Chapter

Equipment*Packet:*Suction(Machine*UMDNS*#:(10208(Date*of*Creation:(October(21,(2015(Creator:(Complied(by(Cassandra(Stanco(for*Engineering(World(Health((EWH)***Equipment*Packet*Contents:*This(packet(contains(information(about(the(operation,(maintenance,(and(repair(of(suction(machines(or(aspirators.((Part*I:*External*From*the*Packet:** 1. An*Introduction*to*Suction*Machines:*PowerPoint(*Part*II:*Included*in*this*Packet:** 1. Operation*and*Use:*a. Brief(Introduction(to(Aspirators((p.(3)(b. Brief(Introduction(to(Suction(Machines((p.(4)(c. Introduction(to(Vacuum(Extractors((p.(5P7)(d. Seven(Tools(for(Providing(Negative(Pressure(or(Vacuum((p.(8P11)(e. Operation(and(Use(of(Suction(Machines((p.(12P15)(2. Diagrams*and*Schematics:*a. Figure(1:(Basic(Suction(Apparatus((p.(17)(b. Figure2:(Reservoir(Jar(Used(in(Suction(Apparatus((p.(18)*3. Preventative*Maintenance*and*Safety:*a. Suction(Machine(Preventative(Maintenance((p.(20)*4. Troubleshooting*and*Repair:**a. Suction(Machine(Troubleshooting(Flowchart((p.(22P24)*b. Suction(Machine(Troubleshooting(Table((p.(25P26)*5. Resources*for*More*Information*a. Resources(for(More(Information((p.(28)*b. Bibliography((p.(29)** (*** *




*1.*Operation*and*Use*of*Suction*Machines****Featured*in*this*Section:****DHT(Laboratory.(“Seven(Means(or(Mechanisms(of(Providing(Negative(Pressure(or(Vacuum.”(From(the(publication:(Equipment%Troubleshooting%I,(Engineering(World(Health,(2010.((**Malkin,(Robert.(“Suction(Machines.”(Medical%Instrumentation%in%the%Developing%World.(Engineering(World(Health,(2006.(( *Strengthening(Specialised(Clinical(Services(in(the(Pacific.(User%Care%of%Medical%Equipment:%A%first%line%maintenance%guide%for%end%users.((2015).(((Wikipedia.(“Ventouse.”(Wikipedia,(p.(1`3.(Retrieved(from:(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventouse(* ** ** *




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Most surgical procedures require suctioning to remove blood,
gas, tissue, or other foreign materials and irrigating fl uids that
accumulate in the operative fi eld and obstruct the surgeon’s
view. Portable or mobile aspirators can be used if there is no
central vacuum system or if suctioning is required in areas that
do not have vacuum inlets.


Product description
Surgical aspirators consist of a line-powered vacuum pump, a
vacuum regulator and gauge, a collection canister, and an optional
bacterial fi lter. Plastic tubing connects these components,
completing an open-ended system that continuously draws
tissue debris and fl uid from the surgical fi eld to the collection
canister. The gauge allows the user to set a safe limit for
suctioning, to assess the performance of the vacuum pump,
and to detect leaks or blockages. Units are either portable or
mounted on a stand or cart for mobility.


Principles of operation
Various pump confi gurations include rotary-vane, diaphragm,
and piston. Each mechanism alternately increases and decreases
the vacuum and/or chamber volume, creating suction. Air is
drawn from the external tubing into the chamber, drawing
aspirate into a collection canister. Most surgical aspirators
have an overfl ow-protection assembly that prevents fl uid from
overfl owing into the pump and valves.


Operating steps
Operator powers on unit and selects appropriate suction level
and inserts suction tip into patient cavity. Collection canisters
should be monitored and emptied if they come close to capacity.


Reported problems
Suction regulators must be accurate; suction levels that are too
high can cause tissue damage. Some models operate at high
noise levels that can eclipse the volume of alarms for other
devices. A pump containing aspirated fl uid can be a source
of contamination. Changing or cleaning the suction tip during
surgeries or other use can help reduce infection risk. Operators
should follow universal precautions, including wearing gloves,
face shields or masks, and gowns.


Use and maintenance
User(s): Surgeons, assisting surgeons, nurses,
respiratory therapists, other medical staff


Maintenance: Biomedical or clinical engineer


Training: Initial training by manufacturer and
manuals


Environment of use
Settings of use: OR, patient bedside, home,
long-term care, ER


Requirements: Line power, biohazard disposal


Product specifi cations
Approx. dimensions (mm): 300 x 400 x 800


Approx. weight (kg): 5-25


Consumables: Tubing, collection canisters,
liners, batteries


Price range (USD): 160 - 5,000


Typical product life time (years): 8-10


Shelf life (consumables): Rubber tubing: 10 yrs


Types and variations
Portable (sometimes considered a separate
category of emergency aspirators) or on
a cart; disposable or reusable canisters;
waterproof designs. The three types of pumps
used in surgical aspirators are rotary vane,
diaphragm, and cylinder piston


Aspirator
UMDNS GMDN
10217 Aspirators, Surgical 10217 Surgical suction system


Other common names:
Suction unit, suction pump, evacuator, vacuum pump




User Care of Medical Equipment – First line maintenance for end users


63


Chapter 4.19 Suction Machines (Aspirators)


Function
Suction machines (also known as aspirators) are used to remove unwanted fluid from body cavities.


They are found in operating theatres, delivery suites, ENT and emergency departments. Smaller specialised
suctions are used in dental departments.


How it works
Suction is generated by a pump. This is normally an electrically powered motor, but manually powered


versions are also often found. The pump generates a suction that draws air from a bottle. The reduced pressure
in this bottle then draws the fluid from the patient via a tube. The fluid remains in the bottle until disposal is
possible. A valve prevents fluid from passing into the motor itself. Often a second bottle is used, so that suction
can still occur while a bottle is being cleaned. It also gives another stage of protection from liquid ingress to the
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Equipment Troubleshooting I Suction Pumps Page 1 of 4


Engineering World Health – Medical Equipment Training Program Filename:Document2 Date Saved:22 June 2010


Seven means or mechanisms of providing negative pressure or vacuum
1. Venturi
• Commonly used for saliva suction on dental units (gentle suction) • Also used in dry mode on steam sterilizers to exhausts steam from the jacket or steam generator through the venturi nozzle thus creating a vacuum around the nozzle (differential pressure due to the change in cross-sectional area of pipe and velocity of fluid) that sucks the steam out of the chamber • Can be gas (air or oxygen) or fluid (water typically) through venturi (need flow to work) • Many dental units use two types of suction (low and high). High vacuum can be similar to a vacuum cleaner motor. Low suction is often venturi suction 2. Thermotic
• Sealed chamber with heating element • Energize heater for specified time • Air expands as it gets warm/hot and is exhausted through one check valve • Heating element is De-energized • Air cools and contracts creating a flow of air through the second check valve (the vacuum)




Equipment Troubleshooting I Suction Pumps Page 2 of 4


Engineering World Health – Medical Equipment Training Program Filename:Document2 Date Saved:22 June 2010


• Check valve allows air to come into the heating chamber (attached to suction bottle) • Also called intermittent (element turns on & off, and does not provide continuous suction) • Can maintain constant suction at the patient end with the bottle reservoir damping the pulse suction from the chamber • Usually very low pressure vacuum, check at chamber for suction • Fragile heating element especially filaments • Controlled by a bimetallic strip thermostat • Would be totally ruined if fluid gets in to the chamber, thus you have two bottles (an extra trap bottle) • The overflow safety is engaged by the weight of the bottle when it gets too full, which opens the valve to outside air instead of from the patient line. • For disposable plastic bottles, need extra weight to make up for the weight of a glass bottle otherwise the overflow valve will not open in time 3. Rotary Vane (Gomco pumps) • Most common type of pump found in the US, hence may be very common in Central Anerica • Motor turns a rotor inside a sealed space that is oblong in shape • Slits are cut/formed inside the rotor in which vanes of heavy material (sometimes brass) move out as centrifugal forces or springs push them out of slits to rub against inside of housing • Top or bottom of rotor passes very close to the housing • On one side of the rotor is an opening connected to the patient (suction) and on the other side is the exhaust outlet (pressure) • As the rotor rotates the centrifugal force or springs push the vanes out to rub the side of the housing creating a negative pressure/vacuum behind the vane • Can have both a vacuum and pressure side (old machines) • Vanes must be replaced in the original order or the suction will not work (sometimes numbered, usually three or more vanes)




Equipment Troubleshooting I Suction Pumps Page 3 of 4


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4. Diaphragm
• Motor turns an eccentric which causes a rod attached to a rubber or metal diaphragm to move up and down. • Some use an electromagnet (like solonoid) to pull diaphragm and release with spring pressure (oilless) • Diaphragm pumps are used in respirators and ventilators – no oil in patient’s breathing circuit. • Usually a rectangular shaped head is screwed down to seal the edge of the diaphragm • Requires check valves and must have air-tight seal with no cracks 5. Piston (similar to diaphragm except uses piston moving up and down instead of diaphragm)
• As the piston pulls down it is creating a negative pressure (sucking in) • As the piston pushes up it creates a positive pressure • Check valves must work correctly to maintain suction or pressure flow 6. Peristaltic (often used for IV and food pumps


• For moving bodily fluids from the body and back into the body within sterile tubing • Infusion pumps (medication) to reduce contamination • Squeezing tubing causing fluid to move forward • Tubing along rollers (series of rollers – fingers) • Fingers (vanes) operated by a stepping motor or electromagnet • Infusion pumps now called controllers




Equipment Troubleshooting I Suction Pumps Page 4 of 4


Engineering World Health – Medical Equipment Training Program Filename:Document2 Date Saved:22 June 2010


• Very little positive pressure and occlusions can occur (only gravity driving the flow)


Fig 3-22a Fig 3-22b


Fig 3-22c 7. Centrifugal Motor spins a turbine wheel at high speed (found in common vacuum cleaners) Large volume of air moves through the pump creating a negative pressure Air movement carries particles with it Commonly found in high speed dental suction units Troubleshooting Hints: • Always confirm for yourself that there is a problem • Start at chamber/pump, pinch tubing (as with BP apparatus) as you watch the suction gauge and work along suction circuit out past collection bottle to suction tip • Rubber gaskets can become degraded and crack • Mating surfaces must be flat • All pumps must have control valve which allow air to enter pump to reduce negative pressure • All aspirators must have overflow mechanism to protect the motor! • All must have sealed tubing – bottle – chamber throughout suction circuit • Many manufacturers use chamois (chammy) disks that close if/when wet • Hemostats can be very useful for working on suction pumps




Medical Instruments in the Developing World Malkin


2.15 Suction Machines


2.15.1 Clinical Use and Principles of Operation
A suction pump can have hundreds of uses in the medical setting, all of which relate to removing
fluids and substances from the body. Suction pumps can be used for removing ingested toxins
(a stomach pump), unwanted fats (liposuction), mucosal secretions from the esophagus, blood
from the surgical field, and many other applications.



Suction applies negative pressure, which is any pressure less than atmospheric pressure (760
mmHg, 100kPa or 14.7 psi), to allow for the movement of fluids or substances. The suction
developed by the machine will be measured as a pressure. The common units of pressure are
millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or pascals (Pa or kPa), inches or centimeters of water (inH2O),
or pounds per square inch (psi). To convert between pressures:



1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa = 1.36 cmH2O = 0.535 inH2O = 0.193 psi



The essential elements of a suction machine are the source of suction, the tubing, the collection
canister or bottle and if present, a manometer to measure the amount of suction. For the source
of suction, there are two types of suction machines most commonly found in the developing
world: electric pumps and foot-operated suction. The electrical suction is often called a “Gomco”
after one of the more popular brands. A thermally driven suction machine is occasionally seen as
well.



This is a typical simple suction machine. The collection jar and seal are missing. The float
valve and trap are shown near the bottom left (arrow).

No matter what the source of suction, the vacuum is pulled through a collection bottle. A water
trap may also be present, to prevent liquid from entering the vacuum source.



The most common suction machine will use electric motor to drive a single piston. As the piston
descends, it produces a vacuum through one of two one-way valves, often reed valves, typically
at the top of the piston. As the piston moves up air is forced out of the piston chamber through
the second valve.





Equipment found in the OR, ICU and ER
Each suction machine is a bit different, but the basic components are nearly the same. The
exhaust is rarely filtered in the developing world, and the inlet filter’s absence is often the cause
of failure.




With a foot-operated suction, manual labor acts to drive the piston. The valve assembly is
identical. On the return stroke of the piston, as the foot is removed from the top of the pedal,
the piston will return to its original setting, via a spring, and suction is created with a series of
valves directing the flow of fluid and air flow.



In all cases, the suction level can either be totally adjustable or has low, medium and high
settings. The high settings are used for airway and gastric suctioning. The medium setting for
chest tubes and the low setting for wound suction.



The thermally driven units are sometimes called thermionic units. They operate on the principle
of air movement caused be heating and cooling. A coil in the unit heats up for approximately 45
seconds at which point the power to the coil is shut off and it cools rapidly. This cooling creates
a suction airflow and pulls fluid from the wound site.


2.15.2 Common Problems
The most common problems with suction machines are clogs, leaks and the motor.
Material from the collection bottle can migrate into the suction machine. This can be very
damaging to the machine, possibly permanently damaging the suction machine. To avoid
this, machines should be operated with some sort of filter or valve before the suction
machine. However, the filter and valve present problems because they can get clogged.



If the device is operated without a filter, the suction pump can be damaged. Remove
the head, as shown, to see if it can be cleaned and repaired.




A shutoff float is sometimes provided to shutoff the suction before the collection bottle overflows
into the motor. The float volume must be on the pump side, not the patient side, of the
collection bottle. If a multicanister setup is used, only the last canister before the connection to
the suction source must have a float valve. The other canisters, closer to the patient will have
the floats removed. Sometimes, someone on the operating room will remove the shutoff float
from the last suction canister as well. If fluid does get into the suction machine, it will need to
be completely disassembled, cleaned and reassembled.




Pump




Medical Instruments in the Developing World Malkin

On some Gomco machines, bacterial filters are used in input or output of the machine. These
should be replaced after each patient, but in the developing world they are not. If the unit is
used without the filter, it will eventually need to be rebuilt. However, this may be a short term
solution. For a more long term solution, the filter may be replaced by any filter 3 micron size.
The hose barb-hose barb PTFE filters can often be found for under US$1 each. Hose barb
adapters (to convert the NIPT connection on the Gomco to a hose barb) are available to allow
the use of hose-barb/hose-barb filters.



Air leaks are probably the most common problem. A leak will cause the flow and pressure to
cease or be reduced. The first place to look for air leaks is in the collection bottle lid, particularly
with disposable canisters. The tubing can be replaced with any compatible tubing. If the leak is
near one end, the tubing can be cut and used as shortened tubing. To find the leak, rub the top
with soapy water while blowing through the cleaned-off tube (close off the distal end). Bubble
will form where there is a leak.



The collection bottle often breaks. The collection bottle is not special. Any glass or rigid plastic
bottle can be used as a substitute. The alternative must be air tight and have two connections of
the proper size to fit the collection set. The seal between the collection bottle and its cap can be
improved with a small amount of petroleum jelly, or replaced with rubber, or even leather, cut to
the proper size and shape.



Noise is a frequent complaint from electrical pumps. Try placing a pad under the machine to
reduce the vibration noise between the suction machine and the floor.



The pistons are generally driven with an induction motor. An induction motor is used as it is the
easiest, most cost effective motor to drive a medical device. There are no gears or chains.
Check the section on the centrifuge (later in this book) for more information on electrical motor
repair and testing.


2.15.3 Suggested Minimal Testing
The pump is connected to the piston through a bearing. To clean bearings without dismounting,
hot light oil at 180-200° F may be flushed through the housing while the shaft is slowly rotated.
Light transformer oils, spindle oils or automotive flushing oils are suitable for cleaning bearings,
but oils heavier than light motor oils, such as SAE 10, are not as effective. To lubricate the
pumps, first, thoroughly clean the grease fitting and outside of the bearing housing. Next
remove the drain plug and inject clean, new grease to forcing out the old grease. Start and run
the pump for a short time to eject any excess grease, which should later be wiped off surfaces,
and then replace the drain plug.



Most suction apparatuses cannot be calibrated, per se. However, the accuracy of the pressure
gauge can be checked as can the ability of the suction machine to pull a vacuum in the desired
range. To check the pressure, place water in a bucket. Turn on the vacuum and draw the water
as high as it will go, typically between three and five feet. Record the height in inches or
millimeters and calculate the actual pressure in mmHg as the (Height of Water (in inches) * 25.4
(mm/in))/13.6 (mmH20/mmHg). This can be compared to the pressure shown on the gage and
compared with the physicians intended use.





Equipment found in the OR, ICU and ER

To check the pressure, place water in a bucket. Turn on the vacuum and draw the water as
high as it will go.




As collection sets (tubes and suction tips) are frequently reused in the developing world, they often
become clogged and leaky. Before releasing a suction machine for use, if you suspect that a
collection set will be reused, try to perform your equipment checks using the intended collection set.



The filters often become clogged, and are not often replaced because the correct filter requires a
threaded NIPT male end for some models. However, with an NIPT to hose-barb adapter, you can use
the very cheapest filters, which have hose barb on both ends.




2.*Diagrams*and*Schematics*of*Suction*Machines*****Featured*in*this*Section:*****(Skeet,(Muriel(and(David(Fear.(“Electrical(Suction(Apparatus.”(Care%and%Safe%Use%of%Medical%Equipment.(VSO(Books,(1995.(** *








3.*Preventative*Maintenance*and*Safety*of*Suction*Machines****Featured*in*this*Section:*****Cooper,(Justin(and(Alex(Dahinten(for(EWH.(“Suction(Machine(Preventative(Maintenance.”(From(the(publication:(Medical%Equipment%Troubleshooting%Flowchart%Handbook.(Durham,(NC:(Engineering(World(Health,(2013.(***




EQUIPMENT)Suction(Machine(Preventative(Maintenance)!Preventive!Maintenance!Checklist!1. Clean(air(intake(filters.(2. Ensure(electrical(plug(and(cord(are(in(good(condition.(3. Use(a(solution(of(water,(detergent,(and(disinfectant(to(sterilize(jars,(tubing,(and(other(components(that(come(into(contact(with(patient(fluids.(4. Change(bacteria(filter(if(wet(or(discolored.(Make(sure(there(is(a(sufficient(supply(of(bacterial(filters(5. Check(collection(bottle/jar(for(cracks,(chips,(and(other(damage.(6. Check(that(float(valve(moves(freely.(7. Insure(antiIstatic(tubing(is(used.(8. Clean(brushes(on(motors(as(necessary.(9. Insure(vacuum(works(over(full(range(of(suction(pressures(if(there(is(a(control/knob.(10. Verify(that(overflow(valve((float(valve)(works(properly(when(container(is(filled(with(water.(11. Grounding(resistance(between(chassis(and(ground(pin(should(not(exceed(0.5(ohms.(12. Maximum(chassis(leakage(current(with(ground(wire(disconnected(should(not(exceed(300(microamps.(13. Check(for(unusual(noises(or(vibration(in(motor/pump.(14. Check(for(evidence(of(fluid(spills.(Clean(any(spills(as(necessary.(15. Measure(and(record(vacuum.((




4.*Troubleshooting*and*Repair*of*Suction*Machines*****Featured*in*this*Section:*****Cooper,(Justin(and(Alex(Dahinten(for(EWH.(“Suction(Machine(Troubleshooting(Flowchart.”(From(the(publication:(Medical%Equipment%Troubleshooting%Flowchart%Handbook.(Durham,(NC:(Engineering(World(Health,(2013.(** Strengthening(Specialised(Clinical(Services(in(the(Pacific.(User%Care%of%Medical%Equipment:%A%first%line%maintenance%guide%for%end%users.((2015).(* *




EQUIPMENT)Suction)Machine)Troubleshooting)!Diagnostic*Flowchart*


!#" Text"box" Explanation"or"Comment"1! Begin:!Suction!machine! A!suction!pump!has!weak!or!no!suction.!2! Does!the!pump!make!noise!when!turned!on?! The!motor!or!pump!makes!noise!when!the!device!is!turned!on.!3! Is!power!reaching!the!pump?! Use!a!multimeter!to!determine!if!proper!voltage!is!reaching!the!wires.!




4! Troubleshoot!switch,!fuse,!and!power!supply!(separate!chart).! If!no!power!reaches!the!pump,!there!may!be!problems!with!the!switch,!fuse,!or!wiring.!If!the!motor!is!DC,!check!the!power!supply.!5! Clean!air!intake!vents/filter.! The!pump's!air!intake!vent!or!filter!should!be!cleaned.!6! Lubricate!and!clean!motor.! See!BTA!skills!on!cleaning!/!lubricating!motor!7! Clean!diaphragm(if!applicable)! The!diaphragm!of!a!diaphragm!or!membrane!pump!should!be!cleaned.!8! Clean!brushes.! See!BTA!skills!on!motor!brushes!!9! Change!vanes!(if!applicable).! The!vanes!on!rotary!vane!pumps!may!wear!out.!The!vanes!may!be!replaced,!but!the!vanes!are!often!expensive!and!difficult!to!find.!10! Does!motor!run?! After!each!attempt!to!repair!the!motor,!test!to!see!if!it!works.!11! Consider!replacing!the!motor!for!the!pump!or!the!entire!unit.! If!the!motor!can't!be!repaired,!it!is!time!to!replace!the!motor!or!the!entire!unit.!12! High!pressure!gauge!reading!when!"on"?! Most!suction!pumps!have!a!pressure!gauge.!When!the!machine!is!first!turned!on,!does!the!gauge!give!a!high!reading?!If!there!is!no!pressure!gauge,!examine!the!strength!of!the!suction!at!different!points!in!the!pneumatic!circuit,!then!look!for!leaks!and!blockages.!13! Place!thumb!over!suction!tip.! Occlude!the!end!of!the!tubing!that!goes!in!the!patient.!14! Does!pressure!reading!increase!significantly?! If!the!machine!is!working!properly,!the!pressure!gauge!should!increase!to!a!higher!reading!when!the!tubing!end!is!occluded.!15! Try!to!!aspirate!water!droplets!with!suction!machine.! Use!the!machine!to!aspirate!water!from!another!container.!Place!the!tubing!end!just!at!the!surface!of!the!water.!The!pump!might!not!aspirate!if!the!tubing!end!is!submerged!beneath!the!water’s!surface.!16! Machine!can!aspirate!water!droplets?! Does!the!collection!bottle!gradually!fill!with!water?!17! Disconnect!pump\side!tube!from!bottle!lid.! Two!tubes!connect!to!the!lid!of!the!collection!bottle.!Disconnect!the!tube!to!the!pump.!18! Place!thumb!over!pump\side!tube.! Occlude!the!end!of!the!tubing!that!used!to!connect!to!the!lid!of!the!collection!bottle.!19! Does!pressure!reading!increase!significantly?! If!the!machine!is!working!properly,!the!pressure!gauge!should!rapidly!increase!to!a!higher!reading!when!the!end!is!occluded.!20! Create!an!airtight!seal!on!bottle!lid.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!seals.!Duct!tape!may!help!seal!leaks!between!the!collection!bottle!and!lid.!It!may!be!necessary!to!replace!the!collection!bottle!with!another!airtight!container!and!lid.!




21! Insure!connections!between!tubes!and!bottle!lid!do!not!leak.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!connections.!Try!a!larger!diameter!of!tubing.!22! Insure!patient\side!tubes!do!not!leak.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!leaks.!23! Create!airtight!seal!on!fluid!trap!lid.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!seals.!Duct!tape!may!help!seal!leaks!between!the!collection!bottle!and!lid.!24! Insure!connections!between!tubes,!pump,!and!fluid!trap!do!not!leak.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!connections.!Try!a!larger!diameter!of!tubing.!25! Insure!pump\side!tubes!do!not!leak.! See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!leaks.!26! Disconnect!pump\side!tube!from!bottle!lid.! Two!tubes!connect!to!the!lid!of!the!collection!bottle.!Disconnect!the!tube!to!the!pump.!27! High!pressure!gauge!reading!when!"on"?! Most!suctions!pumps!have!a!pressure!gauge.!When!the!machine!is!first!turned!on,!does!the!gauge!give!a!high!reading?!28! Disconnect!all!tubing!from!pump!and!gauge.! Remove!the!tubing!and/or!fluid!trap!that!connects!directly!to!the!pump.!29! High!pressure!gauge!reading!when!"on"?! Most!suctions!pumps!have!a!pressure!gauge.!When!the!machine!is!first!turned!on,!does!the!gauge!give!a!high!reading?!30! Clean!inside!of!motor.! The!motor!may!be!clogged!with!dust,!dried!blood,!or!other!obstructions.!See!BTA!skills!on!motor!cleaning!and!clean!inside!pump.!31! Empty!collection!bottle.! Clean!and!empty!the!bottle.!32! Remove!any!blockages/kinks!in!patient\side!tubing,!or!replace!patient\side!tubing.!
See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!blockages.!


33! Empty!fluid!trap.! Clean!and!empty!fluid!trap.!Make!sure!ball!moves!freely.!34! Remove!any!blockages/kinks!in!tubing!between!collection!bottle!and!pump.!
See!BTA!skills!on!plumbing!blockages.!


35! Clean/replace!bacteria!filter.! Replace!the!bacteria!filter!with!another!filter!of!3!micron!size.!The!machine!can!run!for!a!short!time!without!this!filter,!but!the!motor!will!eventually!fail!if!there!is!no!filter.!!36! Go!to!Begin.! Restart!the!diagnostic!process!to!see!if!the!corrective!measures!have!repaired!the!machine.!37! Machine!is!working!properly.! Return!the!machine!to!service!via!the!appropriate!clinical!personnel.!




User Care of Medical Equipment – First line maintenance for end users


64


Troubleshooting – Suction machines


Fault Possible Cause Solution


1.



Machine is not running



No power from mains socket





Fuse blown




Electrical cable fault



Internal wiring or switch fault



Check power switch is on. Check
mains power is present at socket
using equipment known to be
working. Contact electrician for
rewiring if power not present.

Check for leaks or wire causing
fuse to blow and correct this.
Replace fuse with correct voltage
and current rating. Test operation.

Try cable on another piece of
equipment. Contact electrician
for repair if required.

Refer to electrician



2.



Poor fluid flow, pressure gauge
low



Tube /seal / bottle leaking or
disconnected



Air outlet valve blocked

Control valve stuck


Internal or control error



Close different tubes by bending.
When pressure gauge changes,
leakage point has been passed.
Replaced damaged tube or seal.

Clean outlet valve

Operate control valve through full
range. Send for repair if stuck

Refer to technician



3.



Poor fluid flow, pressure gauge
high



Blocked filter or tube



Disconnect each tube one at a
time. When gauge changes,
blockage has been passed.
Replace filter or unblock tube.



4.



Filter discoloured



Floating valve broken



Change filter, clean or replace
floating valve



5.



Electrical shocks



Wiring fault



Refer to electrician



6.



Manual suction is jammed



Internal slider stuck



Refer to technician for greasing





User Care of Medical Equipment – First line maintenance for end users


65


User Care Checklist – Suction Machines


Daily

Cleaning




9 Wipe dust off exterior and cover equipment after checks

9 Wash bottle and patient tubing with sterilising solution





Visual checks




9 Check all fittings and accessories are mounted correctly

9 Check filter is clean





Function
checks




9 If in use that day, run a brief function check before clinic





Weekly

Cleaning




9 Unplug, clean outside with damp cloth and dry off

9 Wipe round bottle seal with damp cloth, replace if cracked

9 Remove dirt from wheels / moving parts





Visual checks



9 Check parts are fitted tightly and replace any cracked tubes

9 Check mains plug screws are tight

9 Check mains cable has no bare wire and is not damaged




Function
checks



9 Check all switches and vacuum control operate correctly






Every six months
Biomedical Technician check required





** 5.*Resources*for*More*Information*about*Suction*Machines***Featured*in*this*Section:*****DHT(Laboratory.(“Seven(Means(or(Mechanisms(of(Providing(Negative(Pressure(or(Vacuum.”(From(the(publication:(Equipment%Troubleshooting%I,(Engineering(World(Health,(2010.((((Rice(360,(“Suction(Pump.”(From(the(website:(“Troubleshooting(Workshop(for(Clinically(Relevant(Biomedical(Equipment.”(Retrieved(from:(http://rice360.rice.edu/Biomedical`Equipment`Workshop( *(Skeet,(Muriel(and(David(Fear.(“Electrical(Suction(Apparatus.”(Care%and%Safe%Use%of%Medical%Equipment.(VSO(Books,(1995.(((WHO.(“Suction(Apparatus:(Basic(Principles.”(From(the(Publication:(Maintenance%and%Repair%of%Laboratory,%Diagnostic%Imaging,%and%Hospital%Equipment,(Geneva,(Switzerland:(WHO,(1996.(((* *(((((




*Resources*for*More*Information:(*((Internal*Resources*at*library.ewh.org:*For*More*Information*about*suction*pumps,*please*see*this*resource*in*the*BMET*Library!*( 1. Skeet,(Muriel(and(David(Fear.(“Electrical(Suction(Apparatus.”(Care%and%Safe%Use%of%Medical%Equipment.(VSO(Books,(1995.(( 2. WHO.(“Suction(Apparatus:(Basic(Principles.”(From(the(Publication:(Maintenance%and%Repair%of%Laboratory,%Diagnostic%Imaging,%and%Hospital%Equipment,(Geneva,(Switzerland:(WHO,(1996.((((External*Resources:*( 1. Rice*360*Troubleshooting*Workshop:(*• This*website(provides(video(lectures,(PowerPoints,(and(demonstrations(about(the(use(of(suction(pumps.(The(website(also(provides(similar(information(for(centrifuges,(refrigerators,(syringe(pumps,(oxygen(concentrators,(and(general(troubleshooting.(• Rice*360,*“Suction*Pump.”*From*the*website:*“Troubleshooting*Workshop*for*Clinically*Relevant*Biomedical*Equipment.”*Retrieved*from:(http://rice360.rice.edu/BiomedicalZEquipmentZWorkshop*(((((




Suction*Machine*Bibliography:((((Cooper,(Justin(and(Alex(Dahinten(for(EWH.(“Suction(Machine(Preventative(Maintenance.”(From(the(publication:((Medical%Equipment%Troubleshooting%Flowchart%Handbook.(Durham,(NC:(Engineering(World(Health,(2013.(((Cooper,(Justin(and(Alex(Dahinten(for(EWH.(“Suction(Machine(Troubleshooting(Flowchart.”(From(the(publication:(Medical%Equipment%Troubleshooting%Flowchart%Handbook.(Durham,(NC:(Engineering(World(Health,(2013.(((DHT(Laboratory.(“Seven(Means(or(Mechanisms(of(Providing(Negative(Pressure(or(Vacuum.”(From(the(publication:(Equipment%Troubleshooting%I,(Engineering(World(Health,(2010.((((Malkin,(Robert.(“Suction(Machines.”(Medical%Instrumentation%in%the%Developing%World.(Engineering(World(Health,(2006.((((Rice(360,(“Suction(Pump.”(From(the(website:(“Troubleshooting(Workshop(for(Clinically(Relevant(Biomedical(Equipment.”(Retrieved(from:(http://rice360.rice.edu/Biomedical`Equipment`Workshop(((Skeet,(Muriel(and(David(Fear.(“Electrical(Suction(Apparatus.”(Care%and%Safe%Use%of%Medical%Equipment.(VSO(Books,(1995.(** Strengthening(Specialised(Clinical(Services(in(the(Pacific.(User%Care%of%Medical%Equipment:%A%first%line%maintenance%guide%for%end%users.((2015).(((WHO.(“Aspirator.”(From(the(publication:(Core%Medical%Equipment.(Geneva,(Switzerland,(2011.(((WHO.(“Suction(Apparatus:(Basic(Principles.”(From(the(Publication:(Maintenance%and%Repair%of%Laboratory,%Diagnostic%Imaging,%and%Hospital%Equipment,(Geneva,(Switzerland:(WHO,(1996.(**Wikipedia.(“Ventouse.”(Wikipedia,(p.(1`3.(Retrieved(from:(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ventouse(( *




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