Provision is sometimes made to obtain an ‘average’
measurement by adding two or more chambers
together prior to an exposure. In other systems, sepa-
rate controls are incorporated for each chamber. By
selecting two or more together, whichever chamber
obtains most radiation controls the exposure.


To be successful, the chamber for measuring radia-
tion should be placed between the X-ray grid and the
cassette in the Bucky. This reduces sensitivity to scat-
tered radiation. A kV correction signal is required,
so the AEC can match the characteristic of the film-
screen combination in use.


With conventional generators, especially single-
phase versions, special contactor arrangements are
required to avoid ‘jitter’when approaching short times.
This is due to SCR contactors not switching off imme-
diately, but waiting for the next ‘zero crossing’ point.
On a 50HZ system this may cause a variable extension
of up to ten milliseconds exposure time. (This problem
does not exist with high-frequency systems.)


The film processor must also be accurately main-
tained, especially if the AEC is being calibrated or


tested. There are three varieties of AEC systems for
measuring radiation, ionization, solid-state, and pho-
tomultiplier systems. The differences are listed above.


f. Fluoroscopy timers


On older generators, small motors, similar to those
used in electric clocks, have operated these timers.
Later systems used a separate digital timer and
display. With current systems, this function is inte-
grated with the microprocessor control.


The timer only operates during a fluoroscopic expo-
sure, and normally has a maximum time setting of five
minutes. When the timer approaches the time limit, a
warning buzzer may sound. At the end of five minutes,
further exposures are prevented unless reset. (Some
systems have a switch to bypass this requirement,
depending on individual country regulations). Other
facilities may be provided with digital fluoroscopy
timers, such as total elapsed fluoroscopy time etc.This
depends on individual features of a control system.


g. Exposure contactors


Exposure control on old systems was by mechanical
contactors. (A contactor is a heavy-duty relay). These
contactors require accurate adjustment to ensure the
‘make’ and ‘break’ of power to the high-tension gen-
erator occurs at the correct phase interval, otherwise
severe arcing results.




A time delay is required to ensure both anode rota-
tion and filament boost has been completed before
permitting an exposure. In many systems, the timer in
the anode rotation control allows for both these
requirements.


Anode rotation for low speed operation is controlled
by the power mains frequency, either fifty or sixty
Hertz. (50/60Hz). See Fig E–30.


● On preparation request, relay R4 operates connect-
ing 200V to the stator winding.


● A phase difference of ninety degrees between the
current flowing in the ‘start’ and ‘run’ windings
of the stator is required. This is supplied by the
capacitor ‘C’.


● Note. This capacitor requires a specific value to
match the X-ray tube stator winding. If a different
make of X-ray tube is installed, the value of ‘C’ may
need to be changed.


● After the preparation time is completed, the control
unit timer operates relay R3, which changes the
supply voltage from 200V to 40V. This is to ensure
the anode keeps rotating at full speed, but without
the heat that would be generated if 200v were con-
tinuously applied.


● The two relays, R1 and R2, are current operated
relays. These are for safety, in case either the start
or run stator windings become disconnected, and
prevent an exposure occurring on a stationary
anode.


● Relay contacts R1, R2, and R3 form the prepara-
tion sequence safety system,and unless all are oper-
ated, an exposure is not permitted.


● Present day low speed starters have more elab-
orate fault detection, and may also have different
preparation times, eg for over-table or for
fluoroscopy.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


226


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When silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR) became
available, these replaced the mechanical contactors
for control of the actual exposure. Mechanical con-
tactors are still required, however, in case of a faulty
SCR, as these may develop a short circuit.This is called
a ‘backup contactor’.


An SCR has the property that once conducting, it
remains conducting until the voltage across the device
either falls to zero, or changes its polarity.A short posi-
tive pulse of voltage is applied to the SCR ‘gate’, rela-
tive to the cathode, to switch on the SCR.The SCR, as
it is also a rectifier, will only conduct in one direction.
To form a contactor two SCR units are connected in
parallel, with one facing the opposite direction.


A basic SCR contactor system is shown in Fig E–29.


Fig E–29. A basic ‘SCR’ exposure contactor,
for a single-phase generator


h. X-ray tube anode rotation


On preparation for an exposure, two main events
happen. The anode is caused to rotate, and the X-ray
tube filament is boosted to full operating temperature.


Fig E–30. A basic low-speed anode rotation control




High-speed rotation is provided by either a passive
‘frequency tripler’, or by an inverter system. The fre-
quency tripler uses special transformers, connected to
three-phase power. These transformers are driven in a
saturated mode, and produce a highly distorted
output, rich in harmonics.The output voltages are con-
nected in series, so that the fundamental 50 or 60Hz
supply frequency is suppressed, and the third harmonic
instead is selected. For a 50Hz input, the output will
now be 150Hz.When applied to the X-ray tube stator,
the anode will now rotate three times faster than at
low speed.


With an inverter system, incoming single-phase
power is converted to DC, and via the inverter back to
AC. The inverter may operate at 150 or 180Hz,
depending on make or model. The majority however
operate on 180Hz, as this allows higher anode loads.
For special applications, other drive frequencies may
also be available.


An X-ray tube operated at high-speed will have
greater stress on the bearings, and must not be
allowed to coast down to a stop after an exposure. If
this happens, there is a strong possibility of severe
damage to the bearings, due to resonance affects at
some anode speeds. To prevent this occurring, a high-
speed starter provides a ‘brake’ cycle at the end of an
exposure. This may be via a DC current through the
stator windings,which quickly brings the anode to rest.
A more common method is to apply a 50Hz start
signal,which brings the anode from high-speed quickly
past the resonant positions to 3000RPM. The anode
then coasts to a stop.


High-speed operation, unless high power starters
and special stators are used, may take twice as long
to reach full speed. To overcome this problem, espe-
cially with a fluoroscopy table, two modes may be used.


● High-speed maintenance or ‘hangover’. The starter
remains in high-speed operation for up to 20 or 30
seconds from the last exposure.


● Low-speed maintenance or hangover in a fluo-
roscopy mode.This may last several minutes. As the
anode is already rotating just below 3000RPM,
high-speed preparation time is reduced. In some
starters, both techniques may be combined.


i. X-ray tube load calculation


An X-ray tube needs to operate within the maximum
ratings for that tube, otherwise damage will occur.The
manufacturer publishes rating charts, which specify
the maximum operating conditions for the particular
tube. These parameters are:


● The maximum rate of heat input for each focal spot,
this is calculated from the product of kV and mA,
and the exposure time. This will be modified by the
speed of the anode, and if operated on single or
three-phase. (Inverter systems are treated as three-
phase)


● The maximum filament current of each focal spot,
this limit occurs at low kV settings. This is required
for filament protection.


● The maximum kV that may be applied.
● The maximum amount of heat stored in the anode,


and the rate of anode cooling.


Note. These ratings are the maximum permitted.
Regarding heat input to the anode, this is calculated
for a cold anode, so it is unwise to make several expo-
sures close together, and close to the maximum per-
mitted input.


All X-ray controls have protection for anode heat
input and kV limit. The other parameters depend on
the level of design complexity. Present day micro-
processor controlled systems may take all calculations
into consideration, except tube housing temperature.


A typical rating chart is shown in Fig E–31. A
number of load lines are provided for convenience. If
we examine the 100kV load line and compare this to
150kV and 80kV lines, we will find that the product
of mA and kV is the same. See table E–5.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


227


Table E–5. Maximum anode load at 0.1 second


100kV and 660mA 100 ¥ 660 = 66kW


150kV and 440mA 150 ¥ 440 = 66kW


80kV and 825mA 80 ¥ 825 = 66kW


Table E–6. Maximum anode loads for the
rating chart of Fig E-31


0.05 second 125kV 560mA


0.05 second 100kV 700mA


0.1 second 100kV 660mA


0.1 second 80kV 825mA


0.3 second 110kV 500mA


0.5 second 80kV 600mA


By using the data shown in Fig E–31, we can obtain
the maximum available output for a range of different
conditions. These are shown in table E–6.




The load lines for 50, 60, 70, and 80kV stop after
reaching a specified mA. This is because the filament
will reach the maximum filament current, if required
to produce that mA at the specified kV. For example,
if at 60kV an attempt was made to expose at 800mA,
0.1 second.Although this is well within the anode load
limit, the filament current would be excessive, and
damage the filament.


In a microprocessor system, the computer carries
out all the required calculations. Providing an X-ray
tube from the same manufacturer is supplied, a code
number is entered for the designated tube. In case the
tube to be installed is not included in the list of codes,
many controls allow input of full parameters derived
from the rating charts, as a ‘non standard’ tube. With
older X-ray controls it is necessary to adjust a series
of potentiometers to obtain the correct calculation.
These are normally adjusted at specified time posi-
tions, with separate adjustments for maximum kV and
filament protection (if provided). Still other systems
may use a patch-board, with wire jumpers connected
between a series of selected pins, but with a similar
goal in mind.


j. Operation sequence control


An X-ray control will perform a number of functions
besides the actual X-ray exposure.These are concerned
with ensuring the system is ready for use, preparation,
exposure, fault detection etc.


A digital logic diagram for operation sequence
control is shown in Fig. 32.


On power up
● X-ray tube selection in the HT transformer is


activated.


● The X-ray tube filament pre-heating is commenced.
● Safety system tests for immediate faults.
● Microprocessor (if fitted) is initialized.
● With high-frequency systems, the inverter power


supply capacitors are charged up.


Before radiographic preparation is permitted
● A valid technique selection is required. Hand switch


operation should not be possible, if the fluoroscopy
table has been selected. Some selections may not
be available, eg, accidentally selecting tomography
position, if not installed.


● Exposure factors must be within the X-ray tube
capacity. (Maximum kV, anode load etc.)


● The X-ray tube housing over temperature switch
should not be operated.


● For systems with servo (motor driven) mains voltage
correction, or kV selection, preparation should wait
till adjustment is finished. (But some designs omit
this precaution.)


● On initial power up, or if a tube change is selected,
a time delay may be inserted to allow preheating
stabilization of the X-ray tube filament.This will also
occur if tube change over is by a motor driven
switch.


● No fault conditions should exist, eg, faults occurring
from a previous exposure or preparation problem.


● In some countries, a door safety switch is required,
to prevent exposures if the door is opened.This may
also prevent preparation.


On commencement of radiographic
preparation
● The preparation hand-switch is operated.
● Preparation request is sent to the tube starter,


anode rotation commences.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


228


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Fig E–31. A typical X-ray tube rating chart




● The preparation timers commence timing out.
● The X-ray tube filament is boosted to full preset


temperature for the required mA.
● Tests are made to ensure no faults with anode rota-


tion or X-ray tube filament.
● Warning light on the X-ray room entrance is


illuminated.
● On conventional generators with SCR contactors, a


backup safety-contactor connects radiographic
power to the SCR contactor. A test is made to
ensure there is no short circuit in the SCR
contactor.


● Lockout any inputs for fluoroscopy request.
● Change over mA measuring circuits from fluo-


roscopy mA to radiographic mA.
● Servo-motors for line voltage compensation and kV


selection are locked out to prevent operation.
● Peripheral equipment will also go into preparation


mode.Eg,on remote controlled systems, the film will
move into position.


On completion of preparation, to obtain
‘ready for exposure’
● Preparation timer has ‘timed out’.
● Anode rotation safety check is satisfied.
● No fault has occurred with filament heating.
● No system fault has occurred.
● Peripheral equipment is ready.
● ‘Ready’ signal appears on the control panel.


To obtain a radiographic exposure
● Preparation is completed. Exposure hand-switch is


operated.
● Operate ‘X-ray On’ warning signal.
● Send an exposure request to peripheral equipment,


eg, Bucky.
● Bucky operates, and returns the exposure signal to


the X-ray control.
● On conventional equipment, the timer commences


operation. The timer controls correct closing of the
exposure contactor. (Mechanical or SCR version).


● On high-frequency systems, both timer and inverter
commence operation.


● If fitted, a backup safety timer commences
operation.


During a radiographic exposure
● Measure and display mA or mAs during exposure.


(Only some systems).
● Measure mA, and operate mAs timer. (If fitted).
● Measure mA, and correct X-ray tube filament


heating to ensure correct mA. (Only on some
systems).


● Test for kV or mA faults.
● Test for system faults.


At the end of a radiographic exposure
● Send a time-up signal to peripheral equipment, such


as a fluoroscopy table.
● Test to ensure high voltage generation stopped. (In


case of SCR contactor fault).
● Send a time-up signal to a double-exposure pro-


tection circuit. Preparation must be released and
started again before another exposure is made. (Not
on all systems).


At the end of preparation, following a
radiographic exposure
● Filament heating is returned to standby pre-


heating.
● A one second ‘filament-cooling’ timer commences


operation.This is required in case the next exposure
is for fluoroscopy. For example, if a 500mA radi-
ograph exposure has just been made, the filament
must cool down before allowing a 2.0mA fluo-
roscopy exposure.


● Return mA measuring circuits from radiographic
mA to fluoroscopic mA.


● If anode rotation was high-speed, the starter now
generates a brake cycle.


To obtain a fluoroscopy exposure
● The fluoroscopy timer has not reached the time


limit. (Usually five minutes.)
● The X-ray tube filament is not in a cool-down cycle.


(After a radiographic exposure).
● The fluoroscopy table safety interlocks are satisfied.
● The room entry door is closed. (Required in some


countries).
● A valid technique and X-ray tube has been selected.
● Power to the generator is now selected from the


fluoroscopic kV control section.
● In three phase systems, fluoroscopy is most often


performed in single-phase mode. The capacitance
of the high-tension cables provides the required
smoothing of the kV waveform, so very little kV
ripple occurs.


● With high-frequency systems, the inverter may
select a different mode of operation than for radi-
ography kV. This depends on system design.


During a fluoroscopy exposure
● Operate ‘X-ray On’ warning light at the entrance


door.
● The generated fluoroscopic mA is displayed. (Most


systems).


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


229




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


230


E


Fig E–32. Operation sequence control


● Fault detection is set for fluoroscopy conditions.
● The fluoroscopic timer is activated.
● A warning audible signal during fluoroscopy may be


generated. (Required in some countries, especially if
in ‘boost fluoroscopy’ mode).


● X-ray ‘on’ signal is sent to the TV system. Digital TV
systems with a ‘last image hold’ feature will now
display images in ‘real time.’ These images will also
cycle through a digital memory.


At the end of a fluoroscopic exposure
● With digital TV systems, the TV memory retains the


picture obtained just before the exposure finished,
and displays that image as ‘last image hold’.


k. Fault detection and safety systems


The X-ray control has many systems for detecting
faults in operation, and provide for safe operation.
Safety systems are provided to ensure correct
sequence of operation. These take the form of ‘inter-
locks’, which mean that a predetermined series of
events must be satisfied before proceeding. Many such
interlocks are provided to avoid operator error. For
example:


● X-ray tube load protection.
● Selection of an incorrect technique.
● Include which X-ray tube in the technique selection.
● Not permitting exposures that exceed country


regulations.
● Exposure time selected is too short for the selected


mA. (Some microprocessor systems do not permit
exposures less than 0.5mAs).


Interlocks also ensure that if a fault is detected,
further operation is disabled. This may even extend to
switching off the complete system.


As X-ray control design has become more complex,
there has been an increase of provisions for detecting
possible faults, or wrong operation. Later systems often
display a code on the front panel, to indicate the type
of problem. In many cases the meaning of this code
will be found in the operator or installation manuals.


Some models allow clearing of ‘non fatal’ faults by
pressing the ‘power on’ button. For example, the X-ray
tube might have been unstable, and caused the previ-
ous exposure to terminate. By pressing the power-on
button, another exposure can be attempted. (It is
advisable to reduce the exposure settings first, before
making a test exposure.). In the case of ‘fatal’ faults,




these will prevent operation unless the control is
switched ‘off’ then ‘on’ again. In such a case, consid-
erable caution is required, and any warning signals or
codes should be investigated first.


While recent systems may display a fault code, or
message, older controls may indicate a fault symbol,


or just light up the same indicator used for X-ray tube
overload. However, inside the control there are often
many indicator LED indicators provided to indicate
sequence operation or fault indication. Table E–7 indi-
cates some of the safety interlocks and fault detection
requirements that may exist.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


231


Table E–7. Typical safety interlocks and fault detection requirements


On power up and Interlock test for operation of X-ray tube high-tension selection switch and stator
system check. connection relays.


Has X-ray tube housing over temperature switch operated?
On inverter systems, have the bank of inverter power supply capacitors charged up to
the correct voltage?


Before preparation Has a valid technique been selected?
is permitted. Are the exposure factors within the safe operating area of both the X-ray tube and


the generator?
Entrance door safety switch not activated.


During preparation. Is the current through the X-ray tube filament transformer above a minimum level?
(If below, can indicate open filament connection).
Is the filament current inside the maximum limit?
Is the current flowing in both the ‘start’ and ‘run’ stator windings of the X-ray tube
the correct value?
Look for illegal voltage on generator transformer primary winding. (In case of an SCR
contactor fault in conventional systems).
Energize a warning light. ‘Do not enter’.


At end of Interlock for preparation timers. (Older systems may depend only on the stator
preparation. control; later systems include a timer for minimum filament heating time.)


On exposure request Hand switch exposure request is sent to the required Bucky.
with peripheral The Bucky must move the grid and trigger an interlock to indicate the Bucky is ready
equipment, eg Bucky. for an exposure. This interlock relays the exposure request back to the X-ray control.


To commence actual On conventional systems, the expose signal places the timer into operation. The timer
exposure. waits for a synchronization pulse derived from the mains supply voltage, and at the


correct phase interval operates the SCR contactor.
With a mechanical contactor, the time for the contactor to operate requires a
compensation adjustment.
With an inverter system, the signal to the timer and the inverter may occur at the
same time. Mains voltage synchronization is not required.


During exposure. The mA is measured. If mA is higher than a preset detection limit, stop the exposure.
With high-frequency systems, if kV is excessive, or, after a short measurement time
too low, stop the exposure. Some inverter systems measure the transformer primary
current, and if too high stop the exposure.


At the end of a A time-up signal may be sent to peripheral equipment.
radiographic If in high-speed mode, the X-ray tube starter will now produce a brake cycle.
exposure. A filament cool-down timer will operate, so a fluoroscopic exposure cannot be made


until this timer has finished.




PART 5 THE HIGH-TENSION
CABLE


The high-tension cable used in X-ray generators has
three main requirements.


● It must be able to withstand more than 75kV, plus
a safety margin. A typical value is 100kVp.


● The cable requires good flexibility.
● In case of a fault or damage, not to cause danger


of electric shock.


With the exception of mammography and some
dental units, X-ray generators operate with balanced
+/- high-tension above ground. When used with a


150kV generator, each cable must be able to with-
stand a minimum of 75kV.


To provide electrical safety, a woven mesh shield is
placed on the outside of the bulk insulation, under-
neath the protective surface cover. This shield is con-
nected to ground potential at both the X-ray tube
and the high-tension transformer. Should a spark
occur due to insulation failure, the shield conducts
the discharge safely to ground. The cable capaci-
tance plays an important part for high-frequency gen-
erators. Typical capacitance for a ten meter length is
~1800pF.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


232


E


Fig E–33. The high voltage cable and standard ASA cable end receptacle




PART 6 THE X-RAY COLLIMATOR


An X-ray collimator is a device to limit radiation from
the X-ray tube. A light beam is incorporated, to illumi-
nate the patient area to be radiated.


There are several forms of collimators.


● ‘Single leaf’ versions, often fitted to smaller mo-
biles or portable generators. These are sometimes
referred to as ‘X-ray shutters’. The design require-
ment is small weight and size. The limitation is a
blurred edge of the X-ray image on the film.


● ‘Multiple leaf’ collimators, incorporating at least
two leaves or diaphragms, and in most cases, an
additional small leaf positioned close to the X-ray
tube focal spot. (This is to suppress off-focal radia-
tion from the X-ray tube anode.)


● Automatic collimators. These may be either manu-
ally controlled as a standard collimator, or by
remote control only, as in a fluoroscopy table. With
an automatic collimator, the operator may reduce
the size of the beam relative to the film area to be
exposed, but cannot not exceed this area. These
systems are sometimes fitted with a key switch
to disable automatic collimation for special
applications.


● Collimators for capacitor-discharge mobiles have
an extra lead shutter to block unwanted radiation.
This radiation occurs as dark-current when the
capacitor is charged, or if the kV is reset to a lower
value. The shutter may be motor operated and
opened during preparation, or solenoid activated
just prior to an exposure.


● Specialized collimators used in surgical X-ray TV
systems, or angiographic equipment. These collima-
tors often have an additional ‘iris’ diaphragm to
limit the X-ray beam to the circular input of an
image intensifier. They may also have additional
rotating leaves fitted with a custom filter to reduce
‘halation’ due to a direct X-ray beam entering part
of the image.


A sketch is provided in Fig E–34 of a standard colli-
mator. This indicates the alignment of the light beam
to the radiation field, and the lead diaphragms or
leaves.


Referring to the sketch Fig E–34:


● Electrons bouncing off the focal spot, and re-
landing on other areas of the anode cause off-focal
radiation. This may amount to as much as 15% of
the total radiation, but at reduced energy levels.The
lead diaphragm ‘a’ reduces this off-focal radiation
from the X-ray tube anode by applying a small aper-
ture, very close to the focal spot. Some collimators


have these leaves extended above the top of the
collimator body, and fit inside the collimator-
mounting device.


● A mirror set at an angle of 45 degrees is mounted
close to the input of the collimator. The light bulb
filament is positioned the same distance from the
mirror centre as the X-ray focal spot. This ensures
the light beam covers the same area as the X-ray
beam.


● The diaphragms ‘b’ and ‘c’ limit the actual X-ray
beam. The diaphragm ‘c’ cleans-up the ‘penumbra’
that would exist at the edge of the X-ray beam.
(Penumbra is caused by the focal spot size not being
a true ‘point’ source. Eg, the larger the focal spot,
the greater the penumbra.)


● Moving the mounting position of the collimator,
relative to the focal spot, allows adjustment of the
collimator to the X-ray source.This is often provided
by four adjustment ‘fingers’. With rotating collima-
tors, the holes for the mounting screws may be
enlarged, allowing several millimetres of adjustment
relative to the focal spot.


● The mirror and front Perspex cover provide some
of the required primary beam filtration. Additional
filtration to reach the required minimum total
‘half-value layer’ is often placed in the X-ray tube
housing throat, just before the off-focal leaves
‘a’. In other collimators the added filtration may


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


233


Fig E–34. Construction of the X-ray
collimator




be removable. In these cases there is often an
interlock switch, to prevent operation above a spec-
ified kV.


● A scale is provided for adjusting the field size to
different cassette/film sizes. This may be for the
standard one-meter distance from the film, or the
equivalent inch distance.


Automatic collimation


Automatic collimation is a requirement for any fluoro-
scopic table fitted with an image intensifier.


Automatic collimation for over-table operation is
now a standard requirement for some countries with
strict radiation health regulations, and is often an
optional requirement in other areas.


Basic description of operation (See Fig E–35)


● The collimator is fitted with motors to operate the
diaphragms. Position of these diaphragms is meas-
ured by a potentiometer, with an output voltage
relative to position.


● The collimator control produces a reference voltage
equivalent to the required opening. This voltage is
modified depending on the film to focus distance
(FFD).


● The difference between the voltage from the colli-
mator, and the control reference voltage, is ampli-
fied and operates the motor. The motor will move


the associated diaphragms in or out, until the col-
limator voltage matches the reference voltage.


● When automatic collimation is applied to over-
table or wall-Bucky operation, the tube stand is
fitted with potentiometers to measure the FFD in
both the vertical direction and the horizontal
direction.


● With microprocessor systems, the voltage from the
collimator and height measurement potentiometers
is transferred, via an analogue to digital converter,
to the computer. Film and format size is entered
directly to the computer. The computer then out-
puts a control voltage, via a digital to analogue con-
verter, for the motor drive power circuit.


● The vertical direction only is required for over-table
operation. With a wall Bucky, the horizontal meas-
urement is used for the FFD compensation, while
the vertical measurement is compared to a similar
height measurement from the Bucky stand. This
ensures the X-ray tube is at the correct height to
match the wall Bucky. In some cases, the X-ray tube
stand height is motor driven to automatically track
the wall Bucky height. In other cases, the tube stand
height is manually controlled until a ‘ready’ indica-
tor operates.


● Elevating Bucky tables may also send a height
signal to the automatic collimator control, to
permit operation at different positions. Other ele-


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


234


E
Fig E–35. Operation of an automatic collimator control system




vating tables may only permit operation when raised
to a standard operating height.


● The Bucky used for these systems requires a method
to determine the cassette size. This may be via
potentiometers attached to the cassette tray. Some
Bucky’s provide a motor driven cassette tray,
which passes over sensors as the cassette tray is
retracted. These sensors are connected to a com-
puter in the Bucky, which decodes the cassette size,
and transmits the information to the collimator
control unit.


● In the case of a fluoroscopic table, measurement
of the cassette size may be via a combination of
magnetically operated ‘reed’ switches, as the cas-
sette is loaded into position. Many other systems
also apply, including manual selection of cassette
size via a selection control on the serial changer
(spot filmer).


● A fluoroscopic table also selects different format
sizes, to allow multiple exposures on the same film.
To prevent overlap of exposures, an additional ‘close
to film’ shutter is provided in the serial changer.
These have a preset size according to the format
selected, and provide a sharp delineation of the
exposed film areas.


PART 7 THE X-RAY TUBE
SUSPENSION


The X-ray tube stand is presented in two common
forms, floor to ceiling, and ceiling mounted suspension.
The ceiling mounted suspension allows maximum flexi-
bility for a room, while the more economical floor-
ceiling system is used for most general-purpose rooms.
Ceiling suspended systems counterbalance the weight
of the suspended X-ray tube by means of a spring and
variable ratio pulley. Floor-ceiling stands may also use
a similar system, or else have a counterweight installed
inside the stand column. Adding or subtracting trim
weights achieves adjustment of the balance point.
In some cases adjustment of spring tension is also
required.


To maintain the X-ray tube in the required posi-
tion, manual or electrically operated locks are
employed. The electrically operated locks will take
the form of:


● Electromagnet. This requires power to activate the
lock.


● Permanent magnet.This is an electromagnet with a
permanent magnet instead of an iron core. When
energized, the magnetic field generated by the elec-
tromagnet, cancels out the magnetic field of the
permanent magnet.


● Solenoid operation. In this system, a spring-loaded
brake pad forms the lock. On operation of the
solenoid, the pad is pulled away from the brake
surface.


● Rotary ‘tooth’ lock. The lock is fitted with two
matching plates, fitted with fine ‘teeth’. These are
pressed together with a firm spring. On energiz-
ing an electromagnet, the spring-loaded plate is
pulled away from the fixed plate, and permits
rotation.


The tube-support provides indication when the tube
is rotated around preset angles, commonly set at
ninety-degree positions.The lateral movement will also
have an indication when the X-ray tube is at the Bucky
centre position. These indications may be provided by
a spring-loaded ball fitting into a slot, or else by a cam
operated micro-switch, or optical-sensor, operating the
appropriate lock. In this case an indicator lamp is
usually provided. An automatic stop at a standard
height from the table Bucky, or distance from a wall
Bucky, is often provided.


The height of the X-ray tube from the Bucky and
the tabletop may be indicated by a set of fixed scales.
In many systems height indication is provided by a


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


235




digital display, operated by a potentiometer.Two poten-
tiometers are required, one for the vertical movement,
and one for the longitudinal position from the wall
Bucky. Change over to the required potentiometer is
performed by rotation of the X-ray tube.This system is
also required if the X-ray tube is fitted with automatic
collimation.


When the tube-support is used in tomographic
mode, the following is required.


● Height above the table Bucky set to the required
position. Some tube-supports have an interlock.This
prevents operation if the height is not correct.


● The tube rotation lock released.
● The longitudinal lock or brake released.
● The height and lateral movement locks energized.


The above may be applied automatically, depending on
make and model of the tube-support. In other cases,
take care to ensure the locks are set correctly before
operation.


PART 8 THE X-RAY GRID AND
POTTER BUCKY


Contents


a. Compton, or scattered radiation
b. The Bucky grid
c. X-ray grid specifications
d. The Potter Bucky
e. Bucky systems for automatic collimation


a. Compton, or scattered radiation


When X-rays pass through atoms of any material, scat-
tered radiation may be produced.This depends on the
X-ray photon dislodging an electron. At the same time
the original photon changes its direction of travel.
The photon loses energy equivalent to the dislodged
electron, and has a longer wavelength. This is called
‘Compton’ radiation.


Scattered radiation will exist even with an X-ray
beam passing through air, but especially when passing
objects such as a patient. For this reason radiation
shields and protective clothing are required. Scattered
radiation also causes fogging of the X-ray film, reduc-
ing detail and contrast. This is illustrated in Fig E–37.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E


Fig E–36. Compton, or scattered, radiation


Fig E–37. Scattered radiation causes film
‘fogging’




b.The Bucky grid


Dr Bucky invented the X-ray grid in 1913; from this we
have the name ‘Bucky grid’. The grid is used to reduce
the effects caused by scattered radiation. Thin strips
of lead, spaced by material having a low X-ray atten-
uation, form the grid. This material may be wood or
aluminium, and in high performance grids, carbon
fibre.


While many specialized grids have been developed,
the ‘focussed grid’ is most commonly used. This grid
has the lead strips angled slightly to accept the X-ray
beam from the X-ray tube, positioned at a specified
distance. Although the X-ray beam is able to pass
through the grid interspace material, X-rays from other
directions are blocked by the lead strips, and do not
enter the film.


A focussed grid is illustrated in Fig E–38, and grid
action in Fig E–39.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


237


Fig E–38. The focussed grid


Fig E–39. The grid absorbs scattered
radiation


c. X-ray grid specifications


● Grid ratio.This is the ratio of the height of the lead
strips (H), and the distance between them (D). R =
H/D, and is expressed as a ratio, for example, 8 :1.


● Lines per inch or lines per centimetre
● Focus distance
● Interspace material
● (See Fig E–40)


As grid ratio is increased, so is a greater absorption of
the useful X-ray beam.This absorption is called ‘Bucky
factor’, and depends also on the interspace material
and the number of grid lines. An increase in Bucky-
factor requires an increase in X-ray output together
with increased radiation to the patient.


An increase in grid ratio results in improved rejection
of scatter, together with an improvement in contrast.
However, the centring of the grid to the X-ray beam
becomes more critical,and focal range becomes smaller.


Table E–8. Typical specifications for X-ray grids


Lines per cm Ratios Focal distances


60 Lines/cm (24 Lines/inch) 8 :1, 10 :1, 12 :1, 14 :1, 16 :1. 65, 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150, 180, 200cm


40 Lines/cm (16 Lines/inch) 6 :1, 8 :1, 10 :1, 12 :1, 14 :1, 16 :1. As above.


34 Lines/cm (14 Lines/inch) 5 :1, 6 :1, 8 :1, 10 :1, 12 :1. As above.


Table E–9. Common grid applications


Wall Bucky. Chest 12 :1 ratio, 40–60 lines/cm,
150cm focus.


Wall Bucky. Spine, 10 :1 ratio, 40–60 lines/cm,
Abdominal etc 100–120cm focus.


Table Bucky 10 :1 ratio. (8 :1, 10 :1, 12 :1)
100cm focus.


Fig E–40. Formation of an X-ray grid




d.The Potter Bucky


When a fixed grid is used, the lead strips in the grid
cause a series of white lines on the film. This is where
the lead strips have blocked the radiation from the X-
ray tube. By moving the grid during the exposure, these
lines are blurred out, and fine detail that may have
been covered becomes visible. In action, the grid only
travels a few centimetres in or out around the centre
position.


Dr Potter invented the moving grid in 1920.This was
originally called a Potter-Bucky Grid. Nowadays the
device for moving the grid is commonly just called a
Bucky.


There are two modes of operation for the Bucky.


● Random oscillation. The grid stars reciprocating
(moving in and out) immediately the X-ray control
prepares for an exposure. This method can have
random appearance of grid lines, especially with
short exposures. This is caused if the exposure
occurs just as the grid reverses its direction of
travel.


● Synchronized oscillation. The grid starts to move
only after preparation and when the X-ray exposure
button is pressed. After the grid has moved a short
distance, a relay or switch closes, and returns the
exposure request back to the X-ray control. This
method ensures an exposure does not commence,
while the grid is just starting to reverse its direc-
tion of travel.


The method of moving the grid varies greatly depend-
ing on design requirements.


● Linear movement provided by a reversing motor
drive. Some manufactures may provide a selection
of speeds. Eg, ‘Par speed’ or ‘Super speed’ as an
example.


● Variable speed provided by a motor driven cam.This
allows the grid to move quickly during the early part
of an exposure, slowing down as the exposure
progresses.


● ‘Sine-wave oscillation’ by solenoid activation. The
grid is supported on four steel strips acting as
springs.On preparation the grid is pulled to one side


by the solenoid. On exposure the grid is released,
and oscillates in and out until it comes to rest.


The speed at which the grid travels can sometimes
cause grid lines to appear.With a single-phase gener-
ator, if the grid speed is a division of the mains fre-
quency, the grid lines will overlap on succeeding pulses
of X-ray output. Grid lines may also appear if the grid
is slow, and a fast exposure is used. Some Bucky’s
provide rapid oscillation to overcome these problems.
Unfortunately, in some cases this may cause the whole
assembly to shake, producing a blurred film.


A mammography Potter-Bucky is often provided
with a speed control.The speed is adjusted so the grid,
during an average exposure, reaches about three quar-
ters of the maximum travel distance. Eg, if the grid
were to oscillate, grid lines are produced at the point
when the grid reverses travel direction.


e. Bucky systems for automatic collimation


In some systems, automatic adjustment of the X-ray
beam is provided by measurement of the cassette size.
This prevents unnecessary radiation to the patient
caused by incorrect adjustment of the X-ray collima-
tor field size.


● One method measures the cassette size by two
potentiometers, X and Y. These are provided in the
Bucky cassette tray. On inserting the tray a plug and
socket connects the potentiometers to the auto col-
limator system.


● Another method is provided by a microprocessor
controlled Bucky. This uses a motor to drive a
cassette tray in and out of the system. On inserting
a cassette, the tray is pulled back inside, passing
a sensor. By counting the number of motor ‘steps’
for the front of the cassette to reach the input
sensor, the computer calculates the cassette
length.The side arms gripping the cassette operate
other sensors to provide the width. With the cas-
sette in position, the microprocessor then sends
the required information to the auto collimation
control. These systems are required to be preset for
either inch or metric cassettes.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E




PART 9 TOMOGRAPHY


Tomography is a technique that allows specific areas
of the body to be visualized. By ‘blurring out’ unwanted
organ outlines, the outline of organs at a specified
depth are made visible. This technique may also be
known as planigraphy, stratigraphy, or laminography.


When several areas of the body are superimposed
on top of each other, it is difficult to visualize the organ
under examination.To help with diagnosis, angled views
are commonly used, as illustrated in Fig E–41.


The common axis of rotation, or fulcrum, deter-
mines the height at which the required section will
remain in ‘focus’. This is called the ‘focal plane’. As
the angle of rotation is increased, the area or ‘body
section’ that is in ‘focus’ becomes thinner. For this
reason, tomographic systems allow the selection of
several angles to suit the required examination.


There have been many complex systems developed
to improve blurring of unwanted areas. Of these, the
linear movement is commonly employed, especially as
the equipment involved can be added to a standard
Bucky table.


Linear tomography requires:


● A motor to move the tube stand. The motor may
have several selectable speeds.


● A coupling bar between the X-ray tube and the
Bucky. This bar will pass through a fulcrum, so the
tube stand movement will produce an opposite
movement to the Bucky.The coupling bar also aligns
the X-ray beam to the Bucky.


● A system of sequence switches.These determine the
start point of tube stand movement, the start and
finish of X-ray exposure, and the stop position of the
tube stand. These switches are often located in the
fulcrum mechanism,and may be operated by a cam.
In other systems, they may be included in the motor
drive, and directly measure the distance of tube-
stand travel.


● A method of changing the fulcrum height, relative to
the tabletop. In most systems this is by directly
changing the fulcrum height.Some tables (such as a
remote controlled fluoroscopy table) may instead use
a fixed fulcrum height,and raise or lower the tabletop.


A tomographic system may also be provided with
several operation and safety interlocks:


● Tube-stand height. If not correct, no operation.
(Some systems)


● Tube-stand locks. Rotation and longitudinal locks
should be ‘off’. Vertical and lateral locks should be
‘on’. Most systems have a relay to provide this func-
tion on selection of tomography.


● Coupling bar inserted. Safety interlock is required if
the fulcrum has switches controlling the tube stand
motor. Earlier designs may not have this feature.


● Bucky lock ‘off’. Again this depends on system des-
ign. If the Bucky has a mechanical lock, it is impor-
tant the operator ensures this is off before operation.


● Operation of the Bucky grid movement. This may
occur as soon as the tube stand starts to move, and
finish either at the end of the tube-stand move-
ment, or when the exposure handswitch is released.


● A typical timing chart is provided in Fig E–43.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


239


Fig E–41. Angulation provides more
information


Fig E–42. Tomographic movement blurs out
unwanted outlines


When there are a large number of similar anatom-
ical areas, the merged outlines make diagnosis diffi-
cult. If however, the X-ray tube and film are moved
simultaneously around a common axis during the
exposure, the outlines of unwanted areas are blurred
out. This is illustrated in Fig E–42.




The exposure time is controlled by the tomography
system. In use, the X-ray control timer is set to a longer
time than required. This ensures the tomography
system will terminate the exposure, and not the X-ray
control timer.


‘Electronic’ tomography
● This is a system in which the mechanical fulcrum or


pivot point is dispensed with. Instead three motors
are required, one to move the tube stand, one to
align the X-ray tube, and one to move the Bucky the
required distance in the opposite direction.


● Some remote controlled tables using this system
may still have a coupling bar permanently posi-
tioned. This however is required solely to keep the
X-ray tube aligned to the Bucky (or serial changer).


● In operation, a potentiometer measures the relative
distance of the tube stand, and another poten-
tiometer the distance of the Bucky. (Or serial
changer in the case of a fluoroscopic table). The
speeds of the two motors are tightly controlled by
means of a tachometer (or ‘convolver’) attached to
the motor shaft. The information from the poten-
tiometers and tachometers are fed via a computer
to the motor drive systems.


● The advantage of the above system is convenience,
and in many cases, a faster tomographic scan time.
Mechanical problems due to coupling and un-
coupling mechanical sections are eliminated. The
disadvantage is cost and electronic complexity.


PART 10 THE FLUOROSCOPY
TABLE


Contents


a. Fluoroscopy table description
b. Serial changer features
c. Table operation
d. Safety interlocks


a. Fluoroscopy table description


The fluoroscopy table is designed to allow direct
viewing of the patient using continuous X-ray radiation.


Earlier tables used a fluorescent screen for this
purpose. The operator is protected from direct radia-
tion by a layer of lead glass on top of the fluorescent
screen. As the image produced has a very low light
level, this requires special viewing conditions. Present
systems use an Image Intensifier or ‘II’.This is coupled
to a TV camera and monitor, and permits viewing under
normal room illumination.


A serial ‘changer’ (or spot filmer) is used to obtain
multiple radiographic exposures on a single film. The
serial changer contains most of the operating controls
for the table, as well as the fluorescent screen, or
image intensifier.


There are two main forms of fluoroscopy
tables
● Undertable X-ray tube. This is most common. The


serial changer, sometimes known as a spot filmer,
is mounted on top of the table. The table controls
require manual operation, with the radiologist
beside the patient. Due to the tube being mounted
under the table, space is limited, and the distance
of the focal spot to the patient is relatively short.
The serial changer on these tables can be retracted,
to allow full use of an undertable Bucky.


● Over-table X-ray tube.This format is normally fitted
to a remote controlled table. Some versions allow
for an additional control desk mounted on a trolley,
for tableside operation. With the X-ray tube posi-
tioned above the tabletop, a much larger FFD is
obtained.Tomographic operation is usually included,
with the serial changer taking the place of a Bucky.


The table is able to tilt from horizontal to ninety
degrees vertical, with the foot end towards the floor.
Another tilt direction, called ‘Trendelenburg’ allows the
head end to tilt towards the floor. Some tables may
only allow about fifteen degrees of tilt in this direc-
tion. Other versions, depending on design, may allow


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


240


E


Fig E–43. Timing chart for a tomographic
exposure




thirty degrees, or else full ninety degrees. These are
termed 90/15, 90/30, and 90/90 respectively.


Tabletop movements will normally allow for longi-
tudinal movement beyond the head or foot end of the
table body. This movement will either retract, as the
table tilts to avoid collision with the floor, or else
the table tilt will halt until the operator repositions
the tabletop.


Note. Some over table remote control tables
have no longitudinal tabletop travel. Instead the mech-
anism allows the undertable serial changer to travel
for the full length of the tabletop. Lateral tabletop
movement is available on all except the more basic
tables. This movement usually has an auto stop when
centred.


b. Serial changer features


● Direct fluoroscopy viewing via an image intensifier
and TV combination. In this mode the film cassette
is positioned to one side, together with lead shield-
ing to protect it from scatter radiation.


● The cassette carriage is able to move the cassette
in both the vertical and horizontal plane.This allows
for a number of exposures to be taken on the same
film. (Hence the alternate name of spot-filmer).


● Two motors usually perform movement of the car-
riage, with a variety of different methods to deter-
mine the stopping position. On simpler tables,
movement is performed manually, with the position
controlled by an electromagnet, or solenoid oper-
ated, mechanical ‘stop’.


● A serial changer may accept a number of different
film sizes and formats. On most serial changers, the
cassette size is measured automatically as it moves
into the serial changer. On older systems, the size
may have to be entered manually.The formats avail-
able depend on the serial changer design and film
size.


● Automatic collimation is required to limit the beam
to the image intensifier field size, or to the film
format size, whichever is the smallest area.


● As the collimator does not have precise registration
of the X-ray beam to the film, this would result in
overlap of exposures when a multiple format is
selected. To prevent this, an adjustable lead ‘mask’
is positioned in the X-ray entrance area. The mask
has a preset size to suit the format required. This
allows the film to be divided into two or three ver-
tical strips, or ‘splits’.


● A second mask, sometimes attached to a compres-
sion cone, is placed in position when a ‘four spot’
film format is required.


● When making multiple exposures on one film, an
exposure counter is required. On completion of the
exposures for that film, no more exposures are per-
mitted. Depending on the table design, the cassette
may also be automatically ejected, ready for the
next cassette to be inserted.


● The serial changer will have an X-ray grid fitted. In
simple tables, this may be a fixed grid. When an
oscillating grid movement is fitted, the X-ray expo-
sure is normally synchronized to the grid movement.
Again, a variety of methods are used for the grid
movement, and in some tables the grid can be
retracted to allow for non-grid exposures.


c.Table operation


On a preparation and exposure request from the table,
the following takes place:


● The fluoroscopy signal from the table is locked out.
● The locks for serial changer movement, over the


patient, are energized.
● Tabletop movement controls are disabled.
● The auto-collimator changes its format from the


image intensifier field size, to that of the film in the
cassette.


● The film cassette moves forward to the expose
position.


● At the same time the X-ray control enters prepara-
tion mode.


● Once the cassette is in position, most times a short
time delay is operated before permitting the actual
exposure request. This is to allow any vibration or
shaking to subside.


● The table waits for the ‘ready’ or ‘preparation com-
plete’ signal from the X-ray control.


● When ‘ready’ is obtained from the X-ray control, and
the cassette is in position, the grid will commence
oscillation on pushing the ‘expose’ button.


● On operation of the grid-controlled exposure
switch, the table sends the ‘expose’ request to the
X-ray control.


● Once the exposure is completed, the X-ray control
sends a ‘time up’ signal to the table. The cassette
then returns to its initial position in the radiation
shield area.


● Not all tables have an automatic return on end of
exposure.The radiologist instead releases the expo-
sure button after observing the exposure is com-
pleted. This especially applies in non-motorized
movements, where the radiologist moves the cas-
sette manually.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


241




● In case the exposure button is released during expo-
sure, this will terminate the exposure, returning the
cassette to the safety area.


● At the end of a radiographic exposure, the X-ray
control has a delay to allow the X-ray-tube filament
temperature to drop from radiographic level to
fluoroscopic heating.


● Once the X-ray control filament reset time delay has
finished, and the cassette is in the radiation shield
area, fluoroscopy may be resumed.


d. Safety interlocks


To provide safe operation, and reduce operator error,
the following interlocks may be provided.


Radiation protection
● A switch is fitted to prevent radiation unless the


image intensifier is correctly mounted. This is on
tables where the image intensifier may be dis-
mounted. This is required to enable some serial
changers to be ‘parked’ when using the system as
a Bucky-table.


● A safety switch to disable operation, when the serial
changer is moved out of alignment with the X-ray
beam. This is required for systems that allow the
serial changer to be ‘parked’ for Bucky-table
operation.


● On some smaller tables, a provision is made to allow
the undertable tube to rotate for service, or to
enable use with a wall Bucky. A safety switch
is fitted to ensure in correct position for
fluoroscopy.


● In many tables, a protective cover with a switch is
fitted over the slot for the undertable Bucky. In
these tables, the Bucky must be parked at the foot
end of the table, and the Bucky-slot cover closed,
to permit fluoroscopy.


● In case the cassette is in the ‘loading’ position, no
exposures are permitted.


● Where an exposure count has been completed for
a cassette, further exposures are prohibited until a
fresh cassette is inserted.


● Unless the cassette is correctly positioned in front
of the X-ray beam, exposure is not permitted. Note,
in some cases, this is especially important in case
the cassette motor drive system is not correctly
adjusted.


● On some tables, a ‘preparation for fluoroscopy’
switch must be operated before proceeding. This
switch is cancelled automatically on selection of a
non-fluoroscopy technique, so the table must be
deliberately re-selected every time before use.


● The X-ray automatic collimation has a facility to
allow for manual control of the exposure field. This
allows the field to be reduced, during fluoroscopy,
and held in that position when exposing on film.
Manual control is not permitted outside the area
observed during fluoroscopy.


● On some remote operated tables, a key switch is
fitted to allow over-ride of automatic collimation
for special examinations. This switch must be in
‘automatic’ mode to allow fluoroscopy.


● On remote controlled tables, exposure is prohibited
while the X-ray tube height is being adjusted.


● Many remote controlled tables permit the X-ray
tube to rotate for other requirements. (For example,
to aim at a wall Bucky). Fluoroscopy operation is
disabled in this mode.


● While fluoroscopy is permitted during movement of
the table or table top, this is not permitted for film
operation, and all possible movements are normally
locked out or disabled during radiography.


● The X-ray control is fitted with a fluoroscopy timer,
usually for five minutes maximum. Some tables may
have a duplicate timer for this operation.


Mechanical protection, for patient and table
● With conventional tables, a compression cone is


attached under the serial changer. When in use, all
compression and other movements are applied
manually by the radiologist. In case the vertical
movement of the serial changer is locked, tabletop
movements are disabled. In another version, in case
tabletop movement is energized, the vertical lock
for the serial changer is immediately released.


● For remote controlled tables, the compression
device is motor driven. The motor power is limited
to avoid excessive compression.On movement of the
serial changer or table top, the motor immediately
retracts the compression cone. In another version,
the motor is controlled by electronic measurement
of the compression force. In case the patient is
moved under compression, the motor will operate
to ensure compression remains constant. These
tables allow the radiologist to preset the maximum
compression that may be used for a particular
patient.


● A patient may place the hand outside the tabletop
area. Particularly with a remote controlled table,
this can lead to serious injury. In some tables, a light
beam is used to detect a hand gripping the under-
side of a tabletop. In other systems a gel filled pro-
tective buffer is employed. This buffer has a sensor
to register any change of pressure, and immediately
disable the relevant tabletop movement.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


242


E




● When the table is rotated, eg, from horizontal to
vertical, there is the possibility of collision with an
object, such as a stool etc. To reduce this possibil-
ity, a number of anti-collision systems have been
used. This may be via a plate or bar on the table-
base, which operates a microswitch. In other
systems, a pressure pad may be installed on the
floor under the table. None of these systems are
perfect, and care is required to keep the floor area
clear when operating the table.


● The tabletop longitudinal travel may extend a con-
siderable distance, both towards the head or foot
end. When the table is tilted, a series of camoper-
ated switches determine if a collision with the floor
or ceiling is possible. In this case, either the table
rotation is disabled, or else the tabletop is auto-
matically retracted to a safe position. In many
remote controlled tables, where a computer is used,
the relevant positions of tabletop and table rotation
are continuously measured. Depending on param-
eters entered into the computer during installation,
the computer decides when operation is unsafe.


● ‘Belt and braces’. A number of remote controlled
tables have an emergency limit switch installed. In
case the table movement does not stop after reach-
ing the correct limit of operation, further movement
trips the emergency stop, disabling the table. An
operator controlled emergency operation switch is
also installed at the table, as well as the control
panel. This allows the operator to immediately
disable all table movements in case of any unusual
operation.


PART 11 THE AUTOMATIC FILM
PROCESSOR


Contents


a. X-ray film properties
b. The automatic film processor
c. Processor developer section
d. Processor fixer section
e. Processor wash section
f. Processor film dryer
g. Other processor modes
h. Processor chemistry


a. X-ray film properties


● Standard X-ray film is photographic film, coated on
both sides of a polyester film base. This is called
‘double emulsion film’.


● A variation, ‘single emulsion film’, is coated on one
side only. A typical application is mammography,
where maximum possible image sharpness is
required.


● The photosensitive material is ‘silver halide’, sus-
pended in the form of small crystals in a gelatin
solution. The silver halide consists of approximately
90 to 99% of silver bromide, and about 1% to 10%
of silver iodide.The exact composition depending on
the manufacturer and the desired characteristics.


● X-ray film has relatively poor sensitivity to X-rays. As
a result, ‘intensifier screens’ are used to convert the
X-ray energy to light energy. In a typical X-ray cas-
sette, the film is placed between two intensifier
screens. By using double emulsion film, light from
the intensifier screen on each side of the film sen-
sitises that particular layer. This process effectively
doubles the film / intensifier screen sensitivity to X-
rays, and permits greater film contrast.


● When an exposure is made, light from the intensi-
fier screens cause the grains of silver halide to form
a ‘latent image’. Development of the film greatly
magnifies this latent image, to show the visible
image in the form of black metallic silver.


● After the image has been developed, the resultant
image is then ‘fixed’. Fixing removes the unused
silver halide, which would make the film appear
milky or cloudy, leaving behind the metallic silver.
The fixing solution also contains a substance to
harden the gelatin and make it tougher. An acid
component stops any further development of the
film.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


243




● A major component of fixer is ‘thiosulphate’. This is
commonly called ‘hypo’ after an earlier chemical
name of ‘hyposulphite of soda’.


● After fixing the film, the film is washed to remove
residual fixer, and then dried prior to viewing.


● ‘Regular’ X-ray film is biased to the blue region of
visible light, with very poor sensitivity towards the
red region. This allows the use of a red safelight in
the dark room.‘orthochromatic’ film is extended to
the green region, and ‘panchromatic’ has its sensi-
tivity extended to the red region.


● Orthochromatic film is used with current intensifier
screens that have a green spectral response.


b.The automatic film processor


The following description is for a basic film processor.
Larger units will have extra functions to maximize film
processing time, or energy saving functions. The prin-
ciple of operation, however, remains the same.


● The processor consists of three separate tanks.
These contain in turn the developer, fixer, and wash
water.


● The developer and fixer solutions are kept heated
to a precise temperature to suit the film and chem-
istry used.


● A series of rollers and crossover plates transport the
film through these three sections, then finally


through a heated air dryer before ejecting the
processed film.


● As the film passes through the chemical solutions,
the developer and fixer becomes less concentrated,
and requires automatic top-up or ‘replenishment’
to retain the correct concentration. This is done by
precision metering pumps. The time these pumps
operate depends on the size of the film entering the
processor.


● The wash water is continuously replenished, to
insure minimum residual fixer content.


c. Processor developer section


Refer to Fig E–44.


● The dotted line indicates an area outside the devel-
oper section.


● The developer supply is a pre-mixed solution of
developer concentrate and water.


● When a film is inserted, sensors at the insertion
point determine the film width. As the film travels
into the processor, this determines the length. The
electronics then calculates the developer supply
pump operation time.


● The developer solution is kept under circulation by
another pump.This operates continuously when the
processor is ready to accept films.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


244


E
Fig E–44. Processor developer section




● Developer solution passes from the circulation
pump back into the tank via a temperature con-
trolled heater. (Or heat exchanger.) The developer
temperature is normally set between 34 to 36
degrees Celsius depending on developer and film
combination.


● As fresh developer is pumped into the tank, excess
used developer will flow from the top of the tank
to a holding tank for used developer. (In some coun-
tries, though not recommended, this instead may go
direct to the drain.)


● For service to the processor, a drain valve or tap is
provided to empty the developer tank.


d. Processor fixer section


Referring to the diagram of the fixer section, Fig E–45


● The fixer supply is premixed fixer concentrate and
water.


● The fixer supply pump is also controlled by the
measurement of the film as it enters the processor.


● The rate of fixer replenishment to developer is about
two to one. To obtain this the fixer pump will
operate for twice the time as the developer pump.
In some systems, two fixer pumps operate in paral-
lel for a similar time as the developer pump. Other
systems may instead have a larger capacity pump
for the fixer.


● The fixer solution is passed through the heater and
temperature control tank by the fixer circulation
pump. The heater tank in this case is a dual
chamber system.The major chamber of the tank is
devoted to heating and controlling the developer
solution. A smaller chamber of the tank allows the
fixer solution to be heated, but at a slower rate than
the developer. (In some larger systems, separate
heating tanks are provided for fixer and developer).


● As fresh fixer is pumped into the tank,depleted fixer
is passed into a storage tank or else a silver recovery
unit. Fixer contains components that are harmful
to the environment, and health regulations forbid
allowing this chemical to be dumped into the
drainage system.


● For service to the processor, a fixer drain valve or
tap, is supplied to empty the fixer tank.


e. Processor wash section


Referring to the diagram in Fig E–46


● The water flow control valve or tap regulates the
replacement rate of the wash water.


● A water filter is highly recommended to prevent
sediment entering the processor.


● When a film is inserted, the solenoid operated
‘water on’ control valve operates to allow the wash
water to be refreshed.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


245


Fig E–45. Processor fixer section




● A timer extends the time that water flows for
several minutes, and then closes to save excessive
water consumption.


● Water enters the wash tank from the top via an air
gap.This is a safety requirement, and prevents pos-
sible transfer of the wash water back into the water
reticulation system.


● As the film passes through the transport rollers into
the wash tank, the rollers remove almost all of the
fixer from the film. The wash water removes the
small remainder. As the concentration of fixer in
the wash water is very small, the wash water is per-
mitted to exit to the sewage drain.


● Note.Care should still be taken that this wash water
does not enter drinking water, by draining towards
where well water is obtained.


● A wash water drain valve or tap is provided for
service to the processor.


f. Processor film dryer


● The transport rollers pass the film from the wash
tank through the dryer section and into the film
receiver.


● The dryer has a temperature-controlled heater. Air
is blown past this heater and onto the film, remov-
ing the residual moisture.


● The actual temperature setting may be adjusted to
suit local conditions. Eg, areas of high humidity can
require increased drying temperature.


● As a safety precaution, the heating element has an
‘over heat’ sensing switch, as a backup to the tem-
perature control for the heater.


g. Other processor modes


● On power up, a time delay is activated to ensure an
adequate preparation time. During this period
developer temperature is stabilized, and the dryer
temperature is raised to the required level.


● During start-up preparation, an added amount of
developer and fixer may be supplied to each tank.
After about an hour of operation, this may be
repeated, although a film is not inserted.


● The film transport motor operation time may be
determined by the film size and processor mode. In
some systems, although not processing a film, the
motor will start up and run for a short period. This
is to optimize condition of the rollers.


● Depending on make and model, an economy or
standby mode will be entered after a preset time.


● Again, depending on make and model, after a long
preset time (usually eight hours), a complete auto-
matic shutdown may occur if the processor has not
been used.


● Temperature setting may be reset to suit different
film specifications, eg, in case single emulsion films
are being processed.To accomplish rapid reset to a
lower temperature, cold water circulates through a
heat exchanger section of the heater and temper-


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


246


E


Fig E–46. Processor ‘wash’ section




ature control tank, or tanks. The temperature
setting in a modern processor may be adjustable
from 25 to 40 degrees Celsius, but is normally
around 34 degrees Celsius.


● Some processors measure ambient temperature
and humidity. This information is used to help opti-
mize the dryer temperature.


● While some processors may have a separate (or
combined) heater for the fixer, fixer temperature is
less critical than developer. In some cases, the fixer
may be kept warm simply by heat conduction, from
the developer tank to the fixer tank.


● Some processors have a rinse water replenishment
pump. This allows for a change of rinse water in a
small trough under the film crossover rollers. In
effect, this provides a small washing action when
film is fed from the developer tank to the fixer tank.
In some units, this is repeated for transfer from the
fixer tank to the wash tank.


● ‘Dwell time’ is the amount of time the film is in the
chemistry. Modern film processors can run as low
as 45 seconds from time of the film leading edge
‘in’ to leading edge ‘out’. 45, 60, 90, and 120 second
cycles are most common. Single emulsion films may
require a longer dwell time due to the thicker emul-
sion layer used.Typical of this is mammography film,
using 120 second dwell time.


● Height of chemicals in the developer and fixer
troughs may also be monitored. This can be via a
float with a magnet attached, passing over a
sensor.


● Modern processors now make considerable use of
microprocessors. This allows for direct input by the
operator for the required mode of operation, as well
as displaying status and error messages.


h. Processor chemistry


● Processor chemicals are provided in concentrated
form. For use, they are mixed with water, preferably
filtered water, to a recommended ‘specific gravity’.
A floating specific-gravity gauge or ‘hydrometer’ is
used to ensure the correct ratio of water to solu-
tion is obtained.


● When films pass through the processor, chemicals
are depleted. Also a small amount is carried over
to the next tank. In the developer section, oxida-
tion occurs, and the bromide level increases. To
compensate, a metered amount of developer is
added for each film processed. This is called
‘replenishment’.


● Developer solution is initially highly reactive until
the bromide level stabilizes.When starting up a new
processor, or replacing suspect chemicals with a
fresh solution,‘starter’ solution is added.This brings
the bromide level to the correct operating level.


● In case the developer replenishment rate is exces-
sive, then the bromide level falls, and results in over-
active chemistry.


● Low developer replenishment results in low activity
chemistry, and poorly developed films.


● Fixer also loses its ability to harden films, and
requires replenishment.


● Typical replenishment rates for a 35 by 43cm film
are: Developer 45 to 65cc, fixer 80 to 110cc. The
exact rate depends on the film, chemicals used, and
processor make and model.


APPENDIX E. X-RAY EQUIPMENT OPERATION


247




APPENDIX F


Teaching techniques


● Verbal or written instructions may be made avail-
able to the student.


● The practical should be relevant to recently
acquired information.


Demonstration
● Given by the teacher to illustrate a particular point.
● May be carried out as a supplement to a lecture or


tutorial or an introduction to a practical.


Role Play
● Students act out specific sets of circumstances.


Reading
● Students are given topics or specific references to


read up on.
● Often used as a preliminary before a tutorial or


instead of a lecture.


Self directed learning
● The student is given the topic and the expected


outcome.
● The student does their own research and problem


solving.
● Exchange of information and group problem solving


is encouraged.
● Usually followed up by a tutorial and a written con-


firmation of the student’s knowledge.


Context based learning
● Problem solving, in groups.


Presentation
● The student researches the topic and gives a talk


to other students.
● The teacher acts as facilitator and assessor.


Assignment
● The student researches a set topic and hands up a


written presentation to the teacher.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


248


E


How you teach a subject is most important. The most
highly skilled and knowledgeable person can fail to
pass on the necessary information to students by not
using the correct teaching skills or methods.


Following is a broad coverage of teaching methods,
some of which will be appropriate to your situation,
and some not.


This material has been reproduced from the WHO
Quality assurance workbook together with additional
suggestions suitable for this workbook; appended to
the section ‘Suggested method of teaching with this
workbook’.


You should consider how you may perform and what
method you will use. Choose a method suited to your
subject, and what you want to achieve. Planning is all-
important. Research your topic well.


Overview of teaching methods in
common use


Lecture
● Stand or sit in front of a class and verbally give the


relevant information.
● Suitable for large and small classes.
● Rather inflexible.
● Can be boring.
● Audio visual aids can be used.
● Printed notes can be given out in support of the


spoken word.


Tutorial
● More informal than the lecture.
● Suitable for smaller classes.
● Students are encouraged to present material and


enter into group discussion.
● The teacher acts more as a facilitator.
● Participants can sit around a table or in a circle.
● Feedback is important.


Practical
● Students carry out a practical exercise under


teacher supervision.




Workbook
● A specialized book that poses questions and/or sets


practical tasks. Answers are generally recorded in
the book.


Book review
● To encourage students to read certain books.
● The student is asked to present a written summary


and comment on the book.


Posters
● Can be done in work groups.
● May be used as teaching material at a later stage.
● Could be displayed in department to convey


information.


Presentation technique


In any form of presentation by a teacher to a class,
the following points should be considered:


● Stand or sit where students can see you.
● Address them clearly.
● Use language they can understand.
● Present your facts logically.
● Speak directly to the class.
● Cast your eyes around the class as you speak.
● Use visual aids where necessary.
● May use flip charts.
● In a tutorial or practical situation the teacher acts


largely as a facilitator.


Teaching aids
● 35mm slides.
● Overhead projection (OHP).
● Video.
● White board/chalk board.
● Butchers paper.
● Models.
● Charts.
● Radiographs.
● Pieces of relevant equipment.
● Printed notes.


Preparation
● Select the topic.
● Research the topic.
● Assess the educational and technical level of the


students.
● Decide on the breadth and depth of the material


to be covered.
● Select the method of teaching to be used.
● Select the teaching environment.


● Prepare relevant teaching notes.
● Prepare relevant teaching aids.
● The length of the session must match the time slot


available.
● The amount of material to be presented must


match the length of the time slot.
● In the case of a practical, ensure before hand that


it will work.


Running a practical
● Identify each piece of equipment.
● Explain the procedure.
● Outline the aim.
● Demonstrate if necessary.
● Identify likely problems.
● Observe student carrying out the task.
● Comment as necessary.
● Be available to assist or answer questions.


Feedback to the student
(Following any learning activity performed by the
student, the teacher should give feedback to the
student regarding their performance).


● Mark/grade achieved.
● Method.
● Content.
● Technique.
● Performance.
● Presentation.
● Or whatever is appropriate.


Assessment
● Written examination.


—Multiple choice.
—Short answer.
—Essay.
—Numerical answer.
—Problem solving.
—Open book.
—Fill in a missing word.
—Tick a box.


● Practical task (written question and answer).
● Practical task (teacher observed-must have a pre-


determined mark sheet).
● Assignment.
● Book review.
● Oral examination.


Grading student work
● Written.
● Verbal.
● Practical.


APPENDIX F. TEACHING TECHNIQUES


249




Forms of grading
● Pass/Fail/Referred.
● ABCDEF


—Where A is the highest and F is the lowest.
—A to E are graded passes.
—E to F are graded fails.


● Distinction/Credit/Pass/Fail.
● Marks out of 100.
● Marks out of 10.
● Combined project(s)/exam(s) e.g. 50%/50% or


25%/25%/50%.
● Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory.
● No grading, the student simply attends classes and


completes all work set.
● Outcome based.
● Can the student perform a task satisfactorily?
● The student must be made aware of the grading


system.
● The student must be made aware of the results of


any assessment.
● The teacher must allocate marks to the various


parts of the material before marking takes place.


Teacher performance
● Start and finish on time.
● Plan content to fit the time frame.
● Encourage questions.
● Speak clearly.
● Maintain a friendly discipline.
● Be well prepared:


—Knowledge.
—Notes.
—Teaching aids.


● Mark all work fairly and accurately.
● Return all marked work as soon as possible.
● Give feedback.
● Regularly look around your audience.
● Humour is a useful tool if used properly.
● Don’t be sexist, superior, aggressive or


condescending.


How good are you at teaching?
Some ways of understanding how you perform as a
teacher:
● Evaluation questionnaire filled in by the student at


the end of a class or series of classes.
● Ask someone to watch you teach and give you


feedback.
● Watch student reaction during a class.
● Videotape a lecture, view it and then evaluate


yourself.


Sample evaluation of teacher performance
● Were you able to hear? Yes/No
● Did the teacher start and finish on time? Yes/No
● Was the material presented in logical


way? Yes/No
● Was the material covered adequately? Yes/No
● Was the presentation carried out


satisfactorily? Yes/No
● Was the attitude of the teacher


satisfactory? Yes/No
● Were the aim and objectives of the


course achieved? Yes/No
● Further comment:


● Instead of Yes/No the student could be asked to
choose from the following:
—Excellent.
—Good.
—Acceptable.
—Needs improvement.


Suggested method of teaching with
this workbook


This book sets out to give the relevant information on
the topics listed in the contents, regarding equipment
maintenance, fault diagnosis or repair, then sets simple
tasks that students are expected to carry out, respond-
ing to any questions asked.The teaching method used
should therefore be practically oriented.


The tutor
A tutor using this book must:


● Become thoroughly familiar with the book.
● Understand its contents and know how to perform


all tasks set.
● Know the answers to all questions asked.
● Understand and be able to run practical exercises


and carry out any other form of teaching con-
sidered appropriate.


● Be able to select and use the most appropriate
method of teaching.


● Make sure that all equipment needed is available.
● Make sure the student understands what is


required of them.
● Be available to advice while the student is carrying


out the exercises.
● Assess student’s work fairly and accurately. Give


useful feedback.
● Be sympathetic to student needs.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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E




Method
It is suggested that a tutor use the following basic
teaching format:


● Understand the student’s needs.
● Devise an appropriate teaching programme (lecture,


tutorial, practical etc.).
● Ensure that you have all the equipment and teach-


ing aids that you require.
● You should carry out a practical exercise yourself


first, to ensure it works.
● Ensure that you have the correct answers/results.
● Issue the workbook to the student, at least two


weeks before they start the course, for pre reading
discussion with colleagues and completion of the
information about their department.


● Read the completed questionnaire, ‘Student’s own
department’, and discuss with the student in order
to determine their needs.


● Before starting the course the student must com-
plete the Pre test.


● Outline the teaching format to the student.
● Identify the topics to be covered.
● Give a copy of the teaching programme to the


student.
● Cover one topic at a time.
● With each topic, first give formal instructions cov-


ering all the relevant information.
● Answer any questions.
● Allow the students to carry out the exercises.
● The tutor should be available in an advisory


capacity.
● Give the student time to complete the exercise and


any necessary written work.
● Assess the practical component.
● Assess the answers on the task sheet and make


written comment.
● Grade the answers and practical performance


Satisfactory/Unsatisfactory.
● Give feedback to the student.
● If the student’s performance is unsatisfactory the


task must be repeated.
● Continue with the next topic when a satisfactory


grade has been achieved.


Role Play
● In this instance of role-play, the tutor will select a


small group of students, preferably no more than
two or three, and present them with an equipment
failure to solve.


● The equipment failure may consist of a removed
fuse, disconnected plug or connection, to achieve
the desired symptom.The technique used to set up
the problem should not be immediately visible.


● The tutor’s role is to take the place of a radiogra-
pher reporting a problem.


● The tutor will remain in the room, to answer further
questions, as in a typical situation.


● Also, while directly observing progress, the tutor can
quietly intervene to ensure safety requirements are
met, or, after a period of time, provide hints to
enable solution of the problem.


● The students should be encouraged to make as
many observations as possible, reach a possible con-
clusion to the possible area of the problem, and
devise tests to further define the possible cause.


Practice equipment
● Routine maintenance on new, ‘state of the art’


equipment is difficult to practice, as there will be
very few problems to locate.


● In addition, modern microprocessor systems, with
computer based diagnostics, present a totally dif-
ferent situation compared to older units in need of
attention.


● An ideal situation is to have a room of older equip-
ment. This may come from a hospital where the
equipment has been upgraded.


● This equipment would be especially suitable for
practice of routine maintenance, as it may be in
a similar condition to older equipment in other
hospitals.


● It is easier to simulate fault conditions on old equip-
ment, and there is much reduced possibility of cre-
ating an actual problem.


Guest tutor
● In some situations, a number of students may come


from hospitals that have been supplied by the same
organization or manufacturer.


● Such organizations may be persuaded to supply a
‘guest tutor’


● The guest tutor should be able to instruct in pro-
cedures for specific equipment, such as:
—Maintenance.
—Types of error messages.
—Simple repairs relevant to the specific equipment.


Identification of components
To assist with recognition of components, suitable
samples should be available for evaluation.These could
include:
● Types of fuses


—‘Slow blow’
—‘Standard’
—Special types used for high power.


APPENDIX F. TEACHING TECHNIQUES


251




● Relays and contactors.
● Solenoids and lock coils.
● Microswitches and optical couplers.
● Ht cable, to show the outer braid connected to the


cable end.
● Old X-ray tubes with worn or cracked anodes.


Simple test tools
● A number of simple test tools have been described


in the previous ‘WHO Quality assurance workbook’
and also in this workbook.


● The student should be encouraged to construct
these tools during training.This will enable them to
have useful tools when they return to their hospi-
tals. (Once they have returned, there is less incen-
tive to construct these items).


● The students can practise using these tools during
training.


● To facilitate construction, the training centre should
have suitable materials available, which the student
may purchase at cost price.


Conclusion


● This section has set out to give you an overall insight
into teaching.


● Much of the material given will not directly apply
to your situation.


● You must choose what you feel is relevant to you
and carry out your teaching to suit your own needs
and those of the student.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


252


E




APPENDIX G


Health and safety


● Equipment moving unexpectedly and striking staff
or patient.


● Staff or patient striking head on overhead
equipment.


When carrying out maintenance:
● Do not stand on a tabletop to gain access to a tube


stand.
● If removing items from suspended equipment such


as a tube stand or vertical Bucky, this may suddenly
move upwards out of control. Attach a safety
restraint to prevent this possibility.


● Do not lean a ladder against a tube stand, the stand
may move unexpectedly.


● When using a ladder, an assistant should hold the
ladder in place.


● Whenever dismantling any section, place any small
parts, such as screws, in a container to avoid loss.


● If removing panels, ensure all power is turned off.
● Screwdrivers should be in good condition; a blunt


or wrong size screwdriver could damage a screw
head, or else slip and cause injury.


● If removing a ‘pin’, use a ‘pin punch’.Substitute tools
can cause damage, or slip and cause injury.


● Using an incorrect spanner to tighten a nut may
cause the spanner to slip, damaging the nut or your
hands.


Electricity


Before investigating a possible fuse or wiring
problem, always ensure power is turned off and
unplugged from the power point. If the equip-
ment is part of a fixed installation, besides
switching the generator power off, ensure the
isolation power switch for the room is also
switched off.


With battery operated mobiles, ensure the
battery isolation switch is in the off position. If
this cannot be located, contact the service
department for advice before proceeding.


APPENDIX G. HEALTH AND SAFETY


253


This chapter, ‘Health and safety’ has been reproduced
from the ‘WHO Quality assurance workbook’, by Peter
J Lloyd. The contents have been edited to suit this
workbook.


Health and safety issues in any work environment
are very important. It is the responsibility of all heads
of department to ensure that injury or sickness, due
to working conditions, is kept to a minimum. Injury or
sickness may increase absenteeism of staff members
and reduce efficiency. Staff must not put patients, col-
leagues or self at risk.


X-ray departments should be prepared for emer-
gencies such as fire, major disaster or any life-
threatening situation. Radiography involves working
with:


● Machinery and tools.
● Electricity.
● Hazardous chemicals.
● Radiation.


The first thing to consider is making the work envi-
ronment as safe as possible, by minimizing the risk of
problems arising. To achieve this, ensure that:


● Regular maintenance inspections are carried out.
● Safety procedures are followed.
● Adequate staff instruction is given.
● Safety equipment is readily available.


Machinery and tools


Regularly inspect all machinery.


● Do not attempt to repair anything you do not
understand.


● If uncertain of any procedure or action, phone the
service department for advice.


● Call an X-ray engineer if you are unable to fix the
problem.


Take care with all moving parts, to minimize the risk
of:


● Trapping fingers.
● Loose parts falling off onto staff or patient.




Consult a qualified electrician or X-ray engineer.
Regularly inspect all electrical equipment, cables and
connections. Do not attempt to repair anything you do
not understand.


When carrying out any simple maintenance, repair,
or cleaning of electrical equipment:


● Note. Never work on the inside of the X-ray control
by yourself.


● Electrical power cords or plugs should only be
repaired by an electrician.


● If equipment is being worked on, place tape and a
label on the power switch to avoid it being switched
back on.


● With an X-ray room, locate and turn off the power
isolation switch. Then place tape or a label to indi-
cate it must not be turned back on.


● Beware of extension power cables that are locally
made. There have been many cases of incorrect or
loose connections creating a dangerous situation.


● Do not tamper with anything you do not fully
understand.


● Unless you are qualified, restrict your actions to
replacing light bulbs, simple electrical parts, tight-
ening connections, replacing fuses and inspecting
cables.


● When replacing a fuse, ensure it is the correct
type and size. If in doubt, consult the service
department.


● Ensure that all parts are correctly and safely
installed or adjusted.


● Ensure that all protective panels are replaced.
● Report all faults to your immediate senior or


through the recognised channel.
● Ensure that other members of staff are aware of


any problem.


Fire


● Adequate fire fighting equipment, instructions, and
evacuation procedures must be in place at all times.


● Emergency exit doors not locked or blocked.
● Illuminated EXIT signs in all public area.
● Fire alarms easily accessible.


Hazardous chemicals


(Laws and regulations to be followed)
Developer and fixer are hazardous chemicals and
should be handled with care. Display manufacturer’s
instructions for mixing, care and first aid treatment, in
a prominent place in the area in which the chemicals
are to be used.


The risks involved are:


● Inhaling fumes or powders.
● Swallowing.
● Contact with the skin or eyes.


When mixing solutions:


● Work in a well-ventilated room.
● Avoid skin or eye contact with chemicals.
● Wear a mask, goggles, rubber gloves and a plastic


apron.
● Avoid splashes.
● Wash all equipment used after mixing.
● Clean up any spills or splashes.


When processing films:


● Avoid skin or eye contact with chemicals.
● Ensure that the darkroom is adequately ventilated.
● Minimize splashes.
● Clean up any splashes as soon as possible.
● Replace any tank lids when finished.


Disposal of empty chemical bottles


● Should not be used as drinking water containers.
● Puncture and place in a sealed plastic bag before


disposal.


Disposal of exhausted chemistry: Things NOT to do


● Do not flush into common drains or simply throw
away. The chemicals may get into the local water
supply or contaminate crops.


● Do not flush into a septic tank system. The chemi-
cals will kill the ‘good’ bacteria and stop the break-
down of solid matter.


Disposal of exhausted chemistry: Helpful suggestions


● Ideally use a silver recovery unit and dispose of the
chemistry through a recognized hazardous chemi-
cals agency.


● Select a suitable site where the chemicals can be
buried and are not likely to get into the local water
supply or in any way affect humans, animals or
crops.


● Further refinements of the ‘bury method’ is to use
a sand trap first, then bury the residual sand or use
an evaporative trench lined with sand and bury the
sand when the water has evaporated.


● Local soil, terrain and weather conditions should be
considered.


First aid treatment


● Follow manufacture’s recommendations.
● Skin contact.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


254


E




—Wash thoroughly in water immediately.
● Eye contact.


—Wash eye thoroughly, immediately.
—Darkrooms should be equipped with emergency


eye wash kits.
● Inhaled.


—Move out into fresh air immediately.
—Seek medical advice.


● Swallowed
—Wash mouth and lips in clean water.
—Seek medical advice immediately.


Radiation


Follow national laws and regulations!


● Use an ongoing personal monitoring system.
● Do not produce X-radiation unnecessarily.
● Keep clear of the primary radiation beam.
● Keep clear of any scattered radiation.
● Collimate the beam as much as practicable.


● Make sure that all items of lead rubber are in good
condition and effective.


● Make sure that shielding to the control panel is
effective.


● Make sure that X-ray room walls effectively protect
people in adjacent areas.


● Close door to X-ray room when exposing.
● Standard radiation warning symbols must be placed


on the doors of all X-ray rooms.
● Illuminated signs should be placed at the entrance


to all X-ray rooms where prolonged X-ray exposures
are made, warning when X-rays are being used, e.g.
screening rooms.


● Make sure that all unnecessary personnel are clear
of the radiation area when exposing.


● Make sure that X-ray equipment is working prop-
erly and is safe, by carrying out regular quality
control checks.


● X-ray equipment should be switched off when not
in use and any safety lock keys removed.


APPENDIX G. HEALTH AND SAFETY


255




E




Post test
and glossary


PART VI




E




Post test


3. The X-ray tube housing has a safety switch. This
switch operates in case:
a) The tube housing has an oil leak.
b) The anode is overheated.
c) The oil is too hot.


4. The effect of the added aluminium filter between
the X-ray tube and the collimator is to:
a) Improve image contrast at high kV exposures.
b) Remove off-focal radiation from the X-ray tube.
c) Reduce unwanted low energy X-ray photons.


5. The spinning top can be used to test the exposure
times of:
a) A single-phase full wave generator.
b) A capacitor discharge mobile.
c) A three-phase twelve-pulse generator.


6. The X-ray tube filament requires compensation for
the space-charge effect. If not compensated, the
mA output will:
a) Fall as kV is increased.
b) kV does not effect the emission.
c) Rise as kV is increased.


7. You have a complaint of grid lines suddenly
appearing on the film while using the table Bucky.
You decide to first:
a) Remove the grid from the table Bucky, and


check the type of grid fitted.
b) Make a test exposure, and check if the table


Bucky grid is in fact oscillating.
c) Check the control panel, to make sure the table


Bucky is selected, and not the upright Bucky.


8. When using a stepwedge to check calibration
reproducibility, you should:
a) Keep the same kV, but change the mA selec-


tion, adjusting the time to obtain the same
mAs.


b) Using the same kV and mA station, make a
series of five exposures, exposing a fresh area
of the film each time.


POST TEST


259


Now that you have completed the course, your knowl-
edge of the subjects should be much greater. You
should now complete this post course test, and
compare the results with those of the pre-course test.


This will allow you to assess how much knowledge
you have obtained from the course, or perhaps the
need for careful revision.


Name and address


Hospital name and address


Instructions


This is a multiple-choice test. In each question you are
given three possible answers.


● Read each question carefully.
● Indicate the answer that you feel is the most


accurate by placing an ‘X’ in front of the letter
preceding it.


All questions must be answered


1. What is the main purpose of the metal braid
around the outside of the high-tension cables?
a) Allow the high-tension cable to become a


capacitor.
b) Provide protection against electrical shock.
c) Reduce interference to other equipment when


used with a high frequency generator.


2. The high-tension cables in a capacitor discharge
mobile will:
a) Have high voltage applied only during an


exposure.
b) Carry the maximum value of the indicated


capacitor charge voltage.
c) Each cable will carry half the indicated capac-


itor charge voltage.




c) Using the same kV setting, make two expo-
sures, first on the fine focus, then on the large
focus. Use the same mAs setting, exposing a
fresh area of film each time.


9. The Bucky table lateral movement lock suddenly
has reduced grip, and does not hold the table
firmly in position.You decide to:
a) Look for a faulty fuse.
b) Request an electrician to boost the voltage to


the lock coils.
c) Check the lateral lock coils, to see if they are


both warm.


10. You have been transferred to another hospital.The
first thing you notice is that the collimator lamp
is not very bright. You decide to:
a) Replace the globe with a more powerful one.
b) Order a replacement mirror.
c) Request an electrician to check the lamp


voltage, while the lamp is turned on.


11. On checking the alignment of the light beam to
the X-ray field, you find it is displaced to one side.
The collimator is designed to rotate. Your first
action should be:
a) Adjust the position of the globe.
b) Adjust the position of the collimator relative to


the focal spot.
c) Rotate the collimator 908 to the left, and then


1808 to the right. Check that the light beam
remains in the same position.


12. The collimator blades tend to slip to the closed
position, often at an awkward time.To prevent this
you should:
a) Place sticky tape over the adjustment knobs, to


prevent them moving.
b) Remove the collimator cover, and adjust the


clutch or brake pressure pad.
c) Remove the cover, and adjust the spring tension


pulling the blades together.


13. You have set up a portable X-ray unit in a village
to carry out a survey. However the unit does not
power up. The first check should be:
a) Check the connections to the power plug.
b) Look for a blown fuse in the control unit.
c) Test the power point by plugging in a lamp.


14. A common fault with a capacitor discharge mobile
is a short circuit in the cathode cable, between
the X-ray tube grid and cathode connections. This
results in:


a) Although preparation is obtained, an exposure
cannot be made.


b) The capacitor will not charge to the required
kV.


c) As the generator is placed into preparation, an
immediate exposure takes place, discharging
the capacitor.


15. The films from the processor are discoloured, and
feel sticky.
a) The wash water temperature is too high.
b) Poor quality films. Try a new box.
c) Fixer is depleted or contaminated.


16. Developer temperature should be checked.
a) Weekly.
b) Twice a week.
c) Daily.


17. A densitometer:
a) Is used to print a test strip onto the film.
b) Measures patient size to help estimate


exposures.
c) Measures the degree of film density.


18. The X-ray room has an older installation with a floor
ceiling tube stand.The X-ray tube appears centred
to the table Bucky,but not to the upright Bucky.
a) Reposition the wall Bucky.
b) Test the tube stand cross-arm in case it is not


truly horizontal.
c) Adjust the X-ray tube housing in the trunnion


rings.


19. The effective calibration of the tomography
fulcrum height will be changed if:
a) The exposure time is too short.
b) The X-ray tube is rotated from its central


position.
c) The X-ray tube is set to the incorrect height.


20. A ‘slow blow’ or ‘delay’ fuse is described as:
a) A small glass tube, with the fuse element


attached to a spring.
b) A similar glass tube, with a rectangular fuse


element.
c) Any large ceramic style fuse, with a body diam-


eter over 25mm.


21. You have carried out an exposure linearity test on
a generator. One of the test results shows a darker
stepwedge. This can indicate:
a) The kV at that point was out of calibration.
b) The value of mAs had increased.
c) Either of the above.


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


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22. On making a high kV exposure, a fault signal
occurs, together with a light film.You suspect the
tube may be unstable. To improve the X-ray tube
stability you should.
a) Perform three 70kV 200mAs exposures to


warm up the anode each morning.
b) Place the tube in extended preparation for a


period of ten seconds before exposing.
c) Make a series of 20mAs exposures, starting at


70kV and increasing at 5kV per step, up to the
required kV.


23. A line-pair gauge is used to:
a) Test the resolution of a TV imaging system.
b) Measure the number of grid lines for an X-ray


grid.
c) Measure the conversion efficiency of an image


intensifier.


24. Your fluoroscopy room has two TV monitors.At the
rear of each monitor is a 75-ohm switch.You find
that if this is turned on, the picture contrast and
brightness is reduced.
a) With a two monitor system, both switches


should be turned ‘on’.
b) The monitor connected between the camera


and the end monitor should be turned ‘off’, and
the end monitor turned ‘on’.


c) With a two monitor system, both switches
should be turned ‘off’.


25. Exposures using an automatic exposure control
(AEC) have increased in density.As a first response,
you should:
a) Try exposing at lower kV settings.
b) Have the AEC recalibrated.
c) Check the processor performance.


26. The coincidence of the X-ray and light fields of a
collimator, set at 100cm FFD, are said to be
acceptable when:
a) The X-ray field is 15mm outside the light field.
b) The X-ray field is 12mm inside the light field.
c) The X-ray field is 3mm outside the light field.


27. After investigating a problem, you find a fuse is
open circuit. This is rated at 7.5amps. You do not
have this size fuse available.
a) Replace it with a temporary 10amp fuse.
b) Test first with a 5amp fuse.
c) Replace the wire inside the fuse with household


fuse wire.


28. If about to remove an X-ray tube from the stand,
you should first.
a) Remove the collimator.
b) Remove and label all connections.
c) Fasten the tube stand cross-arm with a rope to


prevent vertical movement.


29. On testing the generator reproducibility, you find
that if preparation time is extended, the radiation
increases. This is possibly due to:
a) The X-ray tube space-charge effect.
b) Incorrect calibration of the mA station under test.
c) Pre-heating of the X-ray tube filament is too low.


30. A sensitometry test of the processor should be
carried out:
a) If the generator’s automatic exposure control


(AEC) produces light films.
b) The processor should be checked once a


month.
c) After the processor temperature is stable.


POST TEST


261




X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


262


E


Glossary


Callipers A device used to measure the thickness of
body parts.


CCD Charge coupled device. Used in current TV
cameras. The CCD consists of a large number of
light sensitive cells, which produce the TV video
signal.


Central ray The centre of the X-ray beam. Often used
to define the direction of the beam, or, its position,
related to a body part.


Cassette A light tight holder that contains a pair of
intensifying screens, between which, is placed the
film.


Characteristic curve Also known as H & D curve or
sensitometric curve. It is a plotted graph of the
various densities of a step wedge image. Any varia-
tion in type of film/screen, exposure or processing
will vary the shape, or position, of the curve.


Circuit breaker An electromechanical safety switch.
On excessive current the device will switch off,
performing the function of a fuse. Unlike a fuse, the
switch on the circuit breaker can be manually reset.


Clearing time The time it takes for a film to lose the
cloudy appearance when placed in the fixer during
film processing. In other words the time it takes for
the unwanted film emulsion to be dissolved off by
the fixer.


Code display A numeric display on a control panel is
changed to an alphanumeric display. For example,
the indication of set kV on a generator indicates E2
instead of the required kV.This may be due to a fault
condition, or incorrect adjustment of the control.
Refer to the operation manual for a description of the
displayed code, or contact the service department.


Collimator A device used to control the coverage
of the X-ray beam. Also known as a light beam
diaphragm (LBD).


Contactor A heavy duty relay for switching large
currents. Used as the ‘exposure contactor’ in older
X-ray controls.


AEC Automatic exposure control. Often called a
phototimer, or by a manufacturers name. (Eg,
Iontomat, Amplimat, etc).


Acid A solution with a pH less than 7. It reacts with
blue litmus paper and turns it red.


Acrylic Or ‘plexiglass’. A clear plastic, used for a
large variety of purposes. This material makes an
excellent ‘phantom’ for adjusting X-ray equipment,
particularly for setting up or calibrating an AEC.
Filtration is approximately similar to water.


Active wire Electricity supply to a power outlet nor-
mally has an ‘active’ and ‘neutral’ connection. The
active wire has the full supply voltage in reference
to ground potential, while the neutral wire is the
same as ground potential.


Ageing See seasoning.


Alkali A solution with a pH greater than 7. It reacts
with red litmus paper and turns it blue.


Anamorphic lens A special lens that changes the
shape of an image. Used to change the round image
from an image intensifier to an oval image. This
allows the image to fully cover all pixels of a CCD
sensor in an X-ray TV camera.


Artefact Marks on a radiograph that are foreign to
the image, such as scratches, fingerprints or static.


Back flush To clean a processor filter. Connect the
filter ‘back to front’ to a water supply.This will ‘flush
out’ the dirt held in the filter.


Base + fog The density normally found in unexposed
film, caused by manufacture and storage.


Bench top processor A small, automatic film pro-
cessor, best sited on a bench top. Suited to low
throughput.


Beam The beam of radiation produced by the X-ray
tube.


Bucky A commonly used abbreviation of the Potter-
Bucky moving grid system.




GLOSSARY


263


Contrast The difference between the light and dark
areas of a radiograph. High contrast is when there
are few shades of grey between the lightest and
darkest areas of the image. Low contrast is when
there are many more shades of grey in the image.


Compression band A strip of material, usually linen
or plastic, approximately 20cm wide, attached at
one end to a ratchet device, and at the other to a
hook. It is used for compressing or immobilizing
patients.


Dark current The emission, or conduction, of elec-
trons in the absence of light. For example, electron
emission from an X-ray tube cathode, without
heating the filament. A capacitor discharge mobile
will generate X-rays due to this dark current when
the capacitors are charged. X-ray emission is pre-
vented by a dark-current shutter in the collimator.


Densitometer A device for measuring the density of
any specific spot on a radiograph, by measuring the
light that is allowed to pass through it.


Density, radiographic Radiographic density is the
degree of blackening of a radiograph caused by the
deposit of metallic silver.


Density, tissue Tissue density is the mass of body
tissue in a given volume, or the concentration of
atoms. The greater the tissue density the more
X-ray absorption takes place and the lighter the
image on the radiograph. (Do not confuse radi-
ographic density with tissue density.)


Detail, radiographic image The amount and quality
of information contained in a radiographic image.
The amount of detail seen in a radiograph is deter-
mined by image sharpness, contrast and density.


Detail intensifying-screens The name applied to a
type of intensifying screen that gives better image
detail, but is less responsive to radiation and there-
fore requires a higher exposure. Commonly used for
extremities.


Development The chemical process of converting the
latent film image into a visible one.


Distortion Misrepresentation of a body part out-
line, in the image, due to changes in X-ray beam/
body part alignment or unacceptable object film
distance.


Edge connector Part of a printed circuit board is
shaped, so the edge of the board fits directly into
a socket. The printed copper strips on the side of
the board slide into contacts fitted in the socket.


The copper strips are usually gold plated for
reliability.


Emulsion The active layer of chemical crystals sus-
pended in a gelatine layer, of film, which is sensitive
to light and radiation. The word emulsion can also
be used to describe the radiation sensitive layer of
intensifying screens.


Exposure The amount of radiation produced from
the X-ray tube, by a pre-determined set of exposure
factors, kV, mA, seconds. In practice the term tends
to be used loosely. The term ‘exposure’ being used
to mean exposure factors.


FFD Focus/film distance. More accurately, SID
(source image distance).


Focal range The range of focal film distances at
which, a grid is designed to be used.


Focal spot The area on the X-ray tube anode where
the X-rays are produced.


Focussed grid Grid lines are inclined toward the
centre of the grid, to better accommodate the
spreading X-ray beam.


Fog Radiation fogging of a film is commonly caused
by scattered radiation reaching the unprocessed
film. Light fog is caused by unwanted white light
reaching the unprocessed film. Base fog is inherent
fog, caused in film manufacture.


Filter, safelight A specialized, coloured glass window,
fitted to a safelight to enable the safe handling of
X-ray film.


Filter, X-ray A sheet of metal, usually aluminium,
fitted to the port of an X-ray tube to filter out the
long wavelength X-ray photons.


Grid A device consisting of alternate radiopaque and
radiolucent strips. Designed to allow the primary
X-rays to pass through, but absorb scattered
radiation.


Grid control X-ray tube The X-ray tube cathode cup
has a negative voltage applied to control electron
emission from the cathode. This allows short con-
trolled exposures, under continuous application of
high voltage. Grid control tubes are often used in
specialised X-ray theatres, while much smaller ver-
sions are used in capacitor discharge mobiles.


Grid cut off A reduction in grid efficiency due to
misalignment of the X-ray beam to the grid.


Grid line The number of lead strips to the cm/inch.




Grid ratio The ratio of the height of the radiopaque
(lead) strips to the distance between them (radi-
olucent strips).


Hand-switch In this case, the dual pressure prepara-
tion, and exposure switch, for an X-ray control. This
term can still apply if there are two separate push
buttons mounted on the control.


Hanger Film hanger is a stainless steel frame with
clips at each corner for holding the film when
manual processing takes place.


Hazardous chemicals Any chemical, which may have
an injurious affect. Developer and fixer both fall into
this category.


Heel effect The decrease of radiation toward the
anode side of the X-ray tube. As radiation emitted
from the target approaches the physical angle of
the anode, eg, becomes parallel with the side of the
anode, radiation is absorbed by the anode.


High-Frequency generator AC input power is rectified
to become DC. After passing through an inverter,
the DC voltage becomes a high frequency AC
voltage.This allows a more efficient HT transformer,
plus tight regulation of the kV output.


High-speed starter An electronic device, which gen-
erates a multiple of the mains power frequency for
rotating the X-ray tube anode.This is normally three
times the mains frequency. Eg, 150Hz for 50Hz
input, or 180Hz for an input of 60Hz.


Hydrometer A sealed, weighted glass tube, with a
visible scale marked on it,which will float in a liquid.
Used for assessing the specific gravity (S.G.) of
developer and fixer, the level of which is an indica-
tion of the concentration.


IGBT Insulated gate bipolar transistor. This device
can handle very large currents, and is used to form
the inverter in current high frequency generators.


Image intensifier Or II. A device to convert X-rays
to visible light. Due to high operating voltages, and
a small output screen compared to the input area,
light output may be 9000 times brighter than a
fluorescent screen. This permits use of TV cameras
and many other image-recording devices.


Inhibit Stop, or prevent operation.


Inverter generator See high-frequency generator.


Intensifying screens Radiation sensitive screens,
placed inside a cassette, on either side of the film.
When struck by radiation the screens give off a blue


or green light that has a blackening effect on the
radiographic image produced. The colour of light
emitted depends on the type of fluorescent mate-
rials used. Remember that the film colour sensitiv-
ity must match the colour of light given off by the
screens.


Interlock A switch or safety circuit to allow opera-
tion only after a set of conditions has been
obtained. For example, an interlock prevents an
exposure until all preparation requirements have
been completed. Eg, anode rotation & X-ray tube
filament heating.


kV Kilo-voltage (1000 volts). Controls the quality
(penetrating power) of the X-ray beam. Affects con-
trast of resultant image. (High kV–low contrast, low
kV–high contrast). Affects intensity of radiation and
therefore patient dose, to a lesser extent. (mAs has
a greater effect on intensity and patient dose).


kVp The peak or crest value of the high voltage
applied to the X-ray tube.


Latitude, exposure Exposure latitude is the range of
exposure factors that will produce an acceptable
image.


Latitude, film Is a film emulsion characteristic that
increases or reduces exposure latitude.


LED Light emitting diode.


mA (milliampere, 1/1000th of an ampere) A radi-
ographic exposure factor that controls the intensity
of radiation, influences image density and patient
dose. The current flowing in the X-ray tube during
an exposure.


mAs (milliampere-seconds) A radiographic exposure
factor. mA x seconds.


mAs meter A meter for measuring the product of
mA over a period of time. A useful item of test
equipment, used for calibrating an X-ray control.
Some X-ray generators have an mAs meter on the
control panel.


Medium frequency generator See high frequency
generator.


Neutral wire Electricity supply to a power outlet
normally has an active and a neutral connection.
The active wire has the full supply voltage in refer-
ence to ground potential, while the neutral wire is
close to, or the same as, ground potential.


Noise As applied to an X-ray image.This is otherwise
called ‘quanta mottle’ or ‘grain’. Electronic noise is


X-RAY EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS WORKBOOK


264


E




GLOSSARY


265


a similar effect, called ‘snow’ with domestic TV
reception.


Non-focused A grid that does not have focused grid
lines.


NTSC National Television Systems Committee
(NTSC).This is the American colour TV specification.


Off focal radiation In the X-ray tube, about 10% of
the electrons striking the anode tend to bounce
away from the focal spot.They are then re-attracted
to the anode, but over a much larger area. Off focal
radiation requires care in the collimator design to
reduce this unwanted radiation.


Oxidation A weakening of developer strength caused
by prolonged exposure to air.


PAL Phase Alternate Line (PAL) is a further devel-
opment of the NTSC system. Commonly used in
Europe. Each alternate scanning line has reversed
colour phase. This cancels colour error.


Penetration The ability of the X-ray beam to pene-
trate structures. Determined by the energy of the
beam (controlled by kV).


PH Indicates the degree of acidity/alkalinity of a
solution. Water is neutral and has a pH of 7. Solu-
tions with pH of less than 7 are acid. Solutions with
pH more than 7 are alkaline. Developer is strongly
alkaline with a pH of about 14. Fixer is strongly
acidic with a pH of about 3.


Phantom An object that substitutes as a patient,
when performing X-ray tests.The material used can
be anything that is similar in density and thickness
to the appropriate body part. Common materials
are water or acrylic.


Plumb bob A steel or brass weight, suspended by a
string. The weight has a point in its centre at one
end, and a central attachment for the string at the
other end.


Port This is a plastic cone inserted in the X-ray tube
housing, close to the X-ray tube focal spot.This cone
is sometimes called the X-ray tube ‘throat’.


Potter-Bucky A moving grid system designed to
reduce the amount of scattered radiation reaching
the film. Often abbreviated to Bucky.


Power up Switch on the equipment power.


Profile rails The metal rails attached along the sides
of a tabletop, or a Bucky. The shape, or profile, of
the rails allows attachment of accessories, such as


a compression band. Removal of the profile rails is
usually needed to remove a tabletop or Bucky cover.


Proximal diaphragm A lead disc, with a small square
hole in the centre.The disc is fitted to the exit port
of the X-ray tube housing, or it may take the shape
of a cone, extending close to the X-ray tube focal
spot. The purpose of the proximal diaphragm is to
reduce scattered or off-focal radiation, emitted by
the X-ray tube.


Relay An electromagnetic switch, normally with a
number of switch contacts that change their state
when the relay is energised. A heavy-duty relay is
often called a contactor.


SCR Silicon controlled rectifier. This device is used
to replace the mechanical exposure contactor in
older generators, and to form the inverter in
medium frequency generators.


Seasoning A procedure to improve the stability of an
X-ray tube, when operating at high kV values. The
procedure involves a series of short exposures, start-
ing at a low to medium kV, and finishing at or a
little above the desired operating kV.This procedure
causes the residual gas molecules to be re-absorbed
in the anode.


Serial changer The device on the fluoroscopic table
for holding and advancing a cassette while making
a radiographic exposure. Also referred to as a spot
filmer.


Solenoid An electromagnet with a hollow core.
When energized an iron piston is attracted into
this core. A solenoid is often used as part of a
brake system, with a tube stand or other moving
object.


Specific gravity The weight of a substance com-
pared to an equal volume of water. Specific gravity
measurement, using a hydrometer, can be used
to measure the concentration of developer and
fixer.


Spot filmer Another name for a serial changer. This
derives its name from its ability to take a number
of divided exposures on the one film.


Stand pipe A pipe which fits into the inside of a
manual processing units wash and rinse tanks drain
holes. Its height is just below the top edge of the
tank, allowing the tank to fill up and drain through
the top of the pipe.They are also found in the devel-
oper and fixer tanks of most automatic processing
units.




Step chart A system of exposure calculation using
a series of exposure factor steps. Step charts are
available for kV, mA, mAs, time and FFD (SID).


Step wedge Usually made of aluminium, is a block
cut to form a standard number and sized steps.
Used as a test tool for various quality control tests.


Test tool Specialized items of equipment that can be
used to evaluate X-ray or accessory equipment.


Thermostat A device for controlling heat output from
a heating unit. Used in X-ray film processing to
control the temperature of developer.


Thiosulphate Usually sodium thiosulphate.This is the
fixing agent in X-ray fixing solutions.


Timer, darkroom An accurate time clock for timing
X-ray film development during manual processing.


Timer, X-ray A device for determining the length of
radiographic exposure in an X-ray unit.


Tomography A method of moving both the film and
the X-ray tube so that a sharp image is obtained
only at a particular height above the tabletop. This
is obtained at the fulcrum height. Areas above or
below this height are blurred out. The CT scanner
was developed from the tomograph.


Trendelenburg position For some examinations, the
patient is positioned head down towards the floor.


This is normally applied during a fluoroscopic table
examination.Typical angles used are 7.58 up to 308.


Trouble-shooting Is an expression to describe the
system, or method, used to first locate the cause
of a problem; and then repair or eliminate the
problem.


Trunnion rings Circular rings, used to mount the X-
ray tube housing onto the tube-stand.The rings are
in two sections, fastened together when the housing
is in place. In most cases the trunnion rings have a
clamp screw, or locking knob, which when released
allows the X-ray tube housing to rotate inside the
rings.This allows adjustment of the beam to be per-
pendicular to the table.


Vane A flat piece of metal, or other material. When
the vane passes through the centre of a sensor,
it interrupts a light beam into a photocell. (This
example is called an optical sensor.)


Washing All film must be adequately washed
to remove the acid fixer and avoid future film
deterioration.


Wisconsin cassette A specialised X-ray cassette, used
to determine X-ray kVp. Used to check the accuracy
of kVp in an X-ray unit.


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Copyright 2016, Engineering World Health